गुणाढ्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gunadhy
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janm kambodiya se prapt 875 ee. ke ek abhilekh ke adhar par gunadhy ke astitv ki kalpana 600 ee. se poorv ki hai.
janm bhoomi pratishthanapur
abhibhavak kirtisen
karm bhoomi bharat
mukhy rachanaen akhyayika grnth 'bad katha'
bhasha snskrit, pali, prakrit, paishachi
vidyalay gunadhy ne dakshinapath men vidyarjan kiya tha.
prasiddhi vidvanh
any janakari kuchh achary 'bad katha' ko vyas aur valmiki ki rachanaon ke kram men tisari mahanh kriti manakar gunadhy ko vyas ka avatar manate hain.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

gunadhy prasiddh akhyayika grnth 'bad katha', jo ki paishachi bhasha men likha gaya tha, ke praneta the. vidvanon men gunadhy ke samay ko lekar matabhed hain. snskrit tatha apabhrnsh grnthon men jo ullekh prapt hote hain, ve 7vin shatabdi se prachin nahin hai. kith ne kambodiya se prapt 875 ee. ke ek abhilekh ke adhar par gunadhy ke astitv ki kalpana 600 ee. se poorv ki hai. gunadhy ki vidvata se prabhavit hokar hi satavahan vnsh ke raja ne unhen apana mntri bana liya tha.

janm tatha shiksha

kshemendr krit 'brihatkathamnjari' ke ek vivaran ke anusar gunadhy pratishthan nivasi kirtisen ke putr the. gunadhy ne dakshinapath men vidyarjan kiya tha. ve pratibha ke dhani aur vidvata se paripoorn the, yahi karan tha ki satavahan raja unase prabhavit hua aur unhen apana mntri niyukt kiya.

pratidvndita

yah mana jata hai ki satavahan naresh snskrit vyakaran ka achchha gyata nahin tha, jis karan ek bar jalakrida ke samay vah vidushi raniyon ke madhy upahas ka patr ban gaya. isase du:khi hokar raja ne alpakal men hi snskrit vyakaran me parngat hone ke nimitt gunadhy pndit ko prerit kiya, lekin unhonne ise asnbhav bataya. vahin 'katatr' ke rachayita ek doosare sabhapndit sharvavarma ne is kary ko chhah mas men hi snbhav kar dena bataya. gunadhy ne usaki is chunauti aur pratidvndita ka uttar apani rosh yukt pratigya dvara kiya. lekin sharvavarma ne usi avadhi men raja ko snskrit vyakaran ka achchha gyan kara diya. isake phalasvaroop pratigya ke anusar gunadhy ko nagar ka nivas chhod kar vanavas ki or jana pada aur sath hi snskrit, pali tatha prakrit chhod kar paishachi bhasha ka ashray lena pada.

'bad katha' ki rachana

kuchh vidvanh gunadhy ko kashmir qa nivasi manate hain. yadyapi gunadhy dvara rachit paishachi bhasha ka akhyayika grnth 'bad katha'[1] aj upalabdh nahin hai, parntu prachin grnthon men unaka ullekh anek bar hone se unaka mahattv prakat hai. gunadhy ne paishachi men sat lakh kathaon ki 'bad katha' ki rachana ki thi, jo kanabhooti ke anusar chamade par likhi vidyadharendro ki katha bataee jati hai. bad men satavahan naresh ki rajyasabha men samman n milane se unhonne is vishal grnth ko agni men samarpit kar diya. aisa kaha jata hai ki madhury ke karan pashu-pakshi gan tak nirahar rah kar katha shravan men lin rahane lage, jisase ve mansarahit ho ge. idhar van jivon ke mansabhav ka karan janane ke liye satavahan raja dvara poochhatachh kie jane par lubdhakon ne jo uttar diya, usake anusar ve gunadhy ko manane athava 'bad katha' ko bachane ke uddeshy se van ki or ge. vahan ve anurodhapoorvak grnth ka keval saptamansh jalane se bachane men saphal ho sake, jo kshemendr krit 'brihatkatha shlokasngrah' (7500 shlok) aur somadev krit 'kathasaritsagar' (2400 shlok) namak snskrit roopantaron men upalabdh hai.

yadyapi gunadhy dvara krit 'bad katha' ab anupalabdh hai, phir bhi jaise saptashatiyon ki parnpara ka adi srot hal krit 'gahasattasee' bataee jati hai, vaise hi bharatiy akhyayika sahity ka atit 'bad katha' se snyukt hai. ban ne use haralila ke saman vismayakarak, trivikram ne atyadhik logon ka manornjan karane vala aur dhanapal ne upajivy grnth manakar use sagar ke saman vishal bataya hai, jisaki boond se snskrit ke paravarti akhyayikakar aur kavi apani rachanaen prastut karate ae hain. is drishti se gunady paravarti akhyayika lekhakon ke shikshak siddh hote hai. puranon, vedon adi men prapt kathaon ki shisht sahity dhara, jo bharatiy itihas ke sanskritik atit se judi hai, usi ke thik samanantar lok prachalit kathaon ki dhara bhi adi kal se snbndhit hai. gunady ne sarvapratham is dvitiy dhara ka sngrah janabhasha men kiya. at: pauranik katha-snkalanon ki bhanti lok kathaon ke is sngrah ka bhi asadharan mahatv hai. isiliye govardhanachary ne 'bad katha' ko vyas aur valmiki ki kritiyon ke pashchath‌ tisari mahanh‌ kriti manakar gunadhy ko vyas ka avatar kaha hai.

samay kal

adhikansh vidvanon men gunadhy ke samay ko lekar vivad hain. snskrit tatha apabhrnsh grnthon men jo ullekh prapt hote hain, ve 7vin shatabdi se prachin nahin hai. kith ne kambodiya se prapt 875 ee. ke ek abhilekh ke adhar par unake astitv ki kalpana 600 ee. se poorv ki hai. prachalit pravadon men gunadhy ka snbndh satavahan se joda gaya hai. satavahan nareshon ka samay 200 ee. poo. se 300 ee. tak mana jata hai, jinake samay men prakrit sahity ki pratinidhi rachanaen huee thin. isake atirikt vidvanon ka mat hai ki 'kadambari', 'dashakumaracharit', 'udayan' aur 'pnchatntr' ki kathaon ka mool 'brihatkatha' hi hai. inamen 'pnchatntr' ka pahalavi bhasha men hua anuvad panchavin shatabdi ka bataya jata hai. at: gunadhy ka kal nissndeh tritiy chaturth shatabdi men kabhi mana ja sakata hai.

snkalan kary

anek vidvanon ka mat hai ki bharatiy sahity ki do dharaen adi kal se hi prachalit rahi hain. ek dhara ved, puran adi ki thi aur doosari usi ke samanantar lok prachalit kathaon ki dhara thi. gunadhy ne isi katha dhara ko snkalit karane ka mahanh kary kiya. isaliye kuchh achary bad katha ko vyas aur valmiki ki rachanaon ke kram men tisari mahanh kriti manakar gunadhy ko vyas ka avatar manate hain.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. vrihath katha
  2. sharma 'parvatiy', lila dhar bharatiy charit kosh (hindi). bharat diskavari pustakalay: shiksha bharati, kashmiri get, dilli, 237.

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