रामकुमार वर्मा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ramakumar varma
Ram-kumar-verma.jpg
poora nam daau. ramakumar varma
janm 15 sitnbar, 1905
janm bhoomi sagar zila, madhyapradesh
mrityu 1990 ee.
abhibhavak shri lakshmi prasad varma, shrimati rajarani devi
karm bhoomi madhy pradesh
karm-kshetr sahity
mukhy rachanaen 'anjali', 'abhishap', 'nishith', 'jauhar', 'chittaud ki chita' adi.
bhasha hindi
vidyalay prayag vishvavidyalay, nagapur vishvavidyalay
puraskar-upadhi dev puraskar, padm bhooshan
prasiddhi ekankikar, alochak aur kavi
nagarikata bharatiy
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

ramakumar varma (angrezi:Ram Kumar Verma, janm: 15 sitnbar, 1905; mrityu: 1990) adhunik hindi sahity men 'ekanki samrat' ke roop men jane jate hain. daau. ramakumar varma hindi bhasha ke suprasiddh sahityakar, vyngyakar aur hasy kavi ke roop men jane jate hain. ramakumar varma ki hasy aur vyngy donon vidhaon men saman roop se pakad hai. natakakar aur kavi ke sath-sath unhonne samikshak, adhyapak tatha hindi-sahity ke itihas-lekhak ke roop men bhi hindi sahity-sarjan men apani mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee. ramakumar varma ekankikar, alochak aur kavi hain. inake kavy men 'rahasyavad' aur 'chhayavad' ki jhalak hai.

jivan parichay

daau. ramakumar varma ka janm madhy pradesh ke sagar zile men 15 sitnbar sanh 1950 ee. men hua. inake pita lakshmi prasad varma dipti kalaiktar the. varmaji ko prarambhik shiksha inaki mata shrimati rajarani devi ne apane ghar par hi di, jo us samay ki hindi kavayitriyon men vishesh sthan rakhati thin. bachapan men inhen "kumar" ke nam se pukara jata tha. ramakumar varma men prarambh se hi pratibha ke spasht chihn dikhaee dete the. ye sadaiv apani kaksha men pratham aya karate the. pathan-pathan ki pratibha ke sath hi sath ramakumar varma shala ke any karyon men bhi kafi sahayog dete the. abhineta banane ki ramakumar varma ki badi prabal ichchha thi. atev inhonne apane vidyarthi jivan men kee natakon men ek saphal abhineta ka kary kiya hai. ramakumar varma sanh 1922 ee. men dasavin kaksha men pahunche. isi samay prabal veg se asahayog ki andhi uthi aur ramakumar varma rashtr seva men hath bntane lage tatha ek rashtriy karyakarta ke roop men janata ke sammukh aye. isake bad varmaji ne punah adhyayan prarambh kiya aur sab parikshaon men saphalata prapt karate hue prayag vishvavidyalay se hindi vishay men em. e. men sarvapratham aye. ramakumar varma ne nagapur vishvavidyalay ki or se 'hindi sahity ka alochanatmak itihas' par piechadi ki upadhi prapt ki. anek varshon tak ramakumar varma prayag vishvavidyalay ke hindi vibhag men pradhyapak tatha phir adhyaksh rahe hain.

suprasiddh kavi

ramakumar varma adhunik hindi sahity ke suprasiddh kavi, ekanki natak-lekhak aur alochak hain. "chitrarekha" kavy-sngrah par inhen hindi ka sarvashreshth "dev puraskar" mila hai. sath hi "sapt kiran" ekanki sngrah par akhil bharatiy sahity sammelan puraskar aur madhyapradesh shasan parishad se "vijayaparv" natak par pratham puraskar mila hai. ramakumar varma roosi sarakar ke vishesh amntran par masko vishvavidyalay ke antargat prayah ek varsh tak shiksha kary kar chuke hain. hindi ekanki ke janak ramakumar varma ne aitihasik, sanskritik, manovaigyanik, samajik aur sahityik vishayon par 150 se adhik ekanki likhin. bhagavaticharan varma ne kaha tha, "daau. ramakumar varma rahasyavad ke pndit hain. unhonne rahasyavad ke har pahaloo ka adhyayan kiya hai. us par manan kiya hai. usako samajhana ho aur usaka vastavik aur vaigyanik roop dekhana ho to usake lie shri varma ki ‘chitrarekha’ sarvashreshth kavy grnth hoga."

Blockquote-open.gif ‘‘jis desh ke pas hindi jaisi madhur bhasha hai vah desh angrezi ke pichhe divana kyon hai? svatntr desh ke nagarikon ko apani bhasha par garv karana chahie. hamari bhavabhoomi bharatiy honi chahie. hamen joothan ki or nahin takana chahie’’ Blockquote-close.gif

- daau. ramakumar varma

ruchi

daau. ramakumar varma ki kavita, sngit aur kalaon men gahari ruchi thi. 1921 tak ate-ate yuvak ramakumar gandhi ji ke unake asahayog andolan men sammilit ho ge. unhonne 17 varsh ki ayu men ek kavita pratiyogita men 51 rupe ka puraskar jita tha. yahin se unaki sahityik yatra arnbh huee thi. daau. ramakumar varma ne desh hi nahin videshon men bhi hindi ka paracham laharaya. 1957 men ve masko vishvavidyalay ke adhyaksh ke roop men soviyat sngh ki yatra par ge. 1963 men unhen nepal ke tribhuvan vishvavidyalay ne shiksha sahayak ke roop men amntrit kiya. 1967 men ve shrilnka men bharatiy bhasha vibhag ke adhyaksh ke roop men bheje ge.[1]

kritiyan

roos men ramakumar varma ki rachanaen sanh 1922 ee. se prarambh hueen. inaki kritiyan is prakar hain:-

  • 'vir hamir' (kavy-san 1922 ee.)
  • 'chittaud ki chinta' (kavy sanh 1929 ee.)
  • 'sahity samalochana' (san 1929 ee.)
  • 'anjali' (kavy-san 1930 ee.)
  • 'abhishap' (kavita-san 1931 ee.)
  • 'hindi gitikavy' (sngrah-san 1931 ee.)
  • 'nishith' (kavita-san 1935 ee.)

Blockquote-open.gif daau. ramakumar varma rahasyavad ke pndit hain. unhonne rahasyavad ke har pahaloo ka adhyayan kiya hai. us par manan kiya hai. usako samajhana ho aur usaka vastavik aur vaigyanik roop dekhana ho to usake lie shri varma ki ‘chitrarekha’ sarvashreshth kavy grnth hoga. Blockquote-close.gif

  • 'chitrarekha' (kavita-san 1936 ee.)
  • 'prithviraj ki ankhen' (ekanki sngrah-san 1938 ee.)
  • 'kabir padavali' (sngrah sampadan-san 1938 ee.)
  • 'hindi sahity ka alochanatmak itihas' (san 1939 ee.)
  • 'adhunik hindi kavy' (sngrah sampadan-san 1939 ee.)
  • 'jauhar' (kavita sngrah- 1941 ee.)
  • 'reshami taee' (ekanki sngrah-san 1941 ee.)
  • 'shivaji' (san 1943 ee.)
  • 'char aitihasik ekanki' (sngrah-san 1950 ee.)
  • 'rooparng' (ekanki sngrah-san 1951 ee.)
  • 'kaumudi mahotsav'

aitihasik natak

  • 'ekalavy'
  • 'uttarayan'
  • 'o ahalya'
rachanaain
ye gajare taron vale

is sote snsar bich,
jag kar, saj kar rajani bale.
kahan bechane le jati ho,
ye gajare taron vale?
mol karega kaun,
so rahi hain utsuk ankhen sari.
mat kumhalane do,
soonepan men apani nidhiyan nyari॥
nirjhar ke nirmal jal men,
ye gajare hila hila dhona.
lahar hahar kar yadi choome to,
kinchith vichalit mat hona॥
hone do pratibimb vichumbit,
laharon hi men laharana.
'lo mere taron ke gajare'
nirjhar-svar men yah gana॥
yadi prabhat tak koee akar,
tum se hay! n mol kare.
to phoolon par os-roop men
bikhara dena sab gajare॥

ek dipak kiran-kan hoon

dhoomr jisake krod men hai, us anal ka hath hoon main,
nav prabha lekar chala hoon, par jalan ke sath hoon main
siddhi pakar bhi, tumhari sadhana ka..
jvalit kshan hoon.
ek dipak kiran-kan hoon

vyom ke ur men, apar bhara hua hai jo andhera
aur jisane vishv ko, do bar kya sau bar ghera
us timir ka nash karane ke lie,
main atal pran hoon.
ek dipak kiran-kan hoon.

shalabh ko amaratv dekar,prem par marana sikhaya
soory ka sndesh lekar,ratri ke ur men samaya
par tumhara sneh khokar bhi
tumhari hi sharan hoon.
ek dipak kiran-kan hoon.

kholo priyatam kholo dvar...

shishir kanon se ladi huee
kamali ke bhige hain sab tar
chalata hai pashchim ka marut
le kar shitalata ka bhar

arun kiran sam kar se chhoo lo
kholo priyatam kholo dvar....

daro na itana dhool dhoosarit
hoga nahin tumhara dvar
dho dale hain inako priyatam
in ankhon se ansoo dhar

arun kiran sam kar se chhoo lo
kholo priyatam kholo dvar...[2]

chhayavad

daau. varma ka kavi-vyaktitv dvivediyugin pravrittiyon se udit hokar chhayavad kshetr men moolyavan upalabdhi siddh hua. inaki kavyagat visheshataon men kalpanavritti, sngitatmakata, rahasyamay saundary-drishti (rahasyavad) ka sthan anany hai. chhayavadakal ki kavitaen inaki kavi pratibha ka sundar pratinidhitv karati hain.

rahasyavad

hindi rahasyavad ke kshetr men inaki apani vishesh den hai. apani rahasyavadi kritiyon men inhonne prakriti aur manaviy hriday ke sookshm tattvon, jinamen alaukik satta ka abadh prakash hai, bahut bada sahara liya hai. inhonne prakriti ki virat satta men sarvatr eeshvariy snket ki anubhooti ki hai. is prakar jahan inhonne apane is dharatal ke kavy-jagat men ek or manav atma ki saphal premamay pravrittiyon ki thah li hai, vahan unhonne prakriti ke rahasyon ka bhi saphal anveshan kiya hai. sarvatr bhavana kshetr men tadvishayak abhivyakti ke lie prayah roopakon ka sahara liya hai, jinamen ek or adhyatmik snket hain aur doosari or ek alaukik vynjana.

natakakar

Blockquote-open.gif kavi aur chitrakar men bhed hai. kavi apane svar men aur chitrakar apani rekha men jivan ke tatv aur saundary ka rng bharata hai. Blockquote-close.gif

- daau. ramakumar varma

natakakar ramakumar varma ka vyaktitv kavi-vyaktitv se adhik shaktishali aur lokapriy siddh hua hai. natakakar dharatal se unaka ekankikar svaroop hi unaki vishesh mahatta hai aur is disha men ve adhunik hindi ekanki ke janak kahe jate hain, jo nirvivad saty hai. prarambhik prabhav ki drishti se in par sha, ibsan maitaralink, chekhab adi ka vishesh prabhav pada hai kintu yah saty hai ki daau. varma is kshetr men, visheshakar manovegon ki abhivyakti aur apane drishtikon men sada maulik aur bharatiy rahe hain. "badal ki mrityu" inaka sarvapratham ekanki natak tha, jo 1930 ee. men "vishvamitr" men prakashit hua tha. isake bad daau. varma ne kramashah das minat, nahin ka rahasy, prithviraj ki ankhen, champak aur ektres adi natakon (ekanki) ki rachana ki tatha is uday ke bad inaka ekankikar vyaktitv adhunik hindi natay sahity ka prakash-stabh ho gaya.

krititv

reshamitaee ke uparant daau. varma ke krititv men ek vishesh dhara aitihasik ekankiyon ki vikasit huee, jisamen daau. ramakumar ek aise adarshavadi kalakar ke roop men hindi natay jagath ke samane aye, jinamen unake sanskritik aur sahityik manyataon ka sundaratam samnvay sthapit hua hai. "ve kalush ke bhitar se pavitrata, dainy ke bhitar se shalinata, vasana ke bhitar se atmasnyam evn kshudrata se mahanata ka anveshan karane men samarth hue hain aur yah sab unhonne patron aur paristhitiyon ke sngharsh se svabhavik roop men prastut kiya hai."

Blockquote-open.gif daau. varma ne ekanki vidha ka srijan karake sahity men prayogavad ko badhava diya. daau. dharmavir bharati, ajit kumar, jagadish gupt, markandey, dushynt kumar, rajanarayan, kanhaiyalal nndan, ramanath avasthi, onkaranath shrivastav, umakant malaviy aur svayn main unaka chhatr raha hoon. Blockquote-close.gif

alochak

ramakumar varma ekankikar, alochak aur kavi hain. inake kavy men rahasyavad aur chhayavad ki jhalak hai. alochana ke kshetr men ramakumar varma ki kabiravishayak khoj aur unake padon ka pratham shuddh path tatha kabir ke rahasyavad aur yogasadhana ki paddhati ki samalochana vishesh upalabdhi hai. hindi sahity ke itihas lekhan kshetr men unake prasiddh grnth hindi sahity ka alochanatmak itihas (1938 ee.) ka vishesh mahattv hai. samajik tatha shaktiyon ke adhyayan pariprekshy men hindi sahity ke adi yug aur madhy yug ko samagr roop men dekhane ka yah pahala saphal prayas hai. isake atirikt kavy, kala aur sahity ke vibhinn angon tatha madhyamon par lalit lekh daau. varma ke nibandhakar vyaktitv ke sundaratam udaharan hain. ‘‘jis desh ke pas hindi jaisi madhur bhasha hai vah desh angrezi ke pichhe divana kyon hai? svatntr desh ke nagarikon ko apani bhasha par garv karana chahie. hamari bhavabhoomi bharatiy honi chahie. hamen joothan ki or nahin takana chahie’’ hindi ko lekar yah pida apani bhasha ke prati gahari pratibaddhata aur astha rakhane vale daau ramakumar varma ki hai.

hindi ekanki ke janak

hindi ki laghu naty parnpara ko ek naya mod dene vale daau. ramakumar varma adhunik hindi sahity men ‘ekanki samrath’ ke roop men samadrit hain. unhonne hindi natak ko ek naya snrachanatmak adarsh saunpa. naty kala ke vikas ki snbhavanaon ke ne pat kholate hue naty sahity ko jan jivan ke nikat pahuncha diya. natakakar aur kavi ke sath-sath unhonne samikshak, adhyapak tatha hindi sahityetihas-lekhak ke roop men bhi hindi sahity-srijan men apani mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee. natakakar ke roop men unhonne manovigyan ke anekanek staron par manav-jivan ki vividh snvedanaon ko svar diya to chhaya vadi kaviyon ki katar men khade hokar rahasy aur adhyatm ki prishthabhoomi men apane kavyatmak snskaron ko vikasit kar rahasyamayi jagath ke svapnon men sahriday ko pravesh karaya. daau. varma ke sahityik vyaktitv ko natakakar aur kavi ke roop men adhik pramukhata mili sanh 1930 men rachit ’badal ki mrityu’ unaka pahala ekanki hai, jo phentesi ke roop men atynt lokapriy hua. bharatiy atma aur pashchaty takanik ke samanvay se unhonne hindi ekanki kala ko nikhar diya. unhonne aitihasik aur samajik do tarah ke ekanki natakon ki srishti ki. aitihasik natakon men unhonne bharatiy itihas se svarnim prishthon se natakon ki vishay-vastu ko grahan kar charitron ki aisi sudridh roop rekha prastut ki jo pathakon men uchch charitrik snskar bhar sake aur samayik jivan ki samasyaon ko samadhan ki disha de sake. unake natak bharatiy snskriti aur rashtriy udbodhan ke svar bakhoobi samete hue hain. garv ke sath ve kahate hain, ’aitihasik ekankiyon men bharatiy snskriti ka merudnd-naitik moolyon men astha aur vishvas ka drishtikon prastut kiya gaya hai.’ unake samajik ekanki prem aur seks ki samasyaon se snbndhit hain. ye ekanki manasik antardvnd ki adhar bhoomi par yatharthavadi kalevar men samaj aur jivan ki vastu-sthiti tak pahunchate hain. par in ekankiyon men lekhak ki adarshavadi soch itani gahari hai ki ve adarshavadi jhonk men yatharth ko manamana natakiy mod de baithate hain. isalie unake stri patr shiksha aur ne snskaron ke bavajood prem aur jivan ke sngharsh men jivan ka moh tyagakar prem ke lie utsarg kar baithate hain mano utsarg ya pranant hi sachche prem ki kasauti ho. adhunik patron par bhi lekhak ne apani adarshavadi soch ko thop diya hai.[3]

alochakon ka drishtikon

daau. ramakumar varma

daau. ramakumar varma bahumukhi pratibha ke dhani the. lekhan ki aisi koee vidha nahin jo unaki kalam se achhooti rah gee ho. kabhi kavi to kabhi ekankikar, kabhi natakakar to kabhi snpadak, kabhi shodhakarta to kabhi sahity ke itihas lekhak, n jane kitane-kitane roopon men is kritikar ne hindi ke sahity akash ko apani abha se chamatkrit kiya. 101 se adhik kritiyan unaki srijanashilata ka dastavez hain. koee unhen natak samrat manata hai to koee hindi ekanki ka janak. koee kahata hai achary ramachndr shukl ke bad agar kisi ne pramanik hindi sahity ka itihas likha hai to ve daau ramakumar varma hi hai. sach to yah hai ki kisi ek vyakti ka sahity ki itani vidhaon par aisa adhikar hona alochakon ke lie hairat ka prashn hai. mahatma buddh, bhagavan mahavir, ashok, samudr gupt, chndragupt aur shivaji se lekar 1857 ke pratham svadhinata sngram ke mahanayakon tak sabhi unake natakon ke patr rahe hain. apane 26 se adhik natakon ke madhyam se ve deshavasiyon men bharatiyata, desh prem aur itihas se prerana lene ki chetana bharate rahe hain. sahityakar kamaleshvar kahate hain,daau. varma ne ekanki vidha ka srijan karake sahity men prayogavad ko badhava diya. daau. dharmavir bharati, ajit kumar, jagadish gupt, markandey, dushynt kumar, rajanarayan, kanhaiyalal nndan, ramanath avasthi, onkaranath shrivastav, umakant malaviy aur svayn main unaka chhatr raha hoon. aitihasik natakon ka yahi srashta jab bhavuk ho utha to usake kavi man se ‘ekalavy’, ‘uttarayan’, evn ‘o ahalya’ jaise kalajee sanskritik mahakavy likh dale. hindi ekanki ke is janak ne aitihasik, sanskritik, manovaigyanik, samajik aur sahityik vishayon par rngamnch par khele ja sakane vale 150 se adhik ekanki likh sabako hataprabh kar diya. yahi vajah thi ki bhagavaticharan varma ne kaha tha, ‘‘ daau. ramakumar varma rahasyavad ke pndit hain. unhonne rahasyavad ke har pahaloo ka adhyayan kiya hai. us par manan kiya hai. usako samajhana ho aur usaka vastavik aur vaigyanik roop dekhana ho to usake lie shri varma ki ‘chitrarekha’ sarvashreshth kavy grnth hoga’’[4]

smaraniy tathy

  • 15 sitnbar, 1905 ko janme daau. ramakumar varma ki kavita, sngit aur kalaon men gahari ruchi thi.
  • 1921 tak ate-ate yuvak ramakumar gandhi ji ke unake asahayog andolan men sammilit ho ge.
  • unhonne 17 varsh ki ayu men ek kavita pratiyogita men 51 rupe ka puraskar jita tha. yahi se unaki sahityik yatra arnbh huee thi.
  • daau. ramakumar varma ne desh hi nahin videshon men bhi hindi ka paracham laharaya.
  • 1957 men ve masko vishvavidyalay ke adhyaksh ke roop men soviyat sngh ki yatra par ge.
  • 1963 men unhen nepal ke tribhuvan vishvavidyalay ne shiksha sahayak ke roop men amntrit kiya.
  • 1967 men ve shrilnka men bharatiy bhasha vibhag ke adhyaksh ke roop men bheje ge.
  • unake krititv se prabhavit hokar svitjaralaind ke moor vishvavidyalay ne unhen dilit ki upadhi se sammanit kiya.
  • bharat sarakar ne unhen 1965 men padm bhooshan ke rashtriy alnkaran se vibhooshit kiya.
  • unaki janmashati sahity jagath ke lie srijan ka ek parv hai. isilie poore varsh bhar desh men jagah-jagah unaki yad aur samman men karyakram ayojit kie jate hain.[4]

puraskar

ramakumar varma ko upanyas "chitrarekha" par dev puraskar evn ekanki sngrah par akhil bharatiy sahity sammelan puraskar mila. inako bharat sarakar dvara padm bhooshan alnkaran se vibhooshit kiya gaya. unake krititv se prabhavit hokar svitjaralaind ke moor vishvavidyalay ne unhen di.lit ki upadhi se sammanit kiya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. daau. ramakumar varma ki janmashatabdi (hindi) (ech.ti.el.el.) bibisi hindi. abhigaman tithi: 31 march, 2011.
  2. daau. ramakumar varma (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el.) ek sham mere nam. abhigaman tithi: 2 apral, 2011.
  3. sharma, kumud. hindi ekanki ke janmadata daau. ramakumar varma (hindi) abhivyakti. abhigaman tithi: 9 sitambar, 2013.
  4. 4.0 4.1 kaushik, ratna. daau ramakumar varma ki janmashatabdi (hindi) bibisi hindi. abhigaman tithi: 9 sitambar, 2013.

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