भीष्म साहनी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bhishm sahani
bhishm sahani
poora nam bhishm sahani
janm 8 agast, 1915 ee.
janm bhoomi ravalapindi, bharat
mrityu 11 julaee, 2003
mrityu sthan dilli
abhibhavak pita- harabns lal sahani, mata- lakshmi devi
pati/patni shila
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr sahity
mukhy rachanaen 'meri priy kahaniyan', 'jharokhe', 'tamas', 'basanti', 'mayadas ki madi', 'hanus', 'kabira khada bazar men', 'bhagy rekha', 'pahala path', 'bhatakati rakh' adi.
vishay kahani, upanyas, natak, anuvad.
bhasha hindi, angrezi, urdoo, snskrit, pnjabi
vidyalay gavarnament kaaulej (lahaur), pnjab vishvavidyalay
shiksha em.e., pi.ech.di.
puraskar-upadhi 'sahity akadami puraskar' (1975), 'shiromani lekhak samman' (pnjab sarakar) (1975), 'lotas puraskar' (aphro-eshiyan raitars esosieshan ki or se 1970), 'soviyat laind neharoo puraskar' (1983), padm bhooshan (1998)
nagarikata bharatiy
shaili sadharan evn vyngatmak shaili
any janakari desh ke vibhajan se pahale bhishm sahani ne vyapar bhi kiya aur isake sath hi ve adhyapan ka bhi kam karate rahe. tadanantar unhonne patrakarita evn 'ipta' namak mandali men abhinay ka kary kiya.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

bhishm sahani (angrezi: Bhisham Sahni; janm- 8 agast, 1915, ravalapindi, avibhajit bharat; mrityu- 11 julaee, 2003, dilli) prasiddh bharatiy lekhak the. unhen hindi sahity men premachnd ki parnpara ka agrani lekhak mana jata hai. ve adhunik hindi sahity ke pramukh stnbhon men se ek the. bhishm sahani manaviy moolyon ke sadaiv himayati rahe. vamapnthi vicharadhara se jude hone ke sath-sath ve manaviy moolyon ko kabhi ankhon se ojhal nahin karate the. apadhapi aur uthapatak ke yug men bhishm sahani ka vyaktitv bilkul alag tha. unhen unake lekhan ke lie to smaran kiya hi jata hai, lekin apani sahridayata ke lie bhi ve chirasmaraniy hain. bhishm sahani ne kee prasiddh rachanaen ki thin, jinamen se unake upanyas 'tamas' par varsh 1986 men ek film ka nirman bhi kiya gaya tha. unhen kee puraskar v samman prapt hue the. 1998 men bharat sarakar ke 'padm bhooshan' alnkaran se bhi ve vibhooshit kiye ge the.

janm tatha parivar

bhishm sahani ka janm 8 agast, sanh 1915 men avibhajit bharat ke ravalapindi[1] men hua tha. unake pita ka nam harabns lal sahani tatha mata lakshmi devi thin. unake pita apane samay ke prasiddh samajasevi the. hindi filmon ke khyatiprapt abhineta balaraj sahani, bhishm sahani ke bade bhaee the. pita ke samajasevi vyaktitv ka in par kafi prabhav tha.[2] bhishm sahani ka vivah shila ji ke sath hua tha.

shiksha

bhishm sahani ki prarambhik shiksha ghar par hi hindi v snskrit men huee. unhonne skool men urdoo v angrezi ki shiksha prapt karane ke bad 1937 men 'gavarnament kaaulej', lahaur se angrezi sahity men em.e. kiya aur phir 1958 men pnjab vishvavidyalay se pi.ech.di. ki upadhi prapt ki. vartaman samay men pragatishil kathakaron men sahani ji ka pramukh sthan hai.

karyakshetr

desh ke vibhajan se pahale bhishm sahani ne vyapar bhi kiya aur isake sath hi ve adhyapan ka bhi kam karate rahe. tadanantar unhonne patrakarita evn 'ipta' namak mandali men abhinay ka kary kiya. sahani ji film jagath men bhagy ajamane ke lie bambee a gaye, jahan kam n milane ke karan unako bekari ka jivan vyatit karana pada. unhonne vapas akar pun: ambala ke ek kaaulej men adhyapan[3] ke bad dilli vishvavidyalay men sthayi roop se kary kiya. is bich unhonne lagabhag 1957 se 1963 tak videshi bhasha prakashan grih masko men anuvadak ke roop men bitaye. yahan bhishm sahani ne do darjan ke qarib rashiyan bhashayi kitabon, talastaauy, aaustrovski, autamatov ki kitabon ka hindi men roopantar kiya. unhonne 1965 se 1967 tak "nee kahaniyan" ka sampadan kiya. sath hi ve pragatishil lekhak sngh tatha afro eshiyaee lekhak sngh se sambaddh rahe. ve 1993 se 1997 tak 'sahity akadami ekjikyootiv kameti' ke sadasy bhi rahe.

gady lekhan

bhishm sahani ka gady ek aise gady ka udaharan hamare samane prastut karata hai, jo jivan ke gady ka ek khas rng aur chamak lie hue hai. usaki shakti ke srot kavy ke upakaranon se adhik jivan ki jadon tak unaki gahari pahunch hai. bhishm ji ko kahin bhi bhasha ko gadhane ki zarurat nahin hoti. sudaul aur khoob pakki eent ki khanak hi unake gady ki ekamatr pahachan hai.[2] jahan tak pragativadi katha andolan aur bhishm sahani ke katha sahity ka prashn hai to ise kal ki sima men baddh kar dena uchit nahin hai. hindi lekhan men samajonmukhata ki lahar bahut pahale navajagaran kal se hi uthane lagi thi. marksavad ne usamen keval ek aur ayam joda tha. isi marksavadi chintan ko manavatavadi drishtikon se jodakar use jan-jan tak pahunchane valon men ek nam bhishm sahani ji ka bhi hai. svatantryottar lekhakon ki bhanti bhishm sahani sahaj manaviy anubhootiyon aur tatkalin jivan ke antardvandv ko lekar samane ae aur use rachana ka vishay banaya. janavadi chetana ke lekhak unaki lekhakiy snvedana ka adhar janata ki pida hai. janasamany ke prati samarpit unaka lekhan yatharth ki thos jamin par avalambit hai.[4]

yashapal tatha premachnd ka prabhav

bhishm sahani

ek kathakar ke roop men bhishm sahani par yashapal aur premachnd ki gahari chhap hai. unaki kahaniyon men antarvirodhon v jivan ke dvandvon, visngatiyon se jakade madhy varg ke sath hi nimn varg ki jijivisha aur sngharshashilata ko udghatit kiya gaya hai. janavadi katha andolan ke dauran bhishm sahani ne samany jan ki asha, akanksha, du:kh, pida, abhav, sngharsh tatha vidambanaon ko apane upanyason se ojhal nahin hone diya. nee kahani men unhonne katha sahity ki jadata ko todakar use thos samajik adhar diya. ek bhokta ki haisiyat se bhishm ji ne desh ke vibhajan ke durbhagyapoorn khooni itihas ko bhoga hai, jisaki abhivyakti 'tamas' men ham barabar dekhate hain. jahan tak nari mukti ki samasya ka prashn hai, unhonne apani rachanaon men nari ke vyaktitv vikas, svatantry, ekadhikar, arthik svatantrata, stri shiksha tatha samajik uttaradayitv adi usaki 'sammanajanak sthiti' ka samarthan kiya hai. ek tarah se dekha jae to sahani ji premachnd ke padachinhon par chalate hue unase bhi kahin age nikal ge hain.

unaki rachanaon men samajik antarvirodh poori tarah ubharakar aya hai. rajanaitik matavad athava daliyata ke arop se door bhishm sahani ne bharatiy rajaniti men nirantar badhate bhrashtachar, netaon ki pakhandi pravritti, chunavon ki bhrasht pranali, rajaniti men dharmik bhavana, sampradayikata, jativad ka durupayog, bhaee-bhatijavad, naitik moolyon ka hras, vyapak star par acharan bhrashtata, shoshan ki shadayantrakari pravrittiyon v rajanaitik adarshon ke khokhalepan adi ka chitran badi pramanikata v tatasthata ke sath kiya hai. unaka samajik bodh vyaktigat anubhav par adharit tha. unake upanyason men shoshanahin, samatamoolak pragatishil samaj ki rachana, parivarik star, roodhiyon ka virodh tatha snyukt parivar ke parasparik vighatan ki sthitiyon ke prati asantosh vyakt hua hai. bhishm ji ka sanskritik drishtikon nitant vaigyanik aur vyavaharik hai, jo nirantar parishkaran parishodhan v parivardhan ki prakriya se gujarata hai. pragatishil drishti ke karan vah moolyon par adharit aisi dharmabhavana ke pakshadhar hain, jo manav matr ke kalyan ke prati pratibaddh aur upadey hai.[4]

adarsh dampaty ka rekhankan

yadi stri-purush sambandh ki bat ki jae to bhishm sahani bharatiy grihasth jivan men stri-purush ke jivan ko rath ke do pahiyon ke roop men svikar karate hain. vikas aur sukhi jivan ke lie donon ke bich adarsh sntulan aur samnjasy ka bana rahana anivary hai. unaki rachanaon men samnjasyapoorn jivan jine vale adarsh dampattiyon ko badi garima ke sath rekhankit kiya gaya hai. unaka vishvas hai ki striyon ke lie samuchit shiksha, arthik svatntrata v vyaktitv vikas ki suvidha adarsh samaj ki rachana ke lie nitant avashyak hai. vah striyon ke vyaktitv vikas ke pakshapati the, jo avasar pakar apana charam vikas kar sakati hai. bhishm sahani parampara se chali a rahi vivah ki jad parampara ko svikar n karake bhavanatmak ekata aur ragatmak anubndhon ko vivah ka pramukh adhar manate the. manaviy moolyon par adharit unaki dharm bhavana insan ko insan se jodati hai n ki unhen prithakh karati hai. unake upanyason men shoshanavihin samatamoolak pragatishil samaj ki sthapana ke sath samaj men vyapt arthik visngatiyon ke trasad parinam, dharm ki vidroopata v khokhalepan ko uddhatit kiya gaya hai.

kritiyan

sahani ji ki mukhy kritiyan hain-

kahani sngrah
bhagy rekha
pahala path
bhatakati rakh
patariyan
'vann choo' shobhayatra
nishachar
meri priy kahaniyan
ahn brahmasmi
amritasar a gaya
chif ki davat
upanyas sngrah
jharokhe
kadiyan
tamas
basanti
mayadas ki madi
kunto
niloo nilima nilophar
natak sngrah
hanoos
kabira khada bazar men
madhavi
gulel ka khel (balopayogi kahaniyan).
muavaze
any prakashan
pahala path
bhatakati rakh
patariyan
shobhayatra
pali
daya
kadiyan
aj ke atit

bhasha-shaili

bhishm sahani hindi aur angrezi ke alava urdoo, snskrit, roosi aur pnjabi bhashaon ke achchhe janakar the.[5] bhishm sahani ek aise sahityakar the, jo bat ko matr kah dena hi nahin balki bat ki sachchaee aur gaharaee ko nap lena bhi utana hi uchit samajhate the. ve apane sahity ke madhyam se samajik vishamata v sngharsh ke bandhanon ko todakar age badhane ka ahvan karate the. unake sahity men sarvatr manaviy karuna, manaviy mooly v naitikata vidyaman hai.[4] bhishm sahani ji ne sadharan evn vyngyatmak shaili ka prayog kar apani rachanaon ko janamanas ke nikat pahuncha diya.

vicharadhara

bhishm sahani ko premachnd ki parampara ka lekhak mana jata hai. unaki kahaniyan samajik yatharth ki drishti se mahattvapoorn hain. unhonne poori jivantata aur gatimayata ke sath khuli aur phaili huee zindagi ko ankit kiya hai. sahani ji manaviy moolyon ke bade himayati the, unhonne vicharadhara ko apane sahity par kabhi havi nahin hone diya. vamapnthi vicharadhara ke sath jude hone ke sath ve manaviy moolyon ko kabhi ojhal nahin hone dete the. is bat ka udaharan unake prasiddh upanyas 'tamas' se liya ja sakata hai.[2]

marksavad se prabhavit

marksavad se prabhavit hone ke karan bhishm sahani samaj men vyapt arthik visngatiyon ke trasad parinamon ko badi gnbhirata se anubhav karate the. poonjivadi vyavastha ke antargat ve jan samany ke bahuayami shoshan ko samajik vikas men sarvadhik badhak aur amanaviy manate the. 'basanti', 'jharokhe', 'tamas', 'mayyadas ki madi' v 'kadiyan' upanyason men unhonne arthik vishamata aur usake du:khad parinamon ko badi marmikata se uddhatit kiya hai, jo samaj ke svarthi kuchakr ka parinam hai aur in du:khad sthitiyon ke lie doshapoorn samaj vyavastha uttaradayi hai. ek shilpi ke roop men bhi bhishm sahani siddhahast kalakar the. kathy aur vastu ke prati yadi unamen sajagata aur tatparata ka bhav tha to shilp saushthav ke prati bhi ve nirantar savadhan rahate the.

svatntr vyaktitv

svatntr vyaktitv vale bhishm sahani gahan manaviy snvedana ke sashakt hastakshar the. unhonne bharat ke samajik, rajanitik aur sanskritik yatharth ka spasht chitr apane upanyason men prastut kiya hai. unaki yatharthavadi drishti unake pragatishil v marksavadi vicharon ka pratiphal thi. bhishm ji ki sabase badi visheshata thi ki unhonne jis jivan ko jiya, jin sngharshon ko jhela, usi ka yathavath chitr apani rachanaon men ankit kiya. isi karan unake lie rachana karm aur jivan dharm men abhed tha. vah lekhan ki sachchaee ko apani sachchaee manate the.[4]

dharmanirapekshata

bhishm sahani ji moolat: pratibaddh rachanakar the. unhonne kuchh moolyon ke sath sahity racha. ve behad sadagi pasnd rachanakar the. unhonne jivan men hamesha dharmanirapekshata ko mahattv diya. dharmanirapekshata ka unaka yah nazariya unake sahity men bhi bakhoobi jhalakata hai. "amritasar a gaya" jaisi unaki kahaniyan shilp hi nahin, abhivyakti ki drishti se bhi kafi akarshit karati hain.[6]

lokagiton aur lokajivan ke marmgy

varishth kahanikar evn ‘naya gyanoday’ patrika ke snpadak ravindr kaliya ke anusar- "sahani ji apani patni ke sath ilahabad men inake ghar par ruke the. is dauran sahityik charcha ke alava unhonne tamam pnjabi lokagit sunae. isase pata chalata hai ki sahani ji lokagiton aur lokajivan ke bhi marmgy the."[5]

rngamnch se lagav

bhishm sahani thietar ki duniya se bhi nazadik se jude rahe aur unhonne 'indiyan pipuls thietar esosieshan' (ipta) men kam karana shuroo kiya, jahan unhen bade bhaee balaraj sahani ka sahayog mila tha. bhishm sahani ne mashahoor natak 'bhoot gadi' ka nirdeshan bhi kiya, jisake mnchan ki zimmedari khvaja ahamad abbas ne li thi.[6]

samman aur puraskar

bhishm sahani ko unaki "tamas" namak kriti par 'sahity akadami puraskar' (1975) se sammanit kiya gaya tha. unhen 'shiromani lekhak samman' (pnjab sarakar) (1975), 'lotas puraskar' (aphro-eshiyan raitars asosieshan ki or se 1970), 'soviyat laind neharoo puraskar' (1983) aur 'padm bhooshan' (1998) se sammanit kiya gaya tha.

mrityu

premachnd ki parnpara ko age badhane vale lekhak bhishm sahani ka nidhan 11 julaee, 2003 ko dilli men hua.  

panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. ab pakistan ka bhag
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 bhishm sahani (hindi) (ech ti em el) hindikunj. abhigaman tithi: 11 aprail, 2011.
  3. khalasa kaaulej amritasar men
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 bhishm sahani (hindi) bharat darshan. abhigaman tithi: 15 mee, 2015.
  5. 5.0 5.1 bhishm sahani (hindi) (ech ti em el) vebaduniya. abhigaman tithi: 11 aprail, 2011.
  6. 6.0 6.1 bhishm sahani (hindi) (ech ti em el) bi. bi. si daaut kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 11 aprail, 2011.

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