महाकाव्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mahakavy
raghuvnsh mahakavy
vivaran sahity ki paridhi ke antargat mahakavyon ka vishesh mahattv hai. bharat men 'ramayan' aur mahabharat adyatan mahakavyon ke udgam aur prerana ke srot rahe hain.
mool tattv
  1. udatt kathanak
  2. udatt kary athava uddeshy
  3. udatt charitr
  4. udatt bhav
  5. udatt shaili
vishesh mahakavy ke jin lakshanon ka niroopan bharatiy acharyon ne kiya, shabdabhed se unhin se milati julati visheshataon ka ullekh pashchim ke acharyon ne bhi kiya hai.
snbndhit lekh khnd kavy, kavy, kavita, prabodhak kavy, prabandh kavy.
any janakari snskrit kavyashastr men mahakavy ka pratham sootrabaddh lakshan achary bhamah ne prastut kiya aur paravarti acharyon men dndi, rudrat tatha vishvanath ne apane apane dhng se is lakshan ka vistar kiya.

rashtriy ekata pratyek desh ke lie mahattvapoorn hai. rashtriy ekata ki adharashila hai sanskritik ekata aur sanskritik ekata ka sabase prabal madhyam sahity ki paridhi ke antargat mahakavyon ka vishesh mahatv hai, jinake vrihath kalevar men rashtriy ekata ko prabhavi riti se pratiphal karane ka poorn avasar rahata hai. bharatiy mahakavy ka ayojan isi se prerit hokar kiya gaya hai. isamen tin prachin bhashaon - snskrit, prakrit, apabhrnsh aur angrezi ko milakar terah adhunik bhashaon ke 26 pramukh mahakavyon ka vivechanatmak adhyayan prastut kiya gaya hai. kavy-vastu ki drishti se mahakavy panch prakar ke hai -

  1. ramayan mahakavy,
  2. mahabharat mahakavy,
  3. charitakavy,
  4. ramyakhyan aur
  5. darshanik ya pratikatmak mahakavy.
  • yah kary vibhinn bhashaon ke adhikari vidvanon dvara snpann hua hai.

bharat men ramayan aur mahabharat adyatan mahakavyon ke udgam aur prerana ke srot rahe hain. paravarti mahakavyon ki rachana sarvajanik vachak ke lie nahin, varanh kalakriti ke roop men huee hai. isalie inhen ‘kalatmak mahakavy’ ki sngya dena upayukt hoga. is varg ke mahakavyon ki bharat men ek sudirgh parnpara hai - jo ‘kumarasnbhav’raghuvnsh’ adi snskrit mahakavyon se arnbh hokar adhunik bhashaon men ‘kamayani’ tatha ‘shriramayan darshanamh’ adi tak nirntar pravahaman hai. lalit kavy ki ek vidha ka roop dharan kar mahakavy 'sahityashastr' ka vishay ban gaya aur acharyon ne sahity ki any vidhaon ki bhanti use bhi lakshanavaddh kar diya.[1] mahakavy snskrit kavyashastr men mahakavy ka pratham sootrabaddh lakshan achary bhamah ne prastut kiya hai aur paravarti acharyon men dndi, rudrat tatha vishvanath ne apane apane dhng se is lakshan ka vistar kiya hai. achary vishvanath ka lakshananiroopan is parnpara men antim hone ke karan sabhi poorvavarti maton ke sarasnkalan ke roop men upalabdh hai.

mahakavy ki visheshataen

mahakavy ki visheshataen samanyat: is prakar hai-

  1. ‘mahakavy’ pad men upayukt ‘maha’ visheshan ek or usake mahanh kalevar arthat vipul-vyapak akar aur doosari or usaki mahanh vishay-vastu arthat pratipady vishay ki gaurav-garima ka saman roop se dyotan karata hai.
  2. akar ki vyapakata ka arth hai ki unamen jivan ka sarvang-chitran rahata hai. prabhavashali mahapurush ka jivan hone ke karan usaka vistar anayas hi snpoorn deshakal tak ho jata hai. atah mahakavy ki katha-paridhi men jivan ke samast samajik, rajanitak paksh evn ayam aur unake parivesh roop men vibhinn drishyon aur roopon ka samavesh rahata hai. ye sabhi varnan sadharan jivan ki kshudrataon se mukt ek vishesh star par avasthit rahate hain.
  3. mahakavy ki kathavastu ek mahanh uddeshy se parichalit hoti hai. anek sngharshon se gujarati huee vah antatah mahattar manav-moolyon ki pratishtha karati hai. in mahattar manav-moolyon ki pratishtha antatah jis ghatana ke dvara hoti hai, vahin mahakavy ka mahatkary hota hai.
  4. mahan kary ki siddhi ke lie yah avashyak hai ki usaka sadhak usake anuroop charitrak gunon aur shaktiyon se sampan ho. atah mahakavy ka nayak athava kendriy patr asadharan shakti aur gunon se sampann hota hai aur ye gun usake sahayogi tatha virodhi patron men bhi vibhinn anupaton men vidyaman rahate hain.
  5. uparyukt snsar ko vahan karane men samarth mahakavy ki shaili bhi svabhavatah atyant garima-vishisht honi chahie. isalie acharyon ne yah avastha di hai ki mahakavy ki shaili sadharan star se bhinn, kshudr prayogon se mukt alnkrit honi chahie. pashchaty kavyashastr men yoonani-romi achary lonjainas se prerana prapt kar anek sudhi samikshakon ne is sndarbh men ‘udaty tatv’ par vishesh bal diya gaya hai jo mahakavy ki mool chetana ko abhivyakti karane men apekshakrit adhik saksham hai. atah usake adhar par udatt kathanak, udatt kary athava uddeshy, udatt charitr, udatt bhav-snpada aur udatt shaili ko mahakavy ke mool tatvon ke roop men rekhankit kiya gaya hai.[1]

mahakavy ke lakshan

  • vishvanath ke anusar mahakavy ka lakshan is prakar hai -

jisamen sargon ka nibndhan ho vah mahakavy kahalata hai. isamen [2] kshatriy, jisamen dhirodattatvadi gun hon, nayak hota hai. kahin ek vnsh ke anek satkulin bhoop bhi nayak hote hain. shrringar, vir aur shant men se koee ek [3] angi hota hai tatha any sabhi ras ang roop hote hain. usamen sab natak sndhiyan rahati hain. katha aitihasik athava sajjanashrit hoti hai. chaturvarg [4] men se ek usaka phal hota hai. arnbh men namaskar, ashirvad ya varnyavastunirdesh hota hai. kahin khalon ki ninda tatha sajjanon ka gunakathan hota hai. n atyalp aur n atidirgh ashtadhik sarg hote hain jinamen se pratyek ki rachana ek hi [5] men ki jati hai aur sarg ke ant men chhnd parivartan hota hai. kahin kahin ek hi sarg men anek chhnd bhi hote hain. sarg ke ant men agami katha ki soochana honi chahie. usamen sndhya, soory, chndrama, ratri, pradosh, andhakar, din, prat:kal, madhyahn, mrigaya, parvat, ritu, van, sagar, snyog, vipralnbh, muni, svarg, nagar, ygy, sngram, yatra aur vivah adi ka yathasnbhav sangopang varnan hona chahie.[6] achary vishvanath ka uparyukt niroopan mahakavy ke svaroop ki vaigyanik evn kramabaddh paribhasha prastut karane ke sthan par usaki pramukh aur gaun visheshataon ka kramahin vivaran upasthit karata hai. isake adhar par snskrit kavyashastr men upalabdh mahakavy ke lakshanon ka sar is prakar kiya ja sakata hai-

kathanak
  1. mahakavy ka kathanak aitihasik athava itihasashrit hona chahie.
  2. vistar -- kathanak ka kalevar jivan ke vividh roopon evn varnanon se samriddh hona chahie. ye varnan prakritik, samajik, aur rajitik kshetron se is prakar snbnddh hone chahie ki inake madhyam se manav jivan ka poorn chitr usake snpoorn vaibhav, vaichitray evn vistar ke sath upasthit ho sake. isilie usaka ayam[7] vistrit hona chahie.
vinyas -

kathanak ki snghatana naty sndhiyon ke vidhan se yukt honi chahie arthath‌ mahakavy ke kathanak ka vikas kramik hona chahie. usaki adhikarik katha evn any prakaranon ka parasparik snbndh upakary-upakarak-bhav se hona chahie tatha inamen auchityapoorn poorvapar anviti rahani chahie.

nayak -

mahakavy ka nayak devata ya sadrish kshatriy ho, jisaka charitr dhirodatt gunon se samanvit ho -- arthath vah mahasattv, atynt gnbhir, kshamavanh avikatthan, sthiracharitr, nigoodh, ahnkaravanh aur dridhvrat hona chahie. patr bhi usi ke anuroop vishisht vyakti, rajapootr, muni adi hone chahie.

ras -

mahakavy men shrringar, vir, shant evn karun men se kisi ek ras ki sthiti angi roop men tatha any rason ki ang roop men hoti hai.

phal -

mahakavy sadvrit hota hai arthath usaki pravritti shiv evn saty ki or hoti hai aur usaka uddeshy hota hai chatuvarg ki prapti.

shaili -

shaili ke sndarbh men snskrit ke acharyon ne pray: atynt sthool roodhiyon ka ullekh kiya hai - udaharanarth ek hi chhnd men sarg rachana tatha sargant me chhndaparivartan, ashtadhik sargon men vibhajan, namakaran ka adhar adi. parntu mahakavy ke any lakshanon ke alok men yah spasht hi hai ki mahakavy ki shaili nanavarnan kshama, vistaragarbha, shravy vritton se alnkrit, mahapran honi chahie. achary bhamah ne is bhasha ko salnkar, agramy shabdon se yukt arthat shisht nagar bhasha kaha hai.

pashchaty vidvanon ke anusar

mahakavy ke jin lakshanon ka niroopan bharatiy acharyon ne kiya, shabdabhed se unhin se milati julati visheshataon ka ullekh pashchim ke acharyon ne bhi kiya hai. arastoo ne trasadi se mahakavy ki tulana karate hue kaha hai ki 'git evn drishyavighan ke atirikt [8] donon ke ang bhi saman hi hain.' arthat mahakavy ke mool tatv char hain -

  1. kathavastu,
  2. charitr,
  3. vicharatatv aur
  4. padavali [9].
kathavastu

kathavastu ke snbndh men unaka mat hai ki

  1. mahakavy ki kathavastu ek or shuddh aitihasik yatharth se bhinn hoti hai or doosari or sarvatha kalpanik bhi nahin hoti. vah prakhyat [10] honi chahie, aur usamen yatharth se bhavyatar jivan ka ankan hona chahie.
  2. kathavastu ka ayam vistrit hona chahie jisake antargat vividh upakhyanon ka samavesh ho sake. 'usamen apani simaon ka vistar karane ki badi kshamata hoti hai' kyonki trasadi ki bhanti vah rngamnch ki deshakal snbndhi simaon men paribaddh nahin hota. usamen anek ghatanaon ka sahaj samavesh ho sakata hai jisase ek or kavy ko ghanatv aur garima prapt hoti hai aur doosari or anek upakhyanon ke niyojan ke karan rochak vaividhy utpann ho jata hai.
  3. kintu kathanak ka yah vistar aniyntrit nahin hona chahie. usamen ek hi kary hona chahie jo adi madhy avasan se yukt evn svat: poorn ho. samast upakhyan isi pramukh kary ke sath snbnddh aur is prakar se gunphit hon ki unaka parinam ek hi ho.
  4. isake atirikt trasadi ke vastusngathan ke any gun -- poorvaparakram, snbhavyata tatha kutoohal -- bhi mahakavy men yathavath vidyaman rahate hain. usaki paridhi men adbhut evn atiprakrit tatv ke liye adhik avakash rahata hai aur kutoohal ki snbhavana bhi mahakavy men apekshakrit adhik rahati hai. kathanak ke sabhi kutoohalavardhak ang, jaise sthitiviparyay, abhigyan, snvriti aur vivriti, mahakavy ka bhi utkarsh karate hain.
patr -

mahakavy ke patron ke snbndh men arastoo ne keval itana kaha hai ki 'mahakavy aur trasadi men yah samanata hai ki usamen bhi uchchatar koti ke patron ki padyabaddh anukriti rahati hai.' trasadi ke patron se samanata ke adhar par yah nishkarsh nikalana kathin nahin ki mahakavy ke patr bhi pray: trasadi ke saman bhadr, vaibhavashali, kulin aur yashasvi hone chahie. rudrat ke anusar mahakavy men pratinayak aur usake kul ka bhi varnan hota hai.

prayojan aur prabhav -

arastoo ke anusar mahakavy ka prabhav aur prayojan bhi trasadi ke saman hona chahie, arthath‌ manovegon ka virechan, usaka prayojan aur tajjany man:shanti usaka prabhav hona chahie. yah prabhav naitik athava ragatmak athava donon prakar ka ho sakata hai.

bhasha, shaili aur chhnd -

arastoo ke shabdon men mahakavy ki shaili ka bhi 'poorn utkarsh yah hai ki vah prasann (prasadagun yukt) ho kintu kshudr n ho.' arthath garima tatha prasadagun mahakavy ki shaili ke mool tatv hain, aur garima ka adhar hai asadharanata. unake matanusar mahakavy ki bhashashaili trasadi ki karunamadhur alnkrit shaili se bhinn, lokatikrant prayogon se kalatmak, udatt evn garimavarishth honi chahie.

vir chhnd ke prayog par bal

mahakavy ki rachana ke liye ve adi se ant tak ek hi chhnd - vir chhnd-ke prayog par bal dete hain kyonki usaka roop any vritton ki apeksha adhik bhavy evn garimamay hota hai jisamen aprachalit evn lakshanik shabd badi saralata se antarbhukt ho jate hain. paravarti vidvanon ne bhi mahakavy ke vibhinn tatvon ke sndarbh men unhin visheshataon ka punarakhyan kiya hai jinaka ullekh achary arastoo kar chuke the. virakavy (mahakavy) ka adhar sabhi ne jatiy gaurav ki purakathaon ko svikar kiya he. jaaun heringatan virakavy ke liye aitihasik adharabhoomi ki avashyakata par bal dete hain aur spensar virakavy ke liye vaibhav aur garima ko adharabhoot tatv manate hain. phrans ke kavi alochakon pailetie, vokalen aur ronasar adi ne bhi mahakavy ki kathavastu ko sarvadhik garimayam, bhavy aur udatt karate hue usake antargat aise vatavaran ke nirman ka agrah kiya hai jo kshudr ghatanaon se mukt evn bhavy ho.

mahakavy ke mool tatv

bharatiy aur pashchaty alochakon ke uparyukt niroopan ki tulana karane par spasht ho jata hai ki donon men hi mahakavy ke vibhinn tatvon ke sndarbh men ek hi gun par bar-bar shabdabhed se bal diya gaya hai aur vah hai bhavyata evn garima, jo audaty se ang hain. vastav men, mahakavy vyakti ki chetana se anupranit n hokar samast yug evn rashtr ki chetana se anupranit hota hai. isi karan usake mool tatv deshakal sapeksh n hokar sarvabhaum hote hain, jinake abhav men kisi bhi desh athava yug ki koee rachana mahakavy nahin ban sakati aur jinake sadbhav men, parnparagat shastriy lakshanon ki badha hone par bhi, kisi kriti ko mahakavy ke gaurav se vnchit karana snbhav nahin hota. ye mool tatv hain -

  1. udatt kathanak
  2. udatt kary athava uddeshy
  3. udatt charitr
  4. udatt bhav aur
  5. udatt shaili.
  • is prakar audaty athava mahattatv hi mahakavy ka pran hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 bharatiy mahakavy (hindi) bharatiy sahity sngrah. abhigaman tithi: 1 julaee, 2011.
  2. devata ya sadrish
  3. ras
  4. dharm, arth, kam, moksh
  5. chhnd
  6. sahityadarpan, parichchhed 6,315 - 324
  7. ashtadhik sargon men
  8. mahakavy aur trasadi
  9. bhasha
  10. jatiy dntakathaon par ashrit

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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