कविता  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kavita
'chuni chunaee' ka avaran prishth
vivaran 'kavita' ka arth hai- "kavyatmak rachana". hindi sahity men adhunik kal ke poorv tak kavita shabd ka prayog 'kavitaee' ya 'kavi-ta' (kavi-karm) ke arth men hi hota tha.
vishesh snkirn arth men kisi rachana vishesh ke lie kavita ka prayog adhunik kal men hi hone laga tha. prachin kal men adhikatar ya to prabandh kavy ki rachana hoti thi ya muktak kavy ki.
snbndhit lekh khnd kavy, kavy, mahakavy, prabodhak kavy, prabandh kavy
any janakari matr chhandobaddh rachana ke lie 'pady' shabd ka prayog uchit hai, parantu 'kavita' shabd pady se oonchi sthiti ka dyotak hai aur usamen kavita (kavi-karm), arthath kavyakala ko adhik mahattv diya gaya hai.

kavita arthath 'kavyatmak rachana' (kavi ki kriti). kavy se jahan rachana ke bhavapaksh aur ant:saundary ka adhik bodh hota hai, vahan kavita shabd ke prayog se pray: usake kalapaksh aur roopatmak saundary ko pradhanata milati hai. kavy, kavita, pady, in tinon shabdon ko kramagat roop se nimnatar bhavasthiti men rakha jata hai. gady pady ka vipakshi roop hai, jo chhandobaddh ya vichar tak simit hai. matr chhandobaddh rachana ke lie pady shabd ka prayog uchit hai, parantu kavita shabd pady se oonchi sthiti ka dyotak hai aur usamen kavita (kavi-karm), arthath kavyakala ko adhik mahattv diya gaya hai. samanyat: tinon shabd saman arth men prayukt hote hain.

prayog

yadyapi vyapak roop se chhandobaddh rachana matr ke lie 'kavita' shabd ka prayog hota hai, snkirn arth men, adhunik kal men vishesh roop se, kavita shabd ka prayog apekshakrit akar men chhote, aise pady vishesh ke lie kiya jata hai, jo adhunik giti, pragiti ya muktak ke anekanek prakaron men se kisi roop men racha gaya ho. pady ki aisi rachanaon ka prithakh nirdesh karane ke lie 'kavy' shabd ka prayog nahin kiya jata. 'kavy' shabd jab kisi rachana vishesh ke lie prayog hota hai, tab usase apekshakrit badi, pray: sadaiv hi prabandhatmak rachana ka arth soochit hota hai. kavy aur kavita shabd ke prayog ka ek antar yah bhi hai ki jahan kavy samanyat: sahity ke paryayavachi arth men aisi rachanaon ko bhi kah sakate hain, jo pady men n rachi gee hon, vahin kavita anivary roop se padyatmak lay aur talayukt shabdavali ki soochana deti hai; bhale hi usamen kavy ki antarik visheshata vidyaman n ho aur vah matr padyabaddh ho. isake atirikt kavy ka abhidhan aisi rachanaon ko nahin diya ja sakata, jo arastu ke 'poitiks' men nirdisht 'poitri' se bhinn 'vars' matr hai.

'chali subhag kavita savita si. ram bimal jas jal bharita si'.

isi arth men unhonne 'bhaniti' shabd ka bhi kee bar prayog kiya hai. isi arth men kaha gaya hai ki 'kavita' karta tin hain- tulasi, keshav, soor.

'kavita' kheti in looni sila binat mazoor.
'age ke sukavi rijhi hain tau 'kavitaee', n to radhika kanha ke sumiran ko bahani hai'.

bhikharidas ne isi arth men kavy shabd ka bhi prayog kiya hai. 'inake kavy men mili bhasha vividh prakar ki hai. hindi men kavita shabd ka yah prayog paramparanumodit hai, yadyapi kadachit yah kathan ayukt n hoga ki snskrit sahity men kavita ki apeksha kavy shabd ka adhik prayog hua hai.

bharatendu harishchandr ka yogadan

snkirn arth men kisi rachana vishesh ke lie kavita ka prayog adhunik kal men hi hone laga hai. prachin kal men adhikatar ya to prabandh kavy ki rachana hoti thi ya muktak kavy ki. ek se adhik chhandon men ek vishay par chhoti pady rachanaen stotr, stavan, prashasti, mahatmy adi ke roop men milati hai. hindi ke madhyayugin bhakt kaviyon ne bhi is prakar ki stotradi rachanaen ki hain aur yah kram bharatendu harishchandr tak chala aya hai. parantu bharatendu harishchandr ne samayik vishayon par vicharottejak aur udbodhanapoorn sphut rachanaon ki navin paddhati chalaee. unaki 'bharat-bhiksha', 'vijayini-vijay-vaijayanti', 'shrirajakumar-shubhagaman-varnan', 'manasopayan', 'varshavinod' adi rachanaon ne hindi men pady nibandhon ki us parampara ka sootrapat kiya, jo adhunik kal men anekadha vikasit huee. aisi rachanaon ki hi jativachak sngya kavita hai, jo angrezi ki 'poim' aur urdoo ki 'najm' ka paryay hai. bharatendu kal men deshabhakti, rajabhakti, samaj sudhar aur prakritik varnan sambandhi asnkhy gambhir aur vyngyatmak kavitaen rachi geen.

vikas

dvivedi kal men samayik patr-patrikaon ke madhyam se in kavitaon ka prachalan aur adhik ho gaya. vastut: un anek adhunik roopon men kavita bhi hai, jisaka udgam aur vikas samachar patron aur patr-patrikaon ke madhyam se hua hai. parantu kavitaen itivritt, vivaran, shiksha aur uddeshy vishayak hi nahin, bhavatmak bhi ho sakati hai. yah chhayavad ki un asnkhy kavitaon se siddh ho gaya, jo adhunik gitikavy ke vividh prakar-bhedon ke antargat ati hai. 'pragativad', 'prayogavad' aur 'nayi kavita' ke andolanon ke antargat aisi hi rachanaen huee hain, jo prithak-prithakh kavita nam se pukari jati hain.

bharatakosh par upalabdh kavitaen
shreni vriksh
lekh soochi
kavita


tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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