छायावादी युग  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

chhayavadi yug (1920-1936) pray: 'dvivedi yug' ke bad ke samay ko kaha jata hai. bisavin sadi ka poorvarddh chhayavadi kaviyon ka utthan kal tha. is yug ko jayashnkar prasad, mahadevi varma, sooryakant tripathi 'nirala' aur sumitranndan pnt jaise chhayavadi prakriti upasak-saundary poojak kaviyon ka yug kaha jata hai. 'dvivedi yug' ki pratikriya ka parinam hi 'chhayavadi yug' hai. is yug men hindi sahity men gady giton, bhav taralata, rahasyatmak aur marmasparshi kalpana, rashtriyata aur svatntr chintan adi ka samavesh hota chala gaya. is samay ki hindi kavita ke antarng aur bahirng men ekadam parivartan ho gaya. vastu niroopan ke sthan par anubhooti niroopan ko pradhanata prapt huee thi. prakriti ka pranamay pradesh kavita men aya. jayashnkar prasad, sooryakant tripathi 'nirala', sumitranandan pnt aur mahadevi varma 'chhayavadi yug' ke char pramukh stnbh mane jate hain.

mukhy kavi aur unaki rachanaen

jayashnkar prasad, sooryakant tripathi 'nirala', sumitranndan pnt aur mahadevi varma is yug ke char pramukh stnbh kahe jate hain. 'chhayavad' ka keval pahala arthath mool arth lekar to hindi kavy kshetr men chalane vali mahadevi varma hi hain. ramakumar varma, makhanalal chaturvedi, harivnsharay bachchan aur ramadhari sinh dinakar ko bhi 'chhayavad' ne prabhavit kiya. kintu ramakumar varma age chalakar natakakar ke roop men prasiddh hue, makhanalal chaturvedi rashtravadi dhara ki or rahe, bachchan ne prem ke rag ko mukhar kiya aur dinakar ji ne vidroh ki ag ko avaz di. any kaviyon men harikrishn 'premi', janaki vallabh shastri, bhagavaticharan varma, udayashnkar bhatt, narendr sharma, rameshvar shukl 'anchal' ke nam bhi ullekhaniy hain. inaki rachanaen nimnanusar hain-

jayashnkar prasad (1889-1936 ee.) ke kavy sngrah-

'chitradhar' (braj bhasha men rachit kavitaen), 'kanan-kusum', 'maharana ka mahattv', 'karunalay', 'jharana', 'ansoo', 'lahar' aur 'kamayani'.

sumitranndan pnt (1900-1977ee.) ke kavy sngrah-

'vina', 'grnthi', 'pallav', 'gunjan', 'yugant', 'yugavani', 'gramya', 'svarn-kiran', 'svarn-dhooli', 'yugantar', 'uttara', 'rajat-shikhar', 'shilpi', 'pratima', 'sauvarn', 'vani', 'chidnbara', 'rashmibndh', 'kala aur boodha chand', 'abhishekit', 'harish suri sunahari ter', 'lokayatan', 'kiran vina'.

sooryakant tripathi 'nirala' (1898-1961 ee.) ke kavy-sngrah-

'anamika', 'parimal', 'gitika', 'tulasidas', 'aradhana', 'kukuramutta', 'anima', 'ne patte', 'bela', 'archana'.

mahadevi varma (1907-1988 ee.) ki kavy rachanaen-

'rashmi', 'nihar', 'niraja', 'sandhyagit', 'dipashikha', 'yama'.

daau. ramakumar varma ki kavy rachanaen-

'anjali', 'rooparashi', 'chitaud ki chita', 'chndrakiran', 'abhishap', 'nishith', 'chitrarekha', 'vir hamir', 'ekalavy'.

harikrishn 'premi' ki kavy rachanaen-

'akhon men', 'annt ke path par', 'roopadarshan', 'jadoogarani', 'agnigan', 'svarnavihan'.

kavy ki pravrittiyan

  1. vaiyaktikata
  2. prakriti-saundary aur prem ki vynjana
  3. shrngarikata
  4. rahasyanubhooti
  5. tattv chintan
  6. vedana aur karuna ki vivritti
  7. manavatavadi drishtikon
  8. nari ke prati navin drishtikon
  9. adarshavad
  10. svachchhndatavad
  11. desh-prem evn rashtriy bhavana
  12. pratikatmakata
  13. chitratmak bhasha evn lakshanik padavali
  14. geyata
  15. alnkar-vidhan

braj bhasha ka kavy

'chhayavadi yug' men kaviyon ka ek varg aisa bhi tha, jo sooradas, tulasidas, senapati, bihari aur ghanannd jaisi samarth pratibha snpann kavy-dhara ko jivit rakhane ke lie brajabhasha men kavy rachana kar rahe the. 'bharatendu yug' men jahan brajabhasha ka kavy prachur matra men likha gaya, vahin chhayavad ate-ate brajabhasha men gaun roop se kavy rachana likhi jati rahin. in kaviyon ka mat tha ki brajabhasha men kavy ki lnbi parampara ne use kavy ke anukool bana diya hai. chhayavadi yug men brajabhasha men kavy rachana karane vale kaviyon men ramanath jotisi, ramachndr shukl, ray krishnadas, jagadnba prasad mishr 'hitaishi', dulare lal bhargav, viyogi hari, balakrishn sharma 'navin', anoop sharma, rameshvar 'karun', kishoridas vajapeyi, umashnkar vajapeyi 'umesh' pramukh hain.[1]

  1. ramanath jotisi ki rachanaon men 'ramachndroday' mukhy hai. isamen ramakatha ko yug ke anuroop prastut kiya gaya hai. is kavy par keshav ki 'ramachndrika' ka prabhav lakshit hota hai. vibhinn chhndon ka saphal prayog hua hai.
  2. ramachndr shukl, jo moolat: alochak the, ne 'edavin arnald' ke akhyan kavy 'lait aauf eshiya' ka 'buddhacharit' shirshak se bhavanuvad kiya. shukl ji ki bhasha saral aur vyavaharik hai.
  3. ray krishnadas krit 'brajaras', jagadamba prasad mishr 'hitaishi' dvara rachit 'kavitt-savaiye' aur dularelal bhargav ki 'dulare-dohavali' is kal ki pramukh v ullekhaniy rachanaen hain.
  4. viyogi hari ki 'vir satasee' men rashtriy bhavanaon ki shreshth abhivyakti huee hai.
  5. balakrishn sharma 'navin' ne anek sphut rachanaen likhin. lekin inaka brajabhasha ka vaishishtay 'oormmila' mahakavy men lakshit hota hai, jahan inhonne urmila ka ujjval charitr-chitran kiya hai.
  6. anoop sharma ke champoo kavy 'pheri-milibo' (1938) men kurukshetr men radha aur krishn ke punarmilan ka marmik varnan hai.
  7. rameshvar 'karun' ki 'karun-satasee' (1930) men karuna, anubhooti ki tivrata aur samasyamoolak anek vyngyon ko dekha ja sakata hai.
  8. kishori das vajapeyi ki 'tarngini' men rachana ki drishti se prachinata aur navinata ka sundar samanvay dekha ja sakata hai.
  9. umashnkar vajapeyi 'umesh' ki rachanaon men bhi bhasha aur snvedana ki drishti se navinata dikhaee padati hai.

in rachanaon men navinata aur chhayavadi kavy ki sookshmata prakat huee hai, yadi is bhasha ka kavy pariman men adhik hota to yah kal brajabhasha ka chhayavad sabit hota.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. chhayavadi yug men brajabhasha ka kavy (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 04 aktoobar, 2013.

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