अयोध्यासिंह उपाध्याय 'हरिऔध'  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ayodhyasinh upadhyay 'hariaudh'
Ayodhya-Singh-Upadhyay.jpg
poora nam ayodhyasinh upadhyay 'hariaudh'
any nam 'hariaudh'
janm 15 aprail, 1865
janm bhoomi nizamabad, uttar pradesh
mrityu 16 march, 1947
mrityu sthan nizamabad, uttar pradesh
abhibhavak bholasinh, rukmani devi
pati/patni annd kumari
karm bhoomi nizamabad, uttar pradesh
karm-kshetr adhyapak, lekhak
mukhy rachanaen 'priyapravas', 'chokhe chaupade', 'vaidehi banavas', 'rasik rahasy', 'padmaprasoon' adi.
vishay gady, pady, natak tatha upanyas
bhasha hindi
shiksha qanoon go
nagarikata bharatiy
srijanakal bharatendu yug, dvivedi yug, chhayavadi yug
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
ayodhyasinh upadhyay 'hariaudh' ki rachanaen

ayodhyasinh upadhyay 'hariaudh' (angrezi: Ayodhyasingh Upadhyay ‘Hari Oudh', janm- 15 aprail, 1865, mrityu- 16 march, 1947) ka nam khadi boli ko kavy bhasha ke pad par pratishthit karane vale kaviyon men bahut adar se liya jata hai. unnisavin shatabdi ke antim dashak men 1890 ee. ke as-pas ayodhyasinh upadhyay ne sahity seva ke kshetr men padarpan kiya.

parivar aur shiksha

ayodhyasinh upadhyay ka janm zila ajamagadh ke nizamabad namak sthan men sanh 1865 ee. men hua tha. hariaudh ke pita ka nam bholasinh aur mata ka nam rukmani devi tha. asvasthata ke karan hariaudh ji ka vidyalay men pathan-pathan n ho saka atah inhonne ghar par hi urdoo, snskrit, farasi, bangla evn angrezi ka adhyayan kiya. 1883 men ye nizamabad ke midil skool ke hedamastar ho ge. 1890 men qanoonago ki pariksha pas karane ke bad ap qanoon go ban ge. sanh 1923 men pad se avakash lene par kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay men pradhyapak bane.[1]

karyakshetr

khadi boli ke pratham mahakavyakar hariaudh ji ka srijanakal hindi ke tin yugon men vistrit hai-

  1. bharatendu yug
  2. dvivedi yug
  3. chhayavadi yug

isiliye hindi kavita ke vikas men 'hariaudh' ji ki bhoomika ninv ke patthar ke saman hai. unhonne snskrit chhndon ka hindi men saphal prayog kiya hai. 'priyapravas' ki rachana snskrit varnavritt men karake jahan 'hariaudh' ji ne khadi boli ko pahala mahakavy diya, vahin am hindustani bolachal men 'chokhe chaupade', tatha 'chubhate chaupade' rachakar urdoo juban ki muhavaredari ki shakti bhi rekhankit ki.[2]

sarvadhik prasiddhi

hariaudh ko kavi roop men sarvadhik prasiddhi unake prabandh kavy 'priyapravas' ke karan mili. 'priyapravas' ki rachana se poorv ki kavy kritiyan kavita ki disha men unake prayog ki parichayika hain. in kritiyon men prem aur shrringar ke vibhinn pakshon ko lekar kavy rachana ke lie kie ge abhyas ki jhalak milati hai. 'priyapravas' ko isi kram men lena chahie. 'priyapravas' ke bad ki kritiyon men 'chokhe chaupade' tatha 'vaidehi banavas' ullekhaniy hain. 'chokhe chaupade' lokabhasha ke prayog ki drishti se mahattvapoorn hai. 'priyapravas' ki rachana snskrit ki komal kant padavali men huee hai aur usamen tatsam shabdon ka bahuly hai. 'chokhe chaupade' men muhavaron ke bahuly tatha lokabhasha ke samavesh dvara kavi ne yah siddh kar diya hai ki vah apani sidhi sadi jaban ko bhoola nahin hai. 'vaidehi banavas' ki rachana dvara ek aur prabandh srishti ka prayatn kiya gaya hai. akar ki drishti se yah granth chhota nahin hai, kintu isamen 'priyapravas' jaisi tazagi aur kavyatv ka abhav hai.

priyapravas

'priyapravas' ek sashakt vipralambh kavy hai. kavi ne apani is kriti men krishn katha ke ek marmik paksh ko kinchith maulikata aur ek nootan drishtikon prastut kiya hai. shrikrishn ke mathura-gaman ke uparant brajavasiyon ke virahasantapt jivan tatha manobhavon ka hridayasparshi ankan prastut karane men unhen bahut hi saphalata prapt huee hai. snskrit ki samast tatha komal-kant padavali se alnkrit evn snskrit varn vritton men likhit yah rachana khadi boli ka pratham mahakavy hai. ramachandr shukl ne ise akar ki drishti se bada kaha kintu unhen is kriti men samuchit kathanak ka abhav pratit hua aur isi abhav ka ullekh karate hue unhonne isake prabandhatv evn mahakavyatv ko asvikar kar diya hai.[3] shukl ji se saralatapoorvak sahamat nahin hua ja sakata. prabandh kavy sambandhi kuchh thodi-si roodhiyon ko chhod diya jae to is kavy men prabandhatv ka darshan asani se kiya ja sakata hai. yah sach hai ki oopar se dekhane par isaka kathanak pravas prasng tak hi simit hai, kintu 'hariaudh' ne apane kalpana kaushal ke dvara, isi simit kshetr men shri krishn ke jivan ki vyapak jhakiyan prastut karane ke avasar dhoondh nikale hain. is kavy ki ek aur visheshata yah hai ki isake nayak shrikrishn shuddh manav roop men prastut kie ge hain. ve lokasnrakshan tatha vishvakalyan ki bhavana se paripoorn manushy adhik hain aur avatar athava eeshvar nam matr ke.

any sahityik krititv

hariaudh ke any sahityik krititv men unake brajabhasha kavy sngrah 'rasakalash' ko vismrit nahin kiya ja sakata hai. isamen unaki arambhik sphut kavitaen snkalit hain. ye kavitaen shrringarik hain aur kavy-siddhant niroopan ki drishti se likhi gayi hain. inhonne gady aur alochana ki or bhi kuchh-kuchh dhyan diya tha. kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay hindi ke avaitanik adhyapak pad par kary karate hue inhonne 'kabir vachanavali' ka sampadan kiya. 'vachanavali' ki bhoomika men kabir par likhe ge lekhon se inaki alochana drishti ka pata chalata hai. inhonne 'hindi bhasha aur sahity ka vikas' shirshak ek itihas granth bhi prastut kiya, jo bahut hi lokapriy hua.

Blockquote-open.gif ek amerikan 'enasaiklopidiya' ne inaka parichay prakashit karate hue inhen vishv ke sahity seviyon ki pnkti pradan ki. khadi boli kavy ke vikas men inaka yogadan nishchit roop se bahut mahatvapoorn hai. yadi 'priyapravas' khadi boli ka pratham mahakavy hai to 'hariaudh' khadi boli ke pratham mahakavi. Blockquote-close.gif

virasat

hariaudh ji ne gady aur pady donon hi kshetron men hindi ki seva ki. ve dvivedi yug ke pramukh kavi hai. unhonne sarvapratham khadi boli men kavy-rachana karake yah siddh kar diya ki usamen bhi brajabhasha ke saman khadi boli ki kavita men bhi sarasata aur madhurata a sakati hai. hariaudh ji men ek shreshth kavi ke samast gun vidyaman the. 'unaka priy pravas' mahakavy apani kavyagat visheshataon ke karan hindi mahakavyon men 'mail-ston' mana jata hai. shri sooryakant tripathi nirala ke shabdon men hariaudh ji ka mahattv aur adhik spasht ho jata hai- inaki yah ek sabase badi visheshata hai ki ye hindi ke sarvabhaum kavi hain. khadi boli, urdoo ke muhavare, brajabhasha, kathin-saral sab prakar ki kavita ki rachana kar sakate hain.

kritiyan

'hariaudh' ji arambh men natak tatha upanyas lekhan ki or akarshit hue. 'hariaudh' ji ki do naty kritiyan 'pradyumn vijay' tatha 'rukmani parinay' kramash: 1893 ee. tatha 1894 ee. men prakashit hueen. 1894 ee. men hi inaka pratham upanyas 'premakanta' bhi prakashan men aya. bad men do any aupanyasik kritiyan 'theth hindi ka thath' (1899 ee.) aur 'adhakhila phool' (1907 ee.) nam se prakashit huee. ye natak tatha upanyas sahity ke unake prarambhik prayas hone ki drishti se ullekhaniy hain. in kritiyon men natyakala athava upanyasakala ki visheshataen dhoondhana tarkasngat nahin hain. upadhyay ji ki pratibha ka vikas vastut: kavi roop men hua. khadi boli ka pratham mahakavi hone ka shrey 'hariaudh' ji ko hai. 'hariaudh' ke upanam se inhonne anek chhote-bade kavyon ki srishti ki, jinaki snkhya pandrah se oopar hai-

sanh kavy
1899 ee. 'rasik rahasy'
1900 'premambuvaridhi', 'prem prapnch'
1901 ee. 'pramambu prashravan', 'premambu pravah'
1904 ee. 'prem pushpahar'
1906 ee. 'udabodhan'
1909 ee. 'kavyopavan'
1914 ee. 'priyapravas'
1916 ee. 'karmavir'
1917 ee. 'ritu mukur'
1925 ee. 'padmaprasoon'
1927 ee. 'padmapramod'
1932 ee. 'chokhechaupade'
1940 ee. 'vaidehi banavas'
'chubhate chaupade'
'rasakalash'

khadi boli kavy-rachana

ayodhyasinh upadhyay khadi boli kavy ke nirmataon men ate hain. inhonne apane kavi karm ka shubharambh brajabhasha se kiya. 'rasakalash' ki kavitaon se pata chalata hai ki is bhasha par inaka achchha adhikar tha, kintu inhonne samay ki gati shighr hi pahachan li aur khadi boli kavy-rachana karane lage. kavy bhasha ke roop men inhonne khadi boli ka parimarjan aur snskar kiya. 'priyapravas' ki rachana karake inhonne snskrit garbhit komal-kantapadavali snyukt bhasha ka abhijat roop prastut kiya. 'chokhe chaupade' tatha 'chubhate chaupade' dvara khadi boli ke muhavara saundary evn usake laukik svaroop ki jhanki di. chhandon ki drishti se inhonne snskrit, hindi tatha urdoo sabhi prakar ke chhandon ka dhadalle se prayog kiya. ye pratibhasampann manavavadi kavi the. inhonne 'priyapravas' men shrikrishn ke jis manaviy svaroop ki pratishtha ki hai, usase inake adhunik drishtikon ka pata chalata hai. inake shrikrishn 'rasaraj' ya 'natanagar' hone ki apeksha lokarakshak neta hain.

rachanaen

mahakavy
muktak kavy
  • chokhe chaupade
  • chubhate chaupade
  • kalpalata
  • bolachal
  • parijat
  • hariaudh satasee
upanyas
  • theth hindi ka thath
  • adhakhila phool.
alochana
  • kabir vachanavali
  • sahity sandarbh
  • hindi bhasha aur sahity ka vikas.
natak
  • rukmani parinay
  • pradumn vijay vyayog

samman

jivanakal men inhen yathochit samman mila tha. 1924 ee. men inhonne hindi sahity sammelan ke pradhan pad ko sushobhit kiya tha. kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ne inaki sahity sevaon ka moolyankan karate hue inhen hindi ke avaitanik adhyapak ka pad pradan kiya. ek amerikan 'enasaiklopidiya' ne inaka parichay prakashit karate hue inhen vishv ke sahity seviyon ki pnkti pradan ki. khadi boli kavy ke vikas men inaka yogadan nishchit roop se bahut mahattvapoorn hai. yadi 'priyapravas' khadi boli ka pratham mahakavy hai to 'hariaudh' khadi boli ke pratham mahakavi.

mrityu

16 march, 1947 ko ayodhyasinh upadhyay 'hariaudh' ne is duniya se lagabhag 76 varsh ki ayu men vida li.

kahen kya bat ankhon ki, chal chalati hain manamani
sada pani men doobi rah, nahin rah sakati hain pani
lagan hai rog ya jalan, kisi ko kab yah batalaya
jal bhara rahata hai unamen, par unhen pyasi hi paya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. kavyanchal (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 23 aktoobar, 2010.
  2. anubhooti (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 23 aktoobar, 2010.
  3. hindi sahity ka itihas, pn. sn., pri. 608).

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