क़सीदा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

qasida kavy ya shayari ka ek svaroop hai, jo poorv islami arab men vikasit hua tha, tab se yah aj tak prachalit hai. qaside ka prarambh pray: 'nasib' kahi jane vali chhoti pnkti se hota hai. shayaron me qafiya ki rachana kaushal pradashirt karane aur isamen sahayogi vishayon ko adhik se adhik goonthane ki hod lagi hoti hai. apani shaili aur bhasha ke karan ye shabdakosh nirmataon ke lie vishesh dilachaspi ke vishay hote hain.

snrachana

shastriy qasida 60 se 100 pnktiyon ka ek vistrit snrachana vala udbodhan hota hai, jisamen pratyek pnkti ko ek-si tuk ya qafiye me rakhate hue sampoorn git ki rachana ki jati hai. yahi qafiya pahale chhnd ki pahali arddhali men rakha jata hai. vastut: qaside ke lie koee bhi chhnd (sivay rajaz ke) grahaniy hain. qasida ki shuruat pray: 'nasib' kahi jane vali ek snkshipt prastavana se shuroo hoti hai. nasib shok git ka bhav lie hota hai aur usaka ashay shrotaon ka dhyan apani or khinchana hota hai. nasib men is bat ka chitran hota hai, ki kaise shayar ek purane kabilaee dere men ruka apani preyasi ke sath kaisa anndamay samay bitaya aur jab ve alag hue, to virah men kaisi vedana huee.

pratham prayog

manyata hai ki arabi shayar imarool-qayas ne pahali bar is yukti ka prayog kiya tha. isake bad lagabhag sabhi qasidakaron nen unaka anukaran kiya. is parnparagat prarnbh ke bad ata hai 'rahil', jisamen shayar ke ghode ya oont, registani pashuon, registani ghatanaon aur vahan ke 'badduon'[1] ke jivan evn yuddhon ke vivaran aur upaman hote hai. rahil ka upasnhar 'fakh' ya atm-prashnsa kiya ja sakata hai. mukhy vishay 'madih' ya 'prashasti', jo aksar 'hij'[2] se juda hota hai, ant me ata hai aur yah svny shayar ki' usake qabile ya apane snrakshak ki prashnsa hoti hai.

qaside ka mahattv

qasida shayari lekhakon ke lie prarambh se hi mahattvapoorn raha. qaside ko hamesha se shayari ka sarvotkrisht roop aur islam-poorv shasakon ki dharohar mana mata raha hai. shastriy rujhan vale shayaron ne is vidha ko banae rakha aur niyamon ya bndhanon ka palan kiya, lekin arabon ki badali huee paristhatiyon ne use ek kritrim paripati bana diya. is prakar athavin shatabdi ke ant tak qaside ka mahatv kam hone laga. 10vin shatabdi men thode samay ke lie al-mutanabbi, jo arabi bhasha ke mahanatam shayaron men se ek the, unhonne use saphalatapoorvak punarjivit kiya aur badduon ne use aj tak banae rakha hai. 19 vin shatabdi tak farasi, turki aur urdoo bhashaon men bhi qaside likhe ge.

uddeshy

qasida sodrishy likhi gee shayari hai. isaka uddeshy sansarik labh prapt karana, jaisa ki shahon ya navabon ki tarif men likhi gee rachanaon ka lakshy hota hai, ya snsar ke uparant paralaukik labh prapt karana, jaisa ki eeshvar ki prnshasa men ya paignbar muhammad sahab athava pavitr vyaktitvon ti tarif men rachit shayari ka uddeshy hota hai. ye prashastiyan samanyat bahut lnbi hoti hai aur atynt anlakarik v atishayoktipurn shaili men likhi jati hain. shayaron me qafiya ki rachana aur isake kaushal ko pradashirt karane aur sath hi isamen sahayogi vishayon ko adhik se adhik goonthane ki hod lagi rahati hai. apani shaili aur bhasha ke karan hi ye shabdakosh nirmataon ke lie vishesh roop se dilachaspi ke vishay hote hai. dakshin bharat men likhe ge qasidon par bahut adhik shodhakary nahin hua hai. uttari bharat men anek shayaron ko is vidha men vishishtata ke karan bahut samman prapt hai. 18vin shatabdi ke sauda, insha aur 19vin shatabdi ke zauq v mirza galib inhin sammanit shayaron men se ek hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. arab ki ek khanabadosh jati
  2. dushmanon par vyngy

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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