फणीश्वरनाथ रेणु  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

phanishvaranath renu
phanishvaranath renu
poora nam phanishvaranath renu
any nam renu
janm 4 march, 1921
janm bhoomi poorniya zila, bihar
mrityu 11 aprail, 1977
abhibhavak shilanath (pita)
karm bhoomi bihar
karm-kshetr upanyasakar, lekhak
mukhy rachanaen maila anchal (1954), parati parikatha (1957), jooloos (1965), kitane chaurahe (1966) adi.
vishay kahani, upanyas, riportaj, snsmaran, rekhachitr
bhasha hindi
vidyalay kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay
shiksha intaramidiet
puraskar-upadhi padmashri
vishesh yogadan 1942 ke 'bharat chhodo andolan' men unhonne sakriy roop se yogadan diya.
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari ek svatntrata senani ke roop men bhi apani pahachan banaee aur satta ke daman aur shoshan ke viruddh ajivan sngharsharat rahe.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

phanishvaranath renu (angrezi: Phanishwarnath 'Renu', janm: 4 march, 1921 - mrityu: 11 aprail, 1977) ek suprasiddh hindi sahityakar the. hindi katha sahity ke mahattvapoorn rachanakar phanishvaranath 'renu' ka janm 4 march 1921 ko bihar ke poorniya zila ke 'aurahi hingana' ganv men hua tha. renu ke pita shilanath mndal snpann vyakti the. bharat ke svadhinata sngharsh men unhonne bhag liya tha. renu ke pita kangresi the. renu ka bachapan azadi ki ladaee ko dekhate samajhate bita. renu ne svny likha hai - pitaji kisan the aur ilake ke svaraj-andolan ke pramukh karyakarta. khadi pahanate the, ghar men charakha chalata tha. svadhinata sngharsh ki chetana renu men unake parivarik vatavaran se ayi thi. renu bhi bachapan aur kishoravastha men hi desh ki azadi ki ladaee se jud ge the. 1930-31 ee. men jab renu 'arariya haeeskool' ke chauthe darje men padhate the tabhi mahatma gandhi ki giraphtari ke bad arariya men hadatal huee, skool ke sare chhatr bhi hadatal par rahe. renu ne apane skool ke asistent hedamastar ko skool men jane se roka. renu ko isaki saza mili lekin isake sath hi ve ilake ke bahadur suraji ke roop men prasiddh ho ge.[1]

shiksha

renu ki prarnbhik shiksha 'phaaurabisagnj' tatha 'arariya' men huee. renu ne prarambhik shiksha ke bad maitrik nepal ke 'viratanagar' ke 'viratanagar adarsh vidyalay' se koeerala parivar men rahakar kiya. renu ne intaramidiet kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay se 1942 men kiya aur usake bad vah svatntrata sngram men kood pade. 1950 men renu ne 'nepali krantikari andolan' men bhi bhag liya.
upanyas 'parati parikatha'
samajavad aur bihar soshalist parti

bad men renu padhane ke lie banaras chale gaye. banaras men renu ne 'student phedareshan' ke karyakarta ke roop men bhi kary kiya. age chalakar renu samajavad se prabhavit hue. 1938 ee0 men sonapur, bihar men 'samar skool aauph paaulitiks' men renu shamil hue. is skool ke prinsipal jayaprakash narayan the aur kamala devi chattopadhyay, minoo masani, achyut patavardhan, narendr dev, ashok mehata jaise logon ne is skool men shikshan kary kiya tha. isi skool men bhag lene ke bad renu samajavad aur 'bihar soshalist parti' se jud ge. samajavad ke prati rujhan paida karane vale logon men renu ramavriksh benipuri ka bhi nam lete hain.

rajaniti aur andolan

ve sirf srijanatmak vyaktitv ke svami hi nahin balki ek sajag nagarik v deshabhakt bhi the. 1942 ke 'bharat chhodo andolan' men unhonne sakriy roop se yogadan diya. is prakar ek svatntrata senani ke roop men unhonne apani pahachan banaee. is chetana ka ve jivanaparynt palan karate rahe aur satta ke daman aur shoshan ke viruddh ajivan sngharsharat rahe. 1950 men bihar ke padosi desh nepal men rajashahi daman badhane par ve nepal ki janata ko ranashahi ke daman aur atyacharon se mukti dilane ke snkalp ke sath vahan pahunche aur vahan ki janata dvara jo sashastr kranti v rajaniti ki ja rahi thi, usamen sakriy yogadan diya. daman aur shoshan ke viruddh ajivan sngharsharat rahe 'renu' ne sakriy rajaniti men bhi hissedari ki. 1952-53 ke dauran ve bahut lambe samay tak bimar rahe. phalasvaroop ve sakriy rajaniti se hat ge. unaka jhukav sahity srijan ki or hua. 1954 men unaka pahala upanyas 'maila anchal' prakashit hua. maila anchal upanyas ko itani khyati mili ki raton-rat unhen shirshasth hindi lekhakon men gina jane laga.
jivan ke sandhyakal men rajanitik andolan se unaka punah gahara judav hua. 1975 men lagoo apatakal ka je.pi. ke sath unhonne bhi kada virodh kiya. satta ke damanachakr ke virodh svaroop unhonne padmashri ki manad upadhi lauta di. unako n sirf apat sthiti ke virodh men sakriy hissedari ke lie pulis yatana jhelani padi balki jel bhi jana pada. 23 march 1977 ko jab apat sthiti hati to unaka sngharsh saphal hua. parantu vo isake bad adhik dinon tak jivit n rah pae. rog se grasit unaka sharir jarjar ho chuka tha.

lekhan kary

phanishvaranath renu ne 1936 ke asapas se kahani lekhan ki shuruat ki thi. us samay kuchh kahaniyan prakashit bhi huee thin, kintu ve kishor renu ki aparipakv kahaniyan thi. 1942 ke andolan men giraftar hone ke bad jab ve 1944 men jel se mukt hue, tab ghar lautane par unhonne 'batababa' namak pahali paripakv kahani likhi. 'batababa' 'saptahik vishvamitr' ke 27 agast 1944 ke ank men prakashit huee. renu ki doosari kahani 'pahalavan ki dholak' 11 disambar 1944 ko 'saptahik vishvamitr' men chhpi. 1972 men renu ne apani antim kahani 'bhittichitr ki mayoori' likhi. unaki ab tak upalabdh kahaniyon ki snkhya 63 hai. 'renu' ko jitani prasiddhi upanyason se mili, utani hi prasiddhi unako unaki kahaniyon se bhi mili. 'thumari', 'aginakhor', 'adim ratri ki mahak', 'ek shravani dopahari ki dhoop', 'achchhe adami', 'sampoorn kahaniyan', adi unake prasiddh kahani sngrah hain.

film 'tisari qasam'

film 'tisari qasam' ka postar

unaki kahani 'mare ge gulafam' par adharit film 'tisari qasam' ne bhi unhen kafi prasiddhi dilavaee. is film men rajakapoor aur vahida rahaman ne mukhy bhoomika men abhinay kiya tha. 'tisari qasam' ko basu bhattachary ne nirdeshit kiya tha aur isake nirmata suprasiddh gitakar shailendr the. yah film hindi sinema men mil ka patthar mani jati hai. katha-sahity ke alava unhonne snsmaran, rekhachitr aur riportaj adi vidhaon men bhi likha. unake kuchh snsmaran bhi kafi mashahoor hue. 'rinajal dhanajal', 'van-tulasi ki gndh', 'shrut ashrut poorv', 'samay ki shila par', 'atm parichay' unake snsmaran hain. isake atirikt ve 'dinaman patrika' men riportaj bhi likhate the. 'nepali kranti katha' unake riportaj ka uttam udaharan hai.

anchalik katha

unhonne hindi men anchalik katha ki ninv rakhi. sachchidanand hiranand vatsyayan agyey, ek samakalin kavi, unake param mitr the. inaki kee rachanaon men katihar ke relave steshan ka ullekh milata hai.

lekhan shaili

inaki lekhan shaili varnanatmak thi jisamen patr ke pratyek manovaigyanik soch ka vivaran lubhavane tarike se kiya hota tha. patron ka charitr-nirman kafi teji se hota tha kyonki patr ek samany-saral manav man (prayah) ke atirikt aur kuchh nahin hota tha. inaki lagabhag har kahani men patron ki soch ghatanaon se pradhan hoti thi. 'ek adim ratri ki mahak' isaka ek sundar udaharan hai. inaki lekhan-shaili premachnd se kafi milati thi aur inhen azadi ke bad ka premachnd ki sngya bhi di jati hai. apani kritiyon men unhonne anchalik padon ka bahut prayog kiya hai.

maila anchal

upanyas 'maila anchal'

'renu' ji ka 'maila anchal' vastu aur shilp donon staron par sabase alag hai. isamen ek ne shilp men gramin-jivan ko chitrit kiya gaya hai. isaki visheshata hai ki isaka nayak koee vyakti (purush ya mahila) nahin varanh poora ka poora anchal hi isaka nayak hai. mithilanchal ki prishthabhoomi par rache is upanyas men us anchal ki bhasha vishesh ka adhik se adhik prayog kiya gaya hai. yah prayog itana sarthak hai ki vah vahan ke logon ki ichchha-akanksha, riti-rivaz, parv-tyauhar, soch-vichar, ko poori pramanikata ke sath pathak ke samane upasthit karata hai. isaki bhoomika, 9 agast 1954, ko likhate hue phanishvaranath 'renu' kahate hain, 'yah hai maila anchal, ek anchalik upanyas. is upanyas ke kendr men hai bihar ka poorniya zila, jo kafi pichhada hai.' renu kahate hain,

isamen phool bhi hai, shool bhi, dhool bhi hai, gulab bhi, kichad bhi hai, chndan bhi, sundarata bhi hai, kuroopata bhi – main kisi se daman bachakar nahin nikal paya.[2]

bhasha dvara chitran

unhonne anchal vishesh ki bhasha ka adhik se adhik prayog kiya taki us jan samuday ko zyada se zyada pramanikata se chitrit kiya ja sake. 'renu' ne apani anek rachanaon men anchalik parivesh ke saundary, usaki sajivata aur manaviy snvedanaon ko advitiy dhng se varnit kiya hai. drishyon ko chitrit karane ke lie unhonne git, lay-tal, vady, dhol, khnjadi nrity, lokanatak jaise upakaranon ka sundar prayog kiya hai. 'renu' ne mithak, lokavishvas, andhavishvas, kinvadntiyan, lokagit- in sabhi ko apani rachanaon men sthan diya hai. unhonne 'maila anchal' upanyas men apane anchal ka itana gahara v vyapak chitr khincha hai ki sachamuch yah upanyas hindi men anchalik aupanyasik parnpara ki sarvashreshth kriti ban gaya hai. unaka sahity hindi jati ke saundary bodh ko samriddh karane ke sath-sath amanaviyata, paradhinata aur samrajyavad ka prativad bhi karata hai. vyakti aur kritikar donon hi roopon men 'renu' apratim the.[3]

rachanaen

renu ki kul 26 pustaken hain. in pustakon men snkalit rachanaon ke alava bhi kafi rachanaen hain jo snkalit nahin ho payin, kee aprakashit adhi adhoori rachanaen hain. asnkalit patr pahali bar 'renu rachanavali' men shamil kiye gaye hain.

sahityik kritiyan

upanyas
  • maila anchal 1954
  • parati parikatha 1957
  • jooloos 1965
  • dirghatapa 1964 (jo bad men kalnk mukti (1972) nam se prakashit huee)
  • kitane chaurahe 1966
  • paltoo baboo rod 1979 [4]
katha-sngrah
  • adim ratri ki mahak 1967
  • thumari 1959
  • aginakhor 1973
  • achchhe adami 1986
snsmaran
  • atm parichay
  • samay ki shila par
riportaj
  • rinajal dhanajal 1977[5]
  • nepali krantikatha 1977[6]
  • vanatulasi ki gndh 1984
  • ek shravani dopahari ki dhoop 1984
  • shrut ashrut poorv 1986
prasiddh kahaniyan
  • mare gaye gulapham[7]
  • ek adim ratri ki mahak
  • lal pan ki begam
  • pnchalait
  • tabe ekala chalo re
  • thes
  • snvadiya
grnthavali
  • phanishvaranath renu grnthavali
prakashit pustaken[8]
  • vanatulasi ki gndh 1984
  • ek shravani dopahari ki dhoop 1984
  • shrut ashrut poorv 1986
  • achchhe adami 1986
  • ekanki ke drishy 1987
  • renu se bhent 1987
  • atm parichay 1988
  • kavi renu kahe 1988
  • uttar neharoo charitamh‌ 1988
  • phanishvaranath renu: chuni huee rachanaen 1990
  • samay ki shila par 1991
  • phanishvaranath renu arthath‌ mridngiye ka marm 1991
  • pranon men ghule hue rng 1993
  • renu ki shreshth kahaniyan 1992
  • chithiya ho to har koee banche (yah pustak prakashy men hai)

samman aur puraskar

phanishvaranath renu (sabase baen) ke sath ramadhari sinh 'dinakar' (bolate hue)

apane pratham upanyas maila anchal ke liye unhen padmashri se sammanit kiya gaya.

nidhan

renu sarakari daman aur shoshan ke viruddh gramin janata ke sath pradarshan karate hue jel gaye. renu ne apatakal ka virodh karate hue apana 'padmashri' ka samman bhi lauta diya. isi samay renu ne patana men 'lokatntr rakshi sahity mnch' ki sthapana ki. is samay tak renu ko 'paiptik alsar' ki gnbhir bimari ho gayi thi. lekin is bimari ke bad bhi renu ne 1977 ee. men navagathit janata parti ke lie chunav men kafi kam kiya. 11 aprail 1977 ee. ko renu usi 'paiptik alsar' ki bimari ke karan chal base.[9]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. phanishvaranath renu:ek parichay (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 13 janavari, 2011.
  2. pustak parichay-15 : “maila anchal” (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 13 janavari, 2011.
  3. phanishvaranath renu (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 13 janavari, 2011.
  4. (yah upanyas 'jyotsana' ke ankon se nikalakar anupam prakashan ne prakashit kiya)
  5. mrityu ke bad prakashit
  6. mrityu ke bad prakashit
  7. 'mare gaye gulapham' kahani par prasiddh gitakar shailendr ne film 'tisari kasam' ka nirman kiya jisamen rajakapoor aur vahida rahaman ne abhinay kiya.
  8. yayavar, bharat “bhag-1”, renu rachanavali, pratham snskaran (hindi), bharat diskavari pustakalay: rajakamal prakashan, 11.
  9. phanishvaranath renu:ek parichay (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 13 janavari, 2011.

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