भारतेन्दु हरिश्चंद्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharatendu harishchndr
Bhartendu-Harishchandra-3.jpg
poora nam baboo bharatendu harishchndr
janm 9 sitambar sanh 1850
janm bhoomi varanasi, uttar pradesh
mrityu 6 janavari, sanh 1885
mrityu sthan varanasi, uttar pradesh
abhibhavak baboo gopal chandr
karm bhoomi varanasi
karm-kshetr rachanakar, sahityakar
mukhy rachanaen 'premamalika' (1871), 'prem madhuri' (1875), 'prem-tarng' (1877), 'andher nagari', 'bharat durdasha', 'krishnacharitr'.
vishay adhunik hindi sahity
bhasha hindi
nagarikata bharatiy
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

bharatendr harishchandr (angrezi: Bharatendu Harishchandra, janm: 9 sitambar sanh 1850, kashi; mrityu: 6 janavari, sanh 1885) adhunik hindi sahity ke pitamah kahe jate hain. bharatendu hindi men adhunikata ke pahale rachanakar the. jis samay bharatendu harishchandr ka avirbhav hua, desh gulami ki jnjiron men jakada hua tha. angrezi shasan men angrezi charamotkarsh par thi. shasan tntr se sambandhit sampoorn kary angrezi men hi hota tha. angrezi hukoomat men pad lolupata ki bhavana prabal thi. bharatiy logon men videshi sabhyata ke prati akarshan tha. british adhipaty men log angrezi padhana aur samajhana gaurav ki bat samajhate the. hindi ke prati logon men akarshan kam tha, kyonki angrezi ki niti se hamare sahity par bura asar pad raha tha. ham gulami ka jivan jine ke lie majaboor kiye gaye the. hamari snskriti ke sath khilavad kiya ja raha tha. aise vatavaran men jab baboo harishchandr avatarit hue to unhonne sarvapratham samaj aur desh ki dasha par vichar kiya aur phir apani lekhani ke madhyam se videshi hukoomat ka pardafash kiya.

jivan parichay

yug pravartak baboo bharatendu harishchandr ka janm kashi nagari ke prasiddh 'seth amichnd' ke vnsh men 9 sitambar sanh 1850 ko hua. inake pita 'baboo gopal chandr' bhi ek kavi the. inake gharane men vaibhav evn pratishtha thi. jab inaki avastha matr 5 varsh ki thi, inaki mata chal basin aur das varsh ki ayu men pita ji bhi chal base. bharatendu ji vilakshan pratibha ke vyakti the. inhonne apane paristhitiyon se gambhir prerana li. inake mitr mandali men bade-bade lekhak, kavi evn vicharak the, jinaki baton se ye prabhavit the. inake pas vipul dhanarashi thi, jise inhonne sahityakaron ki sahayata hetu mukt hast se dan kiya. inaki sahityik mandali ke pramukh kavi the–

  1. pn. balakrishn bhatt
  2. pn. pratap narayan mishr
  3. pn. badarinarayan upadhyay 'premadhan' adi

baboo harishchandr balyakal se hi param udar the. yahi karan tha ki inaki udarata logon ko akarshit karati thi. inhonne vishal vaibhav evn dhanarashi ko vividh snsthaon ko diya hai. inaki vidvata se prabhavit hokar hi vidvatajanon ne inhen 'bharatendu' ki upadhi pradan ki. apani uchchakoti ke lekhan kary ke madhyam se ye door-door tak jane jate the. inaki kritiyon ka adhyayan karane par abhas hota hai ki inamen kavi, lekhak aur natakakar banane ki jo pratibha thi, vah adabhut thi. ye bahumukhi pratibha se sampann sahityakar the.

kritiyan

yadyapi bharatendu ji vividh bhashaon men rachanayen karate the, kintu brajabhasha par inaka asadharan adhikar tha. is bhasha men inhonne adabhut shrringarikata ka parichay diya hai. inaka sahity premamay tha, kyonki prem ko lekar hi inhonne apane 'sapt sngrah' prakashit kie hain. prem madhuri inaki sarvotkrisht rachana hai. jisaki kuchh pnktiyan nimnavat hain–

marag prem ko samujhai 'harishchandr' yatharath hot yatha hai
labh kachhu n pukaran men badanam hi hon ki sari katha hai.
janat hi jiy merau bhali vidhi aur upai sabai biratha hai.
bavare hain braj ke sigare monhi nahak poochhat kaun bitha hai.

bharatendu ji atyant kam avastha se hi rachanaen karane lage the. inhonne natak ke kshetr men bhi atyant mahattvapoorn yogadan pradan kiya hai. inake pramukh natak aur rachanayen nimnavat hain–

bharatendu harishchndr
Bhartendu Harishchandra
bharatendu harishchndr stamp
Bhartendu Harishchandra Stamp
kram kavyakritiyan varsh
1- bhaktasarvasv
2- premamalika 1871
3- prem madhuri 1875
4- prem-tarng 1877
5- uttarardh bhaktamal 1876 - 77
6- prem-pralap 1877
7- holi 1879
8- madhumukul 1881
9- rag-sngrah 1880
10- varsha-vinod 1880
11- vinay prem pachasa 1881
12- phoolon ka guchchha 1882
13- prem phulavari 1883
14- krishnacharitr 1883
15- danalila
16- tanmay lila
17- naye zamane ki mukari
18- sumananjali
19- bandar sabha (hasy vyng)
20- bakari vilap (hasy vyng)
kram natak varsh
1- vaidik hinsa hinsa n bhavati 1873
2- bharat durdasha 1875
3- sahity harishchndr 1876
4- niladevi 1881
5- andher nagari 1881
6- saty harishchndr
7- chndravali 1881
8- prem yogini
9- dhannjay vijay
10- mudra rakshas
kram sapt sngrah
1- prem phulavari
2- prem pralap
3- premashru varnan
4- prem malika
5- prem tarng
6- prem sarovar
7- prem madhuri

sahityik sevaen

harishchandr ji bahumukhi pratibha ke dhani the. at: unhonne sahity ke har kshetr men kam kiya hai. kavita, natak, nibandh, vyakhyan adi par unhonne kary kiya. 'sulochana' apaka pramukh akhyan hai. 'badashah darpan' apaka itihas ki janakari pradan karane vala granth hai. inhonne snyog ka bada hi sajiv evn sundar chitran kiya hai–

rokat hai to amngal hoy, aur prem nasai jo kahain priy jaie.
jo kahen jahu n, to prabhuta, jo kachhu n kahain to saneh nasaie.
jo harishchandr kahain, tumare bin, jiyen n to yah kyon patiyaie.
taso payan samai tujhasaun ham ka kahain pyare hamen samajhaie..

bharat ki vibhinnata par khinata vyakt ki hai– hindi ke utthan ke lie kahana hai ki– hindi ki pratishtha karate hue ve kahate hain ki–

bharat men sab bhinn ati,
tahin son utpat.
vividh bes matahoon vividh
bhasha vividh lakhat.

angrezi padh kai jadapi,
sab gun hot pravin.
pai nij bhasha gyan bin
rahat hin kai hin.

nijabhasha unnati ahai,
sab unnati ko bhool.
bin nij bhasha gyan ke
mite n hiy ko sool.

pragatishil lekhak

bharatendu harishchndr

bharatendr ji ne bhakti pradhan evn shrringarayukt rachanaen ki hain. unamen apane desh ke prati bahut badi nishtha thi, unhonne samajik samasyaon ke unmoolan ki bat ki hai, unaki bhakti pradhan rachanaen ghanannd evn rasakhan ki rachanaon ki koti ki hain. unhonne snyog ki apeksha viyog par vishesh bal diya hai. ve svatntrata premi evn pragatishil vicharak v lekhak the. unhonne man sarasvati ki sadhana men apana dhan pani ki tarah bahaya aur sahity ko samriddh kiya. unhonne anek patr-patrikaon ka sampadan kiya. jivan ka antim daur arthik tngi se gujara, kyonki dhan ka unhonne bahut bada bhag sahity samaj seva ke lie lagaya. ye bhasha ki shuddhata ke paksh men the. inaki bhasha badi parishkrit evn pravah se bhari hai. bharatendu ji ki rachanaon men unaki rachanatmak pratibha ko bhali prakar dekha ja sakata hai.

sabhi vidhaon men lekhan

bharatendu ji ne apani pratibha ke bal par hindi sahity ke kshetr men mahattvapoorn yogadan pradan kiya hai. hindi gady sahity ko inhonne vishesh samriddhi pradan ki hai. inhonne doha, chaupaee, chhand, baravai, harigitika, kavitt evn savaiya adi par kam kiya. inhonne n keval kahani aur kavita ke kshetr men kary kiya apitu natak ke kshetr men bhi vishesh yogadan diya. kintu natak men patron ka chayan aur bhoomika adi ke vishay men inhonne sampoorn kary svayn ke jivan ke anubhav se sampadit kiya hai.

sahity men yogadan

nishkarsh ke roop men yah kaha ja sakata hai ki baboo harishchandr bahumukhi pratibha se sampann the. unhonne samaj aur sahity ka pratyek kona jhanka hai. arthath sahity ke sabhi kshetron men unhonne kary kiya hai. kintu yah khed ka hi vishay hai ki 35 varsh ki alpayu men hi ve svargavasi ho gaye the. yadi aisa n hota to sambhavat: hindi sahity ka kahin aur zyada vikas hua hota. yah unake vyaktitv ki hi visheshata thi ki ve kavi, lekhak, natakakar, sahityakar evn sampadak sab kuchh the. hindi sahity ko pusht karane men apane jo yogadan pradan kiya hai vah sarahaniy hai tatha hindi jagath ap ki seva ke lie sadaiv rini rahega. inhonne apane jivan kal men lekhan ke alava koee doosara kary nahin kiya. tabhi to 35 varsh ki alpayu men hi 72 granthon ki rachana karana sambhav ho sakata tha. inhonne chhote evn bade sabhi prakar ke granthon ka pranayan kiya hai. is prakar se yah kaha ja sakata hai ki hindi ke prachar evn prasar men inaka mahattvapoorn yogadan raha hai aur apane karyon se inhonne hindi sahity ke kshetr men sada ke lie sthayi roop se sthan banaya hai. apani vishisht sevaon ke karan hi ye adhunik hindi sahity ke adhunik kal ke pravartak kahe jate hain. pnt ji ne inake bare men thik hi kaha hai-

bharatendu kar gaye,
bharati ki vina nirman.
kiya amar sparshon men,
jisaka bahu vidhi svar sndhan.

at: yah kaha ja sakata hai ki baboo harishchandr ji hindi sahity ke akash ke ek dedipyaman nakshatr the. unake dvara hindi sahity men diya gaya yogadan mahattvapoorn evn sarahaniy hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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