मोहन राकेश  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mohan rakesh
mohan rakesh
poora nam mohan rakesh
janm 8 janavari, 1925
janm bhoomi amritasar, pnjab
mrityu 3 janavari, 1972
mrityu sthan nee dilli
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr natakakar aur upanyasakar
mukhy rachanaen upanyas- andhere bnd kamare, antaral

natak- ashadh ka ek din, laharon ke rajahns, 'adhe adhoore'

bhasha hindi, angrezi
vidyalay 'oriyntal kaaulej' (lahaur men), pnjab vishvavidyalay
shiksha em.e. (hindi aur angrezi)
puraskar-upadhi 1968 men 'sngit natak akadami puraskar'
vishesh yogadan mohan rakesh hindi sahity ke un chuninda sahityakaron men hain jinhen ‘nayi kahani andolan’ ka nayak mana jata hai aur sahity jagath men adhikansh log unhen us daur ka ‘mahanayak’ kahate hain.
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari adhunik hindi sahity kal men mohan rakesh ne apane lekhan se door hote hindi sahity ko rngamnch ke qarib la diya aur svayn ko bharatendu harishchndr aur jayashnkar prasad ke samakaksh khada kar diya.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

mohan rakesh (angrezi: Mohan Rakesh, janm: 8 janavari, 1925; mrityu: 3 janavari, 1972) 'nee kahani andolan' ke sahityakar the. hindi natak ke kshitij par mohan rakesh ka uday us samay hua, jab svadhinata ke bad pachas ke dashak men sanskritik punarjagaran ka jvar desh men jivan ke har kshetr ko spandit kar raha tha. unake natakon ne n sirf natak ka asvad, tevar aur star hi badal diya, balki hindi rngamnch ki disha ko bhi prabhavit kiya. adhunik hindi sahity kal men mohan rakesh ne apane lekhan se door hote hindi sahity ko rngamnch ke qarib la diya aur svayn ko bharatendu harishchndr aur jayashnkar prasad ke samakaksh khada kar diya.

jivan parichay

mohan rakesh hindi sahity ke un chuninda sahityakaron men hain jinhen ‘nayi kahani andolan’ ka nayak mana jata hai aur sahity jagath men adhikansh log unhen us daur ka ‘mahanayak’ kahate hain. unhonne ‘ashadh ka ek din’ ke roop men hindi ka pahala adhunik natak bhi likha. kahanikar-upanyasakar prakash manu bhi aise hi logon men shamil hain, jo nayi kahani ke daur men mohan rakesh ko sarvopari manate hain. prakash manu ne kaha ‘‘nayi kahani andolan ne hindi kahani ki poori tasvir badali hai. us daur men tin nayak mohan rakesh, kamaleshvar aur rajendr yadav rahe. khud kamaleshvar aur rajendr yadav bhi rakesh ko hamesha sarvashreshth manate rahe.[1]

janm tatha shiksha

mohan rakesh ka janm 8 janavari, 1925 ko amritasar, pnjab men hua tha. unake pita peshe se vakil the aur sath hi sahity aur sngit ke premi bhi the. pita ki sahityik ruchi ka prabhav mohan rakesh par bhi pada. mohan rakesh ne pahale lahaur ke 'oriyntal kaaulej' se 'shastri' ki pariksha pas ki. kishoravastha men sir se pita ka saya uthane ke bavajood unhonne himmat nahin hari aur padhaee jari rakhi. isake bad unhonne 'pnjab vishvavidyalay' se hindi aur angrezi men em.e. kiya. ek shikshak ke roop men peshevar zindagi ki shuruat karane ke sath hi unaka rujhan laghu kahaniyon ki or hua. bad men unhonne kee natak aur upanyas likhe. bad men anek varshon tak dilli, jalndhar, shimala aur mumbee men adhyapan kary karate rahe.

svatntr lekhan

apani sahityik abhiruchi ke karan mohan rakesh ka adhyapan kary men man nahin laga aur ek varsh tak unhonne 'sarika' patrika ka sampadan kiya. is kary ko bhi apane lekhan men badha samajhakar isase kinare kar liya aur jivan ke ant tak svatntr lekhan hi inake jivikoparjan ka sadhan raha. mohan rakesh hindi ke bahumukhi pratibha snpann naty lekhak aur upanyasakar the. samaj ki snvedanashil anubhootiyon ko chunakar unaka sarthak sambandh khoj nikalana unaki kahaniyon ki vishay-vastu thi.

sahityik parichay

hindi natakon men bharatendu harishchndr aur jayashnkar prasad ke bad ka daur mohan rakesh ka daur hai, jisamen hindi natak dubara rngamnch se jude. hindi naty sahity men bharatendu harishchndr aur jayashnkar prasad ke bad yadi koee lik se hatakar nam ubharata hai to vah mohan rakesh ka hai. bich men aur bhi kee nam ate hain, jinhonne adhunik hindi natak ki vikas-yatra men mahattvapoorn padav tay kie, kintu mohan rakesh ka lekhan ek alag hi sthan par nazar ata hai. isalie hi nahin ki unhonne achchhe natak likhe, balki isalie bhi ki unhonne hindi natak ko andhere band kamaron se bahar nikala aur ek ne daur ke sath jodakar dikhaya.[2]

rachanaen

mohan rakesh ki rachanaen pathakon aur lekhakon ke dilon ko chhooti hain. ek bar jo unaki rachana ko padhata hai to vah poori tarah se rakesh ke shabdon men doob jata hai. rakesh ke upanyas ‘andhere bnd kamare’, ‘n ane vala kal’, ‘antaral’ aur ‘bakalama khuda’ hai. isake alava ‘adhe adhoore’, ‘ashadh ka ek din’ aur ‘laharon ke rajahns’ unake kuchh mashahoor natak hain. ‘laharon ke rajahns’ unaka sabase vikhyat natak raha.[1] mohan rakesh ne natak, upanyas, kahani, yatra vrittant, nibandh adi vidhaon men vipul sahity ki rachana ki.

katha sahity

mohan rakesh pahale kahani vidha ke zariye hindi men ae. unaki 'misapal', 'adra', 'glasataink', 'janavar' aur 'malabe ka malik' adi kahaniyon ne hindi kahani ka paridrishy hi badal diya. ve 'nayi kahani andolan' ke shirsh kathakar ke roop men charchit hue. mohan rakesh hindi ke bahumukhi pratibha snpann naty lekhak aur upanyasakar hain. unaki kahaniyon men ek nirntar vikas milata hai, jisase ve adhunik manushy ki niyati ke nikat se nikatatar ate ge hain. unaki khoobi yah thi ki ve katha-shilp ke ustad the aur unaki bhasha men gazab ka sadhav hi nahin, ek shastriy anushasan bhi hai. kahani se lekar upanyas tak men unaki katha-bhoomi shahari madhy varg hai. kuchh kahaniyon men bharat-vibhajan ki pida bahut sashakt roop men abhivyakt huee hai. kahani ke bad rakesh ko saphalata naty-lekhan ke kshetr men mili hai.[3]

naty-lekhan

mohan rakesh ko kahani ke bad naty-lekhan ke kshetr men saphalata mili. mohan rakesh ko hindi natakon ka agradoot bhi kah sakate hain. hindi naty sahity men bharatendu aur prasad ke bad koee nam ubharata hai to vah mohan rakesh ka hai. unhonne achchhe natak likhe aur hindi natak ko andhere band kamaron se bahar nikala aur use yugon ke romani aindrajalik sammohan se ubarakar ek ne daur ke sath jodakar dikhaya. vastutah mohan rakesh ke natak keval hindi ke natak nahin hain. ve hindi men likhe avashy ge hain, kintu ve samakalin bharatiy naty pravrittiyon ke dyotak hain. unhonne hindi natak ko pahali bar akhil bharatiy star pradan kiya aur sadiyon ke alag-thalag pravah ko vishv natak ki ek samany dhara ki or bhi agrasar kiya. pramukh bharatiy nirdeshakon ibrahim alakazi, om shivapuri, aravind gaud, shyamanand jalan, ramagopal bajaj aur dinesh thakur ne mohan rakesh ke natakon ka nirdeshan kiya.

'ashadh ka ek din'

rakesh ji ki sabase badi upalabdhi unaka natak "ashadh ka ek din" tha, jisane natakon ko ek naya ayam diya. 'ashadh ka ek din' san 1958 men prakashit aur natakakar mohan rakesh dvara rachit ek hindi natak hai. kabhi-kabhi ise hindi natak ke adhunik yug ka pratham natak kaha jata hai. san 1959 men ise varsh ka sarvashreshth natak hone ke lie 'sngit natak akadami puraskar' se bhi sammanit kiya gaya tha. kee prasiddh nirdeshak is natak ko mnch par la chuke hain. 1979 men nirdeshak mani kaul ne is par adharit ek film banaee, jisane age jakar sal ki sarvashreshth film ka 'film feyar puraskar' bhi jit liya. 'ashadh ka ek din' mahakavi kalidas ke niji jivan par kendrit hai, jo 100 ee. poo. se 500 eesavi ke anumanit kal men vyatit hua. is natak ka shirshak kalidas ki kriti 'meghadootamh' ki shuruati pnktiyon se liya gaya hai, kyonki ashadh ka mahina uttar bharat men varsha ritu ka shuruati mahina hota hai, isaka sidha arth "varsha ritu ka ek din" hai.[2] mohan rakesh dvara rachit 'ashadh ka ek din' ek trikhndiy natak hai. isamen saphalata aur prem men se ek ko chunane ke snshay se joojhate kalidas, ek rachanakar aur ek adhunik manushy ke man ki paheliyon ko rakha gaya hai. vahin prem men tootakar bhi prem ko nahin tootane dene vali is natak ki nayika mallika ke roop men hindi sahity ko ek n bhoolane vala yogy patr mila hai.

kathan

'ashadh ka ek din' natak ke prakashan ke bad hindi natak aur rngamnch men rakesh ji ne aur bhi kee mahattvapoorn kary kie. ve apane natak 'ashadh ka ek din' ki bhoomika men kahate hai ki "hindi rngamnch ki hindi bhashi pradesh ki sanskritik poortiyon aur akankshaon ka pratinidhitv karana hoga, rngon aur rashiyon ke vivek ko vyakt karana hoga hamare dainadin jivan ke ragarng ko prastut karane ke lie hamare snvedon aur spadnnon ko abhivyakt karane ke lie jis rngamnch ki avashyakata hai, vah pashchaty rngamnch se kahin bhinn hoga."[4] rakesh ji ko hindi men naye rng natakon ka purodha kaha ja sakata hai. unako natak ki bhasha vishay par kary karane ke lie 'neharoo failoship' prapt huee thi, kintu asamay mrityu ho jane ke karan yah kam poora nahin ho saka.

samakalin lekhak

mohan rakesh ne hindi natak ko nee zamin par khada kar diya jo unhonne svayn ne zamin talashi thi. unake poorvavarti prayogadharmi natyakaron- lakshminarayan, jagadishachandr mathur, upendranath ashk, lakshminarayan lal, dharmavir bharati adi ne jis vishvajanin chetana ko agrasar kiya tha, usaka vikas kram mohan rakesh men dekha ja sakata hai aur jinhen ham adhunik bhav bodh ka nam bhi de sakate hain. isamen hamane yatharthavad, prakritivad, pratikavad, abhivyaktivad, epik thiyetar ya atiyatharthavad ya asngatavad adi anek mat-matantaron men dekha hai.[4]

pramukh kritiyan

mohan rakesh ne mukhyat: natak aur upanyas likhe. natak aur upanyas ke atirikt unhonne kuchh snskrit natakon aur videshi upanyason ka anuvad bhi kiya. inaki mukhy rachanaen is prakar hain-

upanyas natak kahani sngrah nibndh sngrah anuvad
  • kvartar tatha any kahaniyan
  • pahachan tatha any kahaniyan
  • varis tatha any kahaniyan.
  • parivesh
  • ekatr - asnkalit tatha aprakashit rachanaen
  • akhiri chattan tak (yatra-vritt) tatha dayari.
  • mrichchhakatikamh
  • shakuntalamh

samman aur puraskar

varsh 1968 men mohan rakesh ko 'sngit natak akadami puraskar' se sammanit kiya gaya tha.

nidhan

hindi sahity jagath ko nee oonchaee dene vale mohan rakesh ka 3 janavari, 1972 ko nee dilli men akasmik nidhan hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 nayi kahani ke anoothe nayak mohan rakesh (hindi) vikeend taims. abhigaman tithi: 3 janavari, 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 pratham adhunik hindi natak lekhak (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 02 janavari, 2012.
  3. mohan rakesh (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 11joon, 2011.
  4. 4.0 4.1 hindi rngamnch ke agradoot mohan rakesh (hindi) vanmay hindi patrika. abhigaman tithi: 11joon, 2011.

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