छायावाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

'dvivedi yug' ke pashchath hindi sahity men kavita ki jo dhara pravahit huee, vah chhayavadi kavita ke nam se prasiddh huee. 'chhayavad' ki kalavadhi san 1917 se 1936 tak mani gee hai. vastut: is kalavadhi men 'chhayavad' itani pramukh pravritti rahi hai ki sabhi kavi isase prabhavit hue aur isake nam par hi is yug ko 'chhayavadi yug' kaha jane laga tha. 1916 ee. ke as-pas hindi men kalpanapoorn, svachchhnd aur bhavukata ki ek lahar umad padi. bhasha, bhav, shaili, chhnd, alnkar in sab drishtiyon se purani kavita se isaka koee mel nahin tha. alochakon ne ise 'chhayavad' ya 'chhayavadi kavita' ka nam diya. 'chhayavad' shabd ka sabase pahale prayog mukutadhar pandey ne kiya. is yug ki hindi kavita ke antarng aur bahirng men ekadam parivartan ho gaya. vastu niroopan ke sthan par anubhooti niroopan ko pradhanata prapt huee thi. prakriti ka pranamay pradesh kavita men aya. jayashnkar prasad, sooryakant tripathi 'nirala', sumitranndan pnt aur mahadevi varma is yug ke char pramukh stnbh the.

kya hai chhayavad?

'chhayavad' ke svaroop ko samajhane ke lie us prishthabhoomi ko samajh lena avashyak hai, jisane use janm diya. sahity ke kshetr men pray: ek niyam dekha jata hai ki poorvavarti yug ke abhavon ko door karane ke lie paravarti yug ka janm hota hai. 'chhayavad' ke mool men bhi yahi niyam kam kar raha hai. isase poorv 'dvivedi yug' men hindi kavita kori upadesh matr ban gee thi. usamen samaj sudhar ki charcha vyapak roop se ki jati thi aur kuchh akhyanon ka varnan kiya jata tha. upadeshatmakata aur naitikata ki pradhanata ke karan kavita men nirasata a gee. kavi ka hriday us nirasata se oob gaya aur kavita men sarasata lane ke lie vah chhatapata utha. isake lie usane prakriti ko madhyam banaya. prakriti ke madhyam se jab manav-bhavanaon ka chitran hone laga, tabhi 'chhayavad' ka janm hua aur kavita 'itivrittatmakata' ko chhodakar kalpana lok men vicharan karane lagi.

hindi kavita ke kshetr men pratham mahayuddh (1914-1918 ee.) ke asapas ek vishesh kavy dhara ka pravartan hua, jise 'chhayavad' ki sngya di gee hai. yah namakaran kis adhar par tatha kisake dvara kiya gaya, is sambandh men nishchit roop se kuchh kahana kathin hai. jahan tak 'chhaya' aur 'vad' ka sambandh hai, chhayavad kavy ke svaroop ya usake lakshanon se inaka koee mel nahin hai. achary ramachndr shukl ka vishvas tha ki bngala men adhyatmik pratikavadi rachanaon ko 'chhayavad' kaha jata tha. at: hindi men bhi is prakar ki kavitaon ka nam 'chhayavad' chal pada, kintu hajariprasad dvivedi ne is manyata ka khndan karate hue kaha hai ki- "bngala men chhayavad nam kabhi chala hi nahin".

samay kal

hindi sahity men 'chhayavad' ka ankuran ritikalin kavy, nivritti margi bhav aur soophi shrringar ke sath-sath angrez raj ke poonjivadi upabhoktavad ke parimarjan ki bhoomika ke sath hua. is dauran hindi sahity ka ek naya roop banane laga. naye roop, nee upamaen samane aeen. kavy men bhi romantik pravritti ka uday hua. chhayavad vishesh roop se hindi sahity ke utthan ki vah dhara hain, jo lagabhag 1917 se 1936 ke bich hindi sahity ki pramukh yugavani rahi. jayashnkar prasad, sooryakant tripathi nirala, sumitranndan pnt, mahadevi varma aur premachnd is yug ke pramukh sahityakar ke roop men sthapit hue. agyey ke anusar 'chhayavad' bharatiy romantikavad tha. udar, sundar prakriti ke prati ashchary isamen tha, par bhagyavadi patr isamen nahin the. romantikavad ka sabal eeshvaravadi saratatv isamen antarnihit tha. prarambhik romantikavad aur bharatiy darshan ke snshleshan ka mishran tha 'chhayavad'.[1]

chhayavad shabd ka prayog

hindi ki kuchh patrikaon- 'shrisharada' aur 'sarasvati' men kramash: san 1920 aur 1921 men mukutadhar pandey aur sushil dvara do lekh 'hindi men chhayavad' shirshak se prakashit hue the. at: kaha ja sakata hai ki is nam ka prayog san 1920 se ya usase poorv se hone lag gaya tha. snbhav hai ki mukutadhar pandey ne hi inaka sarvapratham avishkar kiya ho. yah bhi dhyan rahe ki pandey ji ne isaka prayog vyngyatmak roop men chhayavadi kavy ki aspashtata (chhaya) ke liye kiya tha. kintu age chalakar vahi nam svikrit ho gaya. svayn chhayavadi kaviyon ne is visheshan ko bade prem se svikar kiya hai. ek or jayashnkar prasad likhate hain- "moti ke bhitar chhaya aur taralata hoti hai, vaise hi kanti ki taralata ang men lavany kahi jati hai. chhaya bharatiy drishti se anubhooti ki bhngima par nirbhar karati hai. dhvanyatmakata, lakshanikata, saundaryamay pratik vidhan tatha upachar vakrata ke sath anubhooti ki vivritti chhayavad ki visheshataen hain. apane bhitar se pani ki tarah antar sparsh karake bhav samarpan karane vali abhivyakti chhaya kantimay hoti hai."

doosari or mahadevi varma bhi prasad ke svar men svar milati huee kahati hain- "srishti ke bahyakar par itana likha ja chuka tha ki manushy ka hriday abhivyakti ke lie ro utha. svachhnd chhnd men chitrit un manav anubhootiyon ka nam chhaya upayukt hi tha aur mujhe to aj bhi upayukt lagata hai." jayashnkar prasad aur mahadevi varma ki in uktiyon men koee tark nahin hai. jayashnkar prasad jin gunon ka akhyan kar rahe hain, usake adhar par to is kavita ka nam 'prakash', 'chamak' ya 'kanti' hona chahie tha, ya mahadevi varma dvara pariganit visheshata ko lekar ise anubhooti bhavukata adi kisi nam se pukara jana chahie tha, kintu vastavikata yah hai ki namakaran ke sambandh men poorvajon ke age kisi ka vash nahin chalata. kavita ki to bat hi kya, svayn kaviyon ko bhi kuchh aise nam virasat men mile hain ki unhen upanam dhoondhane ko vivash hona pada hai. at: 'chhayavad' nam ko lekar jyada oohapoh karana anavashyak hai.[2]

samaj ka antarvirodh

chhayavadi kavita aur premachnd ki kahani aur upanyason ke tulanatmak adhyayan men is yug ke bharatiy samaj ka kee antarvirodh samane ata hai. bharat men vikasit ho rahe poonjivadi vikas, rashtriy atmachetana ke jagaran tatha aupaniveshik aur samantavadi utpidan ke virudhd vyapak sngharsh ke prabhav ke sath-sath 1919-1922 ke rashtravyapi andolan ki parajay ka pratinidhitv bhi isamen hua tha. 1914 se pratham vishvayudhd shuroo ho gaya tha. 1917 se mahatma gandhi ka prabhav bharatiy rajaniti men badhane laga tha. 'chaurichaura kand' ke hinsak prabhav ko dhyan men rakhakar gandhi ji ne asahayog andolan ko 1922 men sthagit kar diya. isase bharat ke kuchh buddhijiviyon men gahari nirasha aur udasi chha gee thi. 1920 ke asapas sooryakant tripathi nirala ne likha- "manushyon ki mukti ki tarah kavita ki bhi mukti hoti hai. manushyon ki mukti karmon ke bandhan se chhutakara pana hai aur kavita ki mukti chhndon ke shasan se alag ho jana hai." bharatiy rajaniti men 'gandhi yug' aur hindi sahity men 'chhayavadi yug' ek hi kal ki upaj hai. sahity roopon ke navikaran ke margon ki khoj, roodhigat bimbon ko naye sire se samajhane ka prayas, bhavavegon ki asadharan prachurata, prakritik saundary ki tivr anubhooti, ojapoorn, abhivynjanatmk bhasha, kalatmak gady adi is kal ke hindi sahityakaron ki svabhavik vishishtataen thin. chhayavadi kavi bhi sundar, chirayuva prakriti ko prastut karate the.[1]

mukhy kavi

'chhayavad' ka keval pahala arthath mool arth lekar to hindi kavy kshetr men chalane vali mahadevi varma hi hain. jayashnkar prasad, sooryakant tripathi 'nirala', sumitranndan pnt aur mahadevi varma is yug ke char pramukh stnbh hain. ramakumar varma, makhanalal chaturvedi, harivnsharay bachchan aur ramadhari sinh dinakar ko bhi 'chhayavad' ne prabhavit kiya. kintu ramakumar varma age chalakar natakakar ke roop men prasiddh hue, makhanalal chaturvedi rashtravadi dhara ki or rahe, bachchan ne prem ke rag ko mukhar kiya aur dinakar ji ne vidroh ki ag ko avaz di. jayashnkar prasad, sumitranandan pant aur sooryakant tripathi 'nirala' ityadi aur sab kavi pratik paddhati ya chitrabhasha shaili ki drishti se hi chhayavadi kahalae. chhayavadi yug ke pramukh kavi the-

  1. rayakrishn das
  2. viyogi hari
  3. daau. raghuvir sahay
  4. makhanalal chaturvedi
  5. jayashnkar prasad
  6. mahadevi varma
  7. nand dulare vajapeyi
  8. daau. shivapoojan sahay
  9. sooryakant tripathi nirala
  10. ramachandr shukl
  11. padumalal punnalal bakhshi
  12. baboo gulabaray

"chhayavad ke kavi vastuon ko asadharan drishti se dekhate hain. unaki rachana ki snpoorn visheshataen unaki is ‘drishti’ par hi avalnbit rahati hain....vah kshan-bhar men bijali ki tarah vastu ko sparsh karati huee nikal jati hai....asthirata aur kshinata ke sath usamen ek tarah ki vichitr unmadakata aur antarngata hoti hai, jisake karan vastu usake prakrit roop men nahin kintu ek any roop men dikh padati hai. usake is any roop ka snbndh kavi ke antarjagat se rahata hai....yah antarng drishti hi ‘chhayavad’ ki vichitr prakashan riti ka mool hai." is prakar mukutadhar pandey ki sookshm drishti ne ‘chhayavad’ ki mool bhavana ‘atmanishth antardrishti’ ko pahachan liya tha. jab unhonne kaha ki "chitr drishy vastu ki atma ka hi utara jata hai," to chhayavad ki maulik visheshata ki or snket kiya. chhayavadi kaviyon ki kalpanapriyata par prakash dalate hue mukutadhar ji kahate hain- "unaki kavita devi ki ankhen sadaiv oopar ki hi or uthi rahati hain; martyalok se usaka bahut kam snbndh rahata hai; vah buddhi aur gyan ki samarthy-sima ko atikram karake man-pran ke atit lok men hi vicharan karati rahati hai."[2] yahin chhayavadita se adhyatmikata tatha dharm-bhavukata ka mel hota hai, yatharth men usake jivan ke ye do mukhy avalnb hain.

paribhashaen

'chhayavad' ka namakaran bhale hi bina soche samajhe kar diya gaya ho, kintu paribhashaon ki drishti se yah bada saubhagyashali hai. vibhinn vidvanon ne apane apane dhng se chhayavad ki itani adhik aur vichitr paribhashaen di hain ki unhen padhakar chahe 'chhayavad' samajh men aye ya n aye, pathak ke mastishk par avashy 'chhayavad' chha jata hai. 'chhayavad' apane yug ki atynt vyapak pravritti rahi hai. phir bhi yah dekh kar ashchary hota hai ki usaki paribhasha ke snbndh men vicharakon aur samalochakon men ekamat nahin ho saka.[3] vibhinn vidvanon ne 'chhayavad' ki bhinn-bhinn paribhashaen ki hain-

  • achary ramachndr shukl ne 'chhayavad' ko spasht karate hue likha hai ki- "chhayavad shabd ka prayog do arthon men samajhana chahie. ek to 'rahasyavad' ke arth men, jahan usaka snbndh kavy-vastu se hota hai arthath jahan kavi us annt aur agyat priyatam ko ko alamban banakar atynt chitramayi bhasha men prem ki anek prakar se vynjana karata hai. 'chhayavad' shabd ka doosara prayog kavy shaili ya paddhati-vishesh ke vyapak arth men hai.... 'chhayavad' ek shaili vishesh hai, jo lakshanik prayogon, aprastut vidhanon aur amoort upamanon ko lekar chalati hai." doosare arth men unhonne 'chhayavad' ko chitr-bhasha-shaili kaha hai.
  • mahadevi varma ne 'chhayavad' ka mool sarvatmavad darshan men mana hai. unhonne likha hai ki- "chhayavad ka kavi dharm ke adhyatm se adhik darshan ke brahm ka rini hai, jo moort aur amoort vishv ko milakar poornata pata hai. anyatr ve likhati hain ki- "chhayavad prakriti ke bich jivan ka udh-gith hai".
  • daau. ram kumar varma ne 'chhayavad' aur 'rahasyavad' men koee antar nahin mana hai. 'chhayavad' ke vishay men unake shabd hain- "atma aur paramatma ka gupt vagvilas rahasyavad hai aur vahi chhayavad hai. ek any sthal par ve likhate hain- "chhayavad ya rahasyavad jivatma ki us antarnihit pravritti ka prakashan hai, jisamen vah divy aur alaukik satta se apana shant aur nishchal snbndh jodana chahati hai aur yah snbndh itana badh jata hai ki donon men kuchh antar hi nahin rah jata hai. paramatma ki chhaya atma par padane lagati hai aur atma ki chhaya paramatma par. yahi chhayavad hai."
  • achary nndadulare vajapeyi ka mntavy hai- "manav athava prakriti ke sookshm kintu vyakt saundary men adhyatmik chhaya ka bhan mere vichar se 'chhayavad' ki ek sarvamany vyakhya ho sakati hai. 'chhayavad' ki vyaktigat visheshata do roopon men dikh padati hai- ek sookshm aur kalpanik anubhooti ke prakash men aur doosari lakshanik aur pratikatmak shabdon ke prayog men. aur is adhar par to yah kaha hi ja sakata hai ki 'chhayavad' adhunik hindi-kavita ki vah shaili hai, jisamen sookshm aur kalpanik sahanubhooti ko lakshanik evn pratikatmak dhng par prakashit karate hain."
  • shantipriy dvivedi ne 'chhayavad' aur 'rahasyavad' men gahara snbndh sthapit karate hue kaha hai- "jis prakar 'maitar aauf phaikt' (itivrittatmak) ke age ki chij chhayavad hai, usi prakar chhayavad ke age ki chij rahasyavad hai."
  • gngaprasad pandey ne 'chhayavad' par is prakar se prakash dala hai- "chhayavad nam se hi usaki chhayatmakata spasht hai. vishv ki kisi vastu men ek agyat sapran chhaya ki jhanki pana athava usaka arop karana hi 'chhayavad' hai. jis prakar chhaya sthool vastuvad ke age ki chij hai, usi prakar rahasyavad 'chhayavad' ke age ki chij hai."
  • jayashnkar prasad ne 'chhayavad' ko apane dhag se paribhashit karate hue kaha hai- "kavita ke kshetr men pauranik yug ki kisi ghatana athava desh-videsh ki sundari ke bahy varnan se bhinn jab vedana ke adhar par svanubhootimayi abhivyakti hone lagi, tab hindi men use 'chhayavad' ke nam se abhihit kiya gaya."
  • daau. devaraj chhayavad ko adhunik pauranik dharmik chetana ke viruddh adhunik laukik chetana ka vidroh svikar karate hain.
  • daau. nagendr 'chhayavad' ko sthool ke prati sookshm ka vidroh manate hain aur sath hi yah bhi svikar karate hain ki- "chhayavad ek vishesh prakar ki bhav-paddhati hai. jivan ke prati ek vishesh prakar ka bhavatmak drishtikon hai. unhonne isaki mool pravritti ke vishay men likha hai ki vastav par antarmukhi drishti dalate hue, usako vayavi athava atindriy roop dene ki pravritti hi mool vritti hai. unake vichar se, yug ki udabuddh chetana ne bahy abhivyakti se nirash hokar jo atmabaddh antarmukhi sadhana arnbh ki vah kavy men 'chhayavad' ke roop men abhivyakt huee. ve 'chhayavad' ko atript vasana aur manasik kunthaon ka parinam svikar karate hain.
  • daau. namavar sinh ne apani pustak "chhayavad" men vishvasaniy taur par dikhaya ki 'chhayavad' vastut: kee kavy pravrittiyon ka samoohik nam hai aur vah us "rashtriy jagaran ki kavyatmak abhivyakti" hai, jo ek or purani roodhiyon se mukti pana chahata tha aur doosari or videshi paradhinata se.

uparyukt paribhashaon se 'chhayavad' ki anek paribhashaen spasht hoti hain, kintu ek sarvasammat paribhasha nahin ban saki. uparilikhit paribhashaon se yah bhi vyakt hota hai ki 'chhayavad' svachchhndatavad (romantisijm) ke kafi samip hai. uparyukt paribhashao ko samanvit karate hue yah kaha ja sakata hai ki "snsar ke pratyek padarth men atma ke darshan karake tatha pratyek pran men ek hi atma ki anubhooti karake is darshan aur anubhooti ko lakshanik aur pratik shaili dvara vyakt karana hi 'chhayavad' hai." adhunik kal ke 'chhayavad' ka nirman bharatiy aur yooropiy bhavanaon ke mel se hua hai, kyonki usamen ek or to sarvatr ek hi atma ke darshan ki bharatiy bhavana hai aur doosari or us bahari sthool jagath ke prati vidroh hai, jo pashchimi vigyan ki pragati ke karan ashant evn du:khi hai.

mahattvapoorn tathy

vidvanon dvara di gee paribhashaon se 'chhayavad' ke sambandh men anek mahattvapoorn baten gyat hoti hain-

  1. 'chhayavad' aur 'rahasyavad' ek hain.
  2. 'chhayavad' ek shaili vishesh hai.
  3. prakriti men chhayavad manav jivan ka pratibimb dekhata hai arthath prakriti ka manavikaran karata hai.
  4. yah ek darshanik anubhooti hai.
  5. chhayavad ek bhavatmak drishtikon hai.
  6. prakriti men chhayavad adhyatmik saundary ka darshan karata hai.
  7. gati tattv ki chhayavad men pramukhata hai.
  8. chhayavad men prakriti ka chitran hota hai.
  9. chhayavad sthool ke prati sookshm ka vidroh hai.[2]

rachanaen

'chhayavad' ki rachanaen giton ke roop men hi adhikatar hoti hain. isase unamen anviti kam dikhaee padati hai. jahan yah anviti hoti hai, vahan samoochi rachana anyokti paddhati par ki jati hai. is prakar samy bhavana ka hi prachury ham sarvatr pate hain. yah samy bhavana hamare hriday ka prasar karane vali, shesh srishti ke sath manushy ke goodh snbndh ki dharana bndhane vali, atynt apekshit manobhoomi hai, isamen sndeh nahin, par yah sachcha marmik prabhav vahin utpann karati hai, jahan yah prakritik vastu ya vyapar se prapt sachche abhas ke adhar par khadi hoti hai. prakriti apane annt roopon aur vyaparon ke dvara anek baton ki goodh va agoodh vynjana karati rahati hai.[4] is vynjana ko n parakhakar ya n grahan karake jo samy vidhan hoga, vah manamana arop matr hoga. is annt vishv mahakavy ki vynjanaon ki parakh ke sath jo samy vidhan hota hai, vah marmik aur udbodhak hota hai, jaise-

dukhadava se navankur pata jag jivan ka van
karunardr vishv ka garjan barasata navajivan kan.
khul khul nav ichchhaen phailati jivan ke dal.
yah shaishav ka saral has hai, sahasa ur men hai a jata.
yah oosha ka navavikas hai, jo raj ko hai rajat banata.
yah laghu laharon ka vilas hai, kalanath jisamen khinch ata.

hns pade kusumon men chhaviman, jahan jag men padachidd punit.
vahin sukh men aaunsoo ban pran, os men ludhak damakate git. (gunjan)

mera anurag phailane do, nabh ke abhinav kalarav men.
jakar soonepan ke tam men, ban kiran kabhi a jana.
akhil ki laghuta aee ban, samay ka sundar vatayan.
dekhane ko adrishtarh nattan. (lahar)

jal utha sneh dipak sa, navanit hriday tha mera.
ab shesh dhoomarekha se, chitrit kar raha andhera. (aaunsoo)

manamane arop, jinaka vidhan prakriti ke snket par nahin hota, hriday ke marmasthal ka sparsh nahin karate, keval vaichitray ka kutoohal matr utpann karake rah jate hain. 'chhayavad' ki kavita par kalpanavad, kalavad, abhivynjanavad adi ka bhi prabhav gyat ya agyat ke roop men padata raha hai. isase bahut sa aprastut vidhan manamane arop ke roop men bhi samane ata hai. prakriti ke vastu vyaparon par manushi vrittiyon ke arop ka bahut chalan ho jane se kahin-kahin ye arop vastu vyaparon ki prakrit vynjana se bahut door ja pade hain, jaise- chandani ke is varnan men-

1. jag ke du:kh dainy shayan par yah rugna jivanabala.
pili pad, nirbal, komal, krish dehalata kumhalaee.
vivasana, laj men, lipati, sanson men shoony samaee.

  • chandani apane ap is prakar ki bhavana man men nahin jagati. usake snbndh men yah udbhavana bhi keval stri ki sundar mudra samane khadi karati jan padati hai ,

2. nile nabh ke shatadal par vah baithi sharad hasini.
mridu karatal par shashimukh dhar nirav animish ekakini.

  • isi prakar aaunsuon ko 'nayanon ke bal' kahana bhi vyarth sa hai. niche ki joothi pyali bhi[5] kisi maikhane se lakar rakhi jan padatihai ,

3. laharon men pyas bhari hai, hai bhnvar patr se khali.
manav ka sab ras pikar, ludhaka di tumane pyali.

prakriti chitran

chhayavadi kaviyon ki rachanaen parnparik bharatiy rachanaon (kalidas, jayadev, vidyapati, tulasidas, sooradas) se is bat men oopari taur par bhinn dikhati hain ki unamen prakriti chitran apane ap men dhyey nahin hota, apitu manaviy bhavanaon se poorn hota hai. chhayavadi rachanaon men prakritik chitron ke madhyam se manavi bhavanaon aur anubhootiyon ke jagath ko samajhane ka prayas pramukh visheshata banakar ubharata hai. aravindo ke anusar- "prakriti ka yah ramy anchal kavi ki kalpana-bhavana adi ka manohar vihar-sthal tha. is prashant haritima men use kabhi man ki mamata bhari moorti milati, kabhi sahachari sakhi ka sneh bhara saundary milata aur kabhi anuragamayi bahan ka saumy roop dikhata, kabhi rishiyon ki ashishavani, kabhi guru ka gnbhir sndesh aur mitr ki shubhakamana dikhati." vastav men chhayavad oopar se jitana naya aur maulik dikhata hai, usase kahin adhik isake bhitar adhunikata aur parampara ke bich ke bharatiy dvndv evn snshleshan ka yugin abhivyakti hai. isamen parampara ka punarnavinikaran hi hua. nirala par ramakrishn paramahns evn vivekannd ka prabhav tha. prasad kashmir shaivagam aur abhinavagupt se prabhavit the. pnt par aravindo ka prabhav tha. mahadevi varma par mirabaee ka prabhav tha. premachnd par mahatma gandhi aur dayannd sarasvati ka prabhav tha. durbhagy se ab tak chhayavad ke vishleshan par marksavadi alochakon ne hi vyavasthit kam kiya hai. in logon ne chhayavadi rachanakaron ki paramparik chintanadhara ko anadekha karane ka kam kiya hai. vagish shukl ne nirala par nee drishti se chintan kiya hai. ramasvaroop chaturvedi ki alochana men bhi kuchh nayapan hai. lekin adhunik kal ke bharatiy chintakon- ramakrishn, vivekanand, mahatma gandhi, aravindo ya inake poorv ke acharyon- shnkarachary, ramanujachary, vallabhachary, abhinavagupt, gorakhanath, kabir adi ki chintan dhara ke alok men chhayavadi kaviyon evn lekhakon ka vyavasthit moolyankan hona abhi baki hai.[1]

prasad ki 'kamayani'

kuchh alochakon ke anusar jayashnkar prasad ki 'kamayani' chhayavad ki antim shreshth upalabdhi hai. hindi kavita ke nootanikaran ki ichchha se prerit hokar prasad ne 'kamayani' men bharat ki pauranik kathaon ke patron aur vishay-vastuon ko naye sanchon men dhala hai. thik isi prakar mahadevi varma ke bare men yah kaha jata hai ki rahasyavadi goodharth, vishv ke marmo men paithane ki abhilasha, nirav svaron aur ardhasvaron se dhvanit laghu pragitatmakata, chirasthayi vishadabhari man: sthiti baudhdadharm se prabhavit karuna ki pukaren adi mahadevi varma ki kavita ki vishishtatayen hain.

premagitatmak pravritti

'chhayavad' ki pravritti adhikatar premagitatmak hone ke karan hamara vartaman kavy prasngon ki anekaroopata ke sath nee-nee arth bhoomiyon par kuchh dinon tak bahut kam chal paya. kuchh kaviyon men vastu ka adhar atynt alp rahata hai. vishesh lakshy abhivynjana ke anoothe vistar par raha hai. isase unaki rachanaon ka bahut sa bhag adhar men thaharaya sa jan padata hai. jin vastuon ke adhar par uktiyan man men khadi ki jati hain, unaka kuchh bhag kala ke anoothepan ke lie pnktiyon ke idhar udhar se hata bhi liya jata hai. at: kahin-kahin vyavahrit shabdon ki vynjakata paryapt n hone par bhav asphut rah jata hai, pathak ko apani or se bahut kuchh akshep karana padata hai, jaise niche ki pnktiyon men-

nij alakon ke andhakar men tum kaise chhip aoge.
itana sajag kutoohal! thaharo, yah n kabhi ban paoge.
ah, choom loon jin charanon ko chanp chanp kar unhen nahin.
dukh do itana, are! arunima usha si vah udhar bahi.

yahan kavi ne us priyatam ke chhipakar dabe panv ane ki bat kahi hai, jinake charan itane sukumar hain ki jab ahat n sunaee padane ke lie vah unhen bahut daba dabakar rakhate hain, tab ediyon men oopar ki or khoon ki lali daud jati hai. vahi lalaee usha ki lali ke roop men jhalakati hai. 'prasadaji' ka dhyan sharir vikaron par vishesh jamata tha. isi se unhonne 'chanp chanpakar du:kh do', se lalaee daudane ki kalpana pathakon ke oopar chhod di hai. 'kamayani' men unhonne male hue kan men bhi kamini ke kapolon par ki 'lajja ki lali' dikhaee hai.

samy

hamare yahan samy mukhyat: tin prakar ka mana gaya hai-

  1. sadrishy - roop ya akar ka samy
  2. sadharmy - gun ya kriya ka samy
  3. shabdasamy - dobhinn vastuon ka ek hi nam hona.

isamen se antim to shlesh ki shabd krida dikhane valon ke hi kam ka hai. rahe sadrishy aur sadharmy. vichar karane par in donon men prabhav samy chhipa milega. siddh kaviyon ki drishti aise hi aprastuton ki or jati hai, jo prastuton ke saman hi saundary, dipti, kanti, komalata, prachndata, bhishanata, ugrata, udasi, avasad, khinnata ityadi ki bhavana jagate hain. kavy men bndhe chale ate hue upaman adhikatar isi ke hain. keval roop rng, akar ya vyapar ko oopar se dekhakar ya nap jokhakar, bhavana par unaka prabhav parakhe bina ve nahin rakhe jate the. pichhe kavi karm ke bahut kuchh shramasadhy ya abhyasagamy hone ke karan jab kritrimata ane lagi, tab bahut se upaman keval bahari nap jokh ke anusar bhi rakhe jane lage. kati ki sookshmata dikhane ke lie sinhani aur bhid samane laee jane lagi.[4]

kavy shaili ki visheshata

'chhayavad' badi sahridayata ke sath prabhav samy par hi vishesh lakshy rakhakar chala hai. kahin-kahin to bahari sadrishy ya sadharmy atynt alp ya n rahane par bhi abhyntar prabhav samy lekar aprastuton ka sannivesh kar diya jata hai. aise aprastut adhikatar upalakshan ke roop men ya pratikavat hote hain, jaise- sukh, annd, praphullata, yauvan kal ityadi ke sthan par unake dyotak usha, prabhat, madhukal, priya ke sthan par mukul; premi ke sthan par madhup; shvet ya shubhr ke sthan par kund, rajat; madhury ke sthan par madhu; diptiman ya kantiman ke sthan par svarn; vishad ya avasad ke sthan par andhakar, andheri rat, sndhaya ki chhaya, patajhad, manasik akulata ya kshobh ke sthan par jhnjha, toophan, bhavatarng ke lie jhnkar, bhavaprravah ke lie sngit ya murali ka svar ityadi. abhyntar prabhav samy ke adhar par lakshanik aur vynjanatmak paddhati ka pragalbh aur prachur vikas 'chhayavad' ki kavy shaili ki asali visheshata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 chhayavad ka vastavik svaroop (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 04 aktoobar, 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 chhayavad aur hindi kavy (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 04 aktoobar, 2013.
  3. chhayavad kya hai (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 04 aktoobar, 2013.
  4. 4.0 4.1 chhayavad (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 01 aktoobar, 2013.
  5. jo bahut aya karati hai.

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