नाटक  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

natak rngamnch se judi ek vidha hai, jise abhinay karane vale kalakaron ke madhyam se prastut kiya jata hai. natak ki parampara bahut prachin hai. yah apane janm se hi shabd ki kala ke sath-sath abhinay ki mahattvapoorn kala bhi raha hai. abhinay rngamnch par kiya jata hai. rngamnch par natak ke prastutikaran ke lie lekhak ke shabdon ke atirikt, nirdeshak, abhineta, mnch-vyavasthapak aur darshak ki bhi avashyakata hoti hai. natak ke shabdon ke sath jab in sabaka sahayog ghatit hota hai, tab natyanubhooti ya rnganubhooti paida hoti hai.

itihas

panini ne natak ki utpatti 'nath' dhatu se mani hai.[1] aur ramachandr gunachandr ne 'natyadarpan' men isaka udbhav 'nath' dhatu se mana hai.[2] vebar aur moniyar biliyams ka mat hai ki 'nath' dhatu 'nrith' dhatu ka prakrit roop hai. makand ka mat hai ki 'nrith' bahut prachin hai aur 'nath' ka prachalan apekshakrit kam purana hai. kisi-kisi ka mat hai ki 'nath' aur 'nrith' donon dhatuen rigvedik kal se hi prachalit hai. donon ka prayog svatntr aur evn nirapeksh roop se hota aya hai. sayan ne apane bhashyon men 'nath' ka arth 'vyapnoti' kiya hai[3] aur 'nrith' ka gatravikshepan[4] aisa pratit hota hai ki vedottar kal men donon dhatuen samanarthak hoti geen, kintu kalantar men 'nath' dhatu ka arth adhik vyapak ban gaya aur 'nrith' ke arth ke sath-sath abhinay ka arth isase simatata chala gaya.

hazariprasad dvivedi ki tippani

achary hazariprasad dvivedi ne likha hai ki "bahut pahale bharatavarsh men jo natak khele jate the, unamen batachit nahin hua karati thi. ve keval nana abhinayon ke roop men hi abhinit hote the. ab bhi snskrit ke purane natakon men is pratha ka bhagnavashesh prapy hai. yah is bat ka saboot bataya jata hai ki natakon men batachit utani mahattvapoorn vastu nahin mani jati thi, jitani kriya. natak ki pothi men jo kuchh chhapa hota hai, usaki apeksha vahi bat jyada mahattvapoorn hoti hai, jo chhapi nahin hoti aur sirf rngabhoomi men dekhi ja sakati hai. natak ka sabase pradhan ang usaka kriya-pradhan drishyansh hi hota hai aur isilie purane shastrakar natak ko drishy kavy kah ge hain."[5] isase yah bat siddh hoti hai ki kavita aur katha sahity ki bhanti natak ke shabd svatntr nahin hote.

drishyon ki prastavana

natak ke shabdon ka pradhan karttavy kriya-pradhan drishyon ki prastavana hai. natak abhinay ke lie hota hai, padhane ke lie nahin. isalie natak ke shabdon men arth us prakar nahin ghatit hota, jaise kavita, upanyas ya kahani men. natak ke shabd kary ki yogyata se sarthak hote hain. natak ke shabdon men nihit kary ki yogyata rngamnch par siddh hoti hai. isalie natak prayogadharmi hota hai| prayog ka tatpary hai- mnchan ya prastuti. usamen rngamnch ki vyavastha, veshabhoosha, prakash, abhinetaon ke kriya vyapar, mudraen aur gatirachana adi ka samavesh hota hai. natak ke alekh ko jab is prakriya ke madhyam se prastut kiya jata hai, tab rasanubhooti hoti hai. adhunik yug men ise rnganubhooti kaha jata hai. kavy ki anubhooti se natak ki rnganubhooti is prayog ke karan bhinn hoti hai.

natak ki simaen

natak ke prayogadharmi hone ke karan upanyas ke mukabale natak ki kuchh simaen hoti hain. upanyasakar ki bhanti natakakar ko varnan aur chitran ki svatntrata nahin hoti. kisi patr ke jivan ya ghatana ke vishay men use apani or se kuchh bhi kahane ka avasar nahin hota. darshakon ke samane kuchh ghnton men use poora natak pradarshit karana hota hai. isalie usaka akar aur vistar bahut nahin ho sakata. in sab karanon se natak upanyas ke mukabale adhik thos tatha jatil hota hai. natak men adhik snyam aur kaushal ki zaroorat hoti hai. rngamnch aur abhinay ki apekshaon ke karan natakakar ghatana, patr aur snvad ko atynt savadhani se chunata hai. is prakar aur unake vinyas men natakakar ko atirikt snyam aur kaushal ka upayog karana padata hai. ghatana, patr aur kriya ko vah aise snvadon ke jarie prastut karata hai, jo abhinay men hi apana poora arth aur prabhav prapt kar sakate hain.[5]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. panini, 4.3.129
  2. na. d.-gayakavad oriental sirij, prishth 28
  3. 4.105.23
  4. 10.83
  5. 5.0 5.1 natak kya hai (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 5 march, 2013.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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