हिन्दी साहित्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi sahity
hindi ke pramukh rachanakar
vivaran 'hindi sahity' hindi bhasha ka rachana snsar hai. hindi bharat aur vishv men sarvadhik boli jane vali bhashaon men se ek hai.
prakar tin (gady, pady aur champoo)
pahali gady rachana hindi ki pahali rachana kaun si hai is vishay men vivad hai lekin zyadatar sahityakar devakinandan khatri dvara likhe gaye upanyas chndrakanta ko hindi ki pahali pramanik gady rachana manate hain.
pramukh rachanaen prithviraj raso, padmavat, alhakhand, ramacharitamanas, godan adi
snbndhit lekh bhaktikal, ritikal
any janakari samakalin sahityakaron men namavar sinh, kedaranath sinh, nirmal varma, bhishm sahani, mannoo bhndari, nasira sharma, gyanarnjan, vinod kumar shukl, mngalesh dabaral, viren dngaval, uday prakash adi anek mahattvapoorn nam hain.

hindi sahity hindi bhasha ka rachana snsar hai. hindi bharat aur vishv men sarvadhik boli jane vali bhashaon men se ek hai. usaki jaden prachin bharat ki snskrit bhasha men talashi ja sakati hain. parntu hindi sahity ki jaden madhyayugin bharat ki brajabhasha, avadhi, maithili aur maravadi jaisi bhashaon ke sahity men paee jati hain. hindi men gady ka vikas bahut bad men hua aur isane apani shuruat kavita ke madhyam se jo ki jyadatar lokabhasha ke sath prayog kar vikasit ki gee. hindi men tin prakar ka sahity milata hai. gady, pady aur champoo. hindi ki pahali rachana kaun si hai is vishay men vivad hai lekin zyadatar sahityakar devakinandan khatri dvara likhe gaye upanyas chndrakanta ko hindi ki pahali pramanik gady rachana manate hain.

itihas

babar, humayoon aur sherashah ke samay men hindi ko rajakiy snrakshan prapt nahin hua, kintu vyaktigat prayason se ‘padmavat’ jaise shreshth granth ki rachana huee. mugal samrat akabar ne hindi sahity ko snrakshan pradan kiya. mugal darabar se sambandhit hindi ke prasiddh kavi raja birabal, manasinh, bhagavanadas, narahari, harinath adi the. vyaktigat prayason se hindi sahity ko mazabooti pradan karane vale kaviyon men mahattvapoorn the- nandadas, vitthaladas, paramanand das, kumbhan das adi. tulasidas evn sooradas mugal kal ke do aise vidvan the, jo apani kritiyon se hindi sahity ke itihas men amar ho gaye. arbdurahaman khanakhana aur rasakhan ko bhi inaki hindi ki rachanaon ke karan yad kiya jata hai. in sabake mahattvapoorn yogadan se hi ‘akabar ke kal ko 'hindi sahity ka svarn kal’ kaha gaya hai. akabar ne birabal ko ‘kavipriy’ evn narahari ko ‘mahapatr’ ki upadhi pradan ki. jahangir ka bhaee daniyal hindi men kavita karata tha.
shahajahan ke samay men sundar kaviray ne ‘sundar shrringar’, ‘senapati ne ‘kavitt ratnakar’, kavindr achary ne ‘kavindr kalpataru’ ki rachana ki. is samay ke kuchh any mahanh kaviyon ka sambandh kshetriy rajaon se tha, jaise- bihari maharaja jayasinh se, keshavadas orachha se sambandhit the. keshavadas ne ‘kavipriya’, ‘rasikapriya’ evn ‘alnkar mnjari’ jaisi mahattvapoorn rachanayen ki. akabar ke darabar men prasiddh grnthakarta kashmir ke muhammad husain ko ‘jari kalam’ ki upadhi di gee. bngal ke prasiddh kavi mukundaray chakravarti ko profesar kaauvel ne ‘bngal ka kraib’ kaha hai. hindi men pahali pramukh pustak 12vin sadi men lahaur ke chndabaradaee ka prithvirajaraso mahakavy hai, jisamen islami akraman se pahale dilli ke antim hindoo raja prithviraj ke sahasik karyon ka varnan kiya gaya hai, yah pustak rajapooton ke darabar ki bhat parnpara par adharit hai, farasi kavi amir khusaro ki kavitaen bhi ullekhaniy hain, jinhonne avadhi men likha. hindi men adhikatar prarnbhik sahity ki prerana dharm par adharit hai.

adikal

hindi sahity ke adikal ko alochak 1400 isavi se poorv ka kal manate hain jab hindi ka udbhav ho hi raha tha. hindi ka vikas dilli, kannauj aur ajamer kshetron men hua mana jata hai. prithviraj chauhan ka us vaqt dilli men shasan tha aur chndabaradaee namak usaka ek darabari kavi hua karata tha. kannauj ka antim rathaud shasak jayachnd tha jo snskrit ka bahut bada snrakshak tha.

bhaktikal

hindi ke mahanh kavi tulasidas rajapur ke brahman the, jinhonne jivan ke shuroo men hi snsar tyag diya aur banaras (vartaman varanasi) men bhakt ke roop men din vyatit kie. unhonne adhikatar lekhan kary avadhi bhasha men kiya aur ram ki pooja ko hindoo dharm ka kendr banaya, unaki sabase mahattvapoorn rachana ramacharitamanas hai, jo snskrit ramayan se prerit hai. yah hindibhashi kshetr ka pavitr hindoo grnth ban gaya hai tatha pratyek sal lokapriy ramalila ke roop men isaka mnchan hota hai.

madhyayug

madhyayug men darshanik evn bhaktimarg ke samarthak vallabh anuyayiyon men netrahin kavi sooradas sarvashreshth hain, jinhonne krishn aur radha ki stuti men anaginat bhajan rache. inhen soorasagar men snkalit kiya gaya hai, halanki bhakt kaviyon men se anek samany parivaron se the, lekin jodhapur ki rajakumari mirabaee apavad thin, jinhonne hindi aur gujarati, donon men apane prasiddh git likhe. poorv avadh prant ke muslim kavi jayasi dvara rachit dharmik mahakavy padmavat (1540) atynt mahattvapoorn rachana hai. avadhi men rachit yah mahakavy snskrit kavy shaili ke anuroop racha gaya hai. is yug ke any rachanakaron men rahim, rasakhan, keshavadas, nndadas ke nam ullekhaniy hain.

ritikal

bhaktikal ke bad ritikal ka sootrapat hua, jisake rachanakaron ne samakalin aitihasik snvedanaon ko abhivyakti di. bhog-vilas, prem-saundary aur shrringarikata se paripoorn is yug ki kavitaon ko jin rachanakaron ne roop diya, unamen matiram, keshav, bihari, ghanannd, bodha adi ka nam ullekhaniy hai. premachnd ke sahity evn laghu kahaniyon men samany gramin jivan ka varnan hai tatha banaras ke bharatendu harishchndr, jinhonne brajabhasha men likha.

adhunik kal

adhunik hindi sahity ki jade kavita evn natak men bharatendu harishchndr ke sahity men, alochana aur any gady lekhan men mahavir prasad dvivedi tatha katha sahity men premachnd ke sahity men hain, 19vin sadi ke uttarardh ki is avadhi men mukhy roop se snskrit, bangla aur angreji se anuvad ka zor raha. rashtravad evn ary samaj ke samajik sudhar andolan se prabhavit hokar lnbi varnanatmak kavitaen, jaise maithilisharan gupt, jayashnkar prasad dvara natak tatha chaturasen shastri evn vrindavanalal varma dvara aitihasik upanyas rache ge. in upanyason ki prishthabhoomi mukhyat: maury, gupt evn mugalakalin thi.

satyagrah evn asahayog andolan

is avadhi ke bad mahatma gandhi ke satyagrah evn asahayog andolanon ka daur aya, jisane makhanalal chaturvedi, maithilisharan gupt evn subhadra kumari chauhan jaise kaviyon tatha premachnd v jainendr kumar jaise upanyasakaron ko prerit kiya. atnt: gandhivadi prayog se mohabhng tatha yooropiy sahity par marksavad ke badhate prabhav ne yashapal, rangey raghav aur nagarjun jaise lekhakon ko prabhavit kiya. 1930 ke dashak ke sarjanatmak kaviyon sumitranndan pnt, prasad, nirala aur mahadevi varma ne angrezi evn bangla kavita ki svachchhndatavadi tatha madhyakalin hindi kavita ki rahasyavadi parnpara se prerana li. pratikriyasvaroop marksavadi kavi ramavilas sharma aur nagarjun tatha hirannd sachchidannd vatsyayan agyey evn bharat bhooshan agraval jaise prayogavadi kavi samane ae. nirala, jinaka vikas rahasyavadi, svachchhndatavadi se yatharthavadi evn prayogavadi kavi ke roop men hua. 1950 ke dashak ke sarvashreshth kavi the. 1960 ke dashak men muktibodh, sarveshvar dayal saksena evn raghuvir sahay jaise maulik kavi hue.

adhunik sahity ki disha

premachnd evn jainendr kumar ke sahity ka pratinidhitv karane vali do pravrittiyan hindi katha sahity ko do bhinn dishaon men le geen. jabaki samajik yatharthavadiyon jaise yashapal, upendranath ashk, amritalal nagar, mohan rakesh, rajendr yadav, kamaleshvar, nagarjun evn phanishvaranath renu ne bharatiy samaj ke badalate parivesh ka eemanadari se vishleshan kiya. 1930 evn 1940 ke dashakon ke natakakaron men govind ballabh pnt aur seth govind das bhi the. unaki atyadhik snskrit yukt bhasha ke karan unake natakon ke darshak simit the. any sahityakaron men namavar sinh, kedaranath sinh, nirmal varma, bhishm sahani, mannoo bhndari, nasira sharma, gyanarnjan, vinod kumar shukl, mngalesh dabaral, viren dngaval, uday prakash adi anek mahattvapoorn nam hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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