रंगमंच  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rngamnch
charakula nrity, krishn janmabhoomi, mathura
vivaran 'rngamnch' vah sthan hai jahan nrity, natak, khel adi hon.
'rngamnch' shabd ka arth rngamnch shabd rng aur mnch do shabdon ke milane se bana hai. rng isalie prayukt hua hai ki drishy ko akarshak banane ke lie divaron, chhaton aur pardon par vividh prakar ki chitrakari ki jati hai aur abhinetaon ki veshabhoosha tatha sajja men bhi vividh rngon ka prayog hota hai, aur mnch isalie prayukt hua hai ki darshakon ki suvidha ke lie rngamnch ka tal pharsh se kuchh ooncha rahata hai.
itihas natyakala ka vikas sarvapratham bharat men hi hua. rigved ke katipay sootron men yam aur yami, pururava aur urvashi adi ke kuchh snvad hain. in snvadon men log natak ke vikas ka chihn pate hain.
adhunik rngamnch adhunik rngamnch ka vastavik vikas 19vin shati ke uttarardh se arnbh hua aur vinyas tatha akalpan men prati varsh ne-ne sudhar hote rahe hain; yahan tak ki 10 varsh pahale ke thietar purane pad jate rahe hain, aur 20 varsh pahale ke avikasit aur aprachalit samajhe jane lage hain.
any janakari chitrapat (sinema) ke a jane se rngamnch ka sthan bahut snkirn ho gaya hai. vishal prekshagrihon men, keval ek chhota sa rngamnch jis par kabhi-kabhi avashyakata padane par chhote mote nrity, ya ekanki adi khele ja saken, bana dena paryapt samajha jata hai.

rngamnch vah sthan hai jahan nrity, natak, khel adi hon. rngamnch shabd rng aur mnch do shabdon ke milane se bana hai. rng isalie prayukt hua hai ki drishy ko akarshak banane ke lie divaron, chhaton aur pardon par vividh prakar ki chitrakari ki jati hai aur abhinetaon ki veshabhoosha tatha sajja men bhi vividh rngon ka prayog hota hai, aur mnch isalie prayukt hua hai ki darshakon ki suvidha ke lie rngamnch ka tal pharsh se kuchh ooncha rahata hai. darshakon ke baithane ke sthan ko prekshagar aur rngamnch sahit samuche bhavan ko prekshagrih, rngashala, ya natyashala (ya nrityashala) kahate hain. pashchimi deshon men ise thietar ya aaupera nam diya jata hai.

avirbhav

aisa samajha jata hai ki natyakala ka vikas sarvapratham bharat men hi hua. rigved ke katipay sootron men yam aur yami, pururava aur urvashi adi ke kuchh snvad hain. in snvadon men log natak ke vikas ka chihn pate hain. anuman kiya jata hai ki inhin snvadon se prerana grahan kar logon ne natak ki rachana ki aur natyakala ka vikas hua. yathasamay bharatamuni ne use shastriy roop diya. bharat muni ne apane natyashastr men natakon ke vikas ki prakriya ko is prakar vyakt kiya hai: "natyakala ki utpatti daivi hai, arthath‌ du:kharahit satyayug bit jane par tretayug ke arnbh men devataon ne srashta brahma se manornjan ka koee aisa sadhan utpann karane ki prarthana ki jisase devata log apana du:kh bhool saken aur annd prapt kar saken. phalat: unhonne rigved se kathopakathan, samaved se gayan, yajurved se abhinay aur atharvaved se ras lekar, natak ka nirman kiya. vishvakarma ne rngamnch banaya" adi.

natakon ka vikas chahe jis prakar hua ho, snskrit sahity men naty grnth aur tatsnbndhi anek shastriy grnth likhe ge aur sahity men natak likhane ki paripati snskrit adi se hoti huee hindi ko bhi prapt huee. snskrit natak utkrisht koti ke hain aur ve adhikatar abhinay karane ke uddeshy se likhe jate the. abhinit bhi hote the, balki natyakala prachin bharatiyon ke jivan ka abhinn ang thi, aisa snskrit tatha pani grnthon ke anveshan se gyat hota hai. kautily ke arthashastr se to aisa gyat hota hai ki nagarik jivan ke is ang par rajy ko niyntran karane ki avashyakata pad gee thi. usamen natyagrih ka ek prachin varnan prapt hota hai. agni puran, shilparatn, kavyamimansa tatha sngitamartnd men bhi rajaprasad ke natyamndapon ke vivaran prapt hote hain. isi prakar mahabharat men rngashala ka ullekh hai aur harivnsh puran tatha ramayan men natak khele jane ka varnan hai. itana sab hote hue bhi yah nishchit roop se pata nahin lagata ki ve natak kis prakar ke natyamndapon men khele jate the tatha un mndapon ke kya roop the. abhi tak ki khoj ke phalasvaroop sitavnga gupha ko chhodakar koee aisa grih nahin mila jise sadhikar natyamndap kaha ja sake.

pashchaty vidvanon ki bhi dharana hai ki dharmik krityon se hi natakon ka pradurbhav hua. isase rngasthali (yadi vastav men use rngasthali ki sngya di ja sake) ke prarnbhik svaroop ki kalpana ki ja sakati hai ki vah vrittakar rahi hogi. dhire-dhire jab darshaniyata ki or adhik dhyan diya gaya hoga, tab yah anubhav kiya gaya hoga ki is vrittakar rngasthali men keval age ke kuchh darshak ki drishy ka poora annd utha sakate hain, pichhe baithane valon ko sir uthane ki avashyakata hoti hai. is drishti se katoranuma sthan rngasthali ke lie adhik upayukt samajha jane laga hoga. dharmik krityon aur nrity adi ke lie yah uttam prabndh tha. dhire-dhire jab natakon ka roop adhik vikasit hua, tab yah anubhav hua hoga ki kathakar aur abhinetaon ke samane ki or baithane valon ko hi dekhane aur sunane ki achchhi suvidha hoti hai. isake lie parvatiy sthanon men ghati bahut upayukt pratit huee hogi, jisamen dhal par baithe darshak niche abhinetaon ko bhali bhanti dekh sun sakate the aur unake pichhe phaila hua vistrit bhookhnd sahaj sundar chitrit prakritik prishthabhoomi prastut karata tha. shayad isi ka anukaran aparvatiy prishthabhoomi prastut karata tha. shayad isi ka anukaran aparvatiy sthanon men kritrim rngashalaen banakar kiya gaya, jinamen vrittakar divar ke andar sidhinuma sthan darshakon ke baithane ke lie hota tha, jo bhitar bane oonche chabootare ko tin or se ghere rahata tha. chauthi or sidhi divar hoti thi, jisamen sundar chitrakari hoti thi. isake pichhe nepathy hota tha. jahan abhinetaon ke uthane baithane aur unaki roopasajja ka prabndh rahata tha. uparyukt chirapratishthit rngashala ke prachin roopon men dhire-dhire sudhar hota gaya. kalantar men prekshasthan tin or ke bajay keval ek or, samane hi samane rah gaya. sara vinyas gol se badalakar chaukor ho gaya aur natyashala ka adha, ya isase bhi adhik sthan gherane laga.

bharat ke adikalin rngamnch

sitavnga ki gupha ke dekhane se purane natyamndapon ke svaroop ka kuchh anuman ho jata hai. yah gupha 13.8 mitar lnbi tatha 7.2 mitar chaudi hai. bhitar pravesh karane ke lie baeen or se sidhiyan hain, jinase kadachit abhineta pravesh karate the. bhitari bhag men rngamnch ki vyavastha hai. yah 2.3 mitar chaudi tin sidhiyon (chabootaron) se bana hai, jo ek doosare se 75 senmi. oonchi hain. chabootaron ke samane do chhed hain, jinamen shayad bans ya lakadi ke khnbhe lagakar parden lagae jaya karate the. darshakon ke lie jo sthan hai, vah grik ainphithietar ki bhanti sidhinuma hai. yahan 50 vyakti baith sakate hain. yah adikalin rngamnch ka svaroop bhi oopar varnit vikasit svaroop se mel khata hai. bharat natyashastr se bhi hamen natyamndap ke prachin svaroop ka snket milata hai. adivasiyon ke mndap gupharoopi (shailaguhakari) hua karate the, kintu ary log apani ashram sabhyata ke anuroop asthayi tnboonuma natyamndapon se hi kam chalaya karate the.

bharat natyashastr pahali athava doosari shati ee. men snkalit hua samajha jata hai. bharat ne adivasiyon tatha aryon donon ke natyamndapon ke akar ko apanaya hai. in donon ke sammishran se inhonne natyamndapon ke jo roop nirdharit kie, ve sarvatha bharatiy hain. prachin yoonani aur roman svaroopon se inaka koee snbndh nahin pratit hota. pashchaty natyamndap khule maidanon men banate the aur unamen darshakon ke hetu sidhinuma ardhachndrakar prekshasthan banate the. isake viparit bharat men natyamndap ki vyavastha ek grih ke bhitar hoti thi.

bharat ke rngamnch

bharat natyashastr ke anusar rngamnch ke roop [1]
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vikrisht (ayatakar)
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chaturasr (vargakar)
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trayasr (tribhujakar)

bharat ne tin prakar ke natyamndapon ka vidhan bataya hai :

  • vikrisht (arthath‌ ayatakar),
  • chaturasr (vargakar) tatha
  • tryastr (tribhujakar).

unhonne in tinon ke phir tin tin bhed kie hain :

  • jyeshth (devataon ke lie),
  • madhyam (rajaon ke lie), tatha
  • avar (auron ke lie).

inaki map ke vishay ke die ge nirdeshon ke anusar jyeshth ki lnbaee lagabhag 51 mitar, madhyam ki lagabhag 29 mitar aur avar ki lagabhag 14.5 mitar hogi. chaturasr mndap ki chaudaee lnbai ke barabar, aur vikrisht ki lnbaee se adhi hogi.

bharat natyashastr ke anusar natyamndap ki nap ke adhar anu, raj (=8 anu), bal (=8 raj), liksha (=8 bal), yooka (=8 liksha), yav (=8 yooka), anguli (=8 yav), hast (=24 anguli), aur dnd (=4 hast) hua karate the. is prakar ek hast 456 milimitar ka hota hai. kautily aur panini ne map ke jo adhar die hain, ve bhi inase milate hain. vidvanon ka mat hai ki ye adhar sindhu sabhyata ke bad is desh men chaloo hue honge, kyonki us prachin sabhyata men jo mapen mili hain, unaka adhar dashamalav pranali hai.

natyashala ka pray: adha bhag darshakon ke lie hota tha, jise prekshagrih kahate the; shesh adhe men rngamndap hota tha. rngamndap ke pichhale adhe bhag men nepathy hota tha. shesh ke adhe men samane rngashirsh aur pichhe, nepathy ki or, ragnpith hota tha. nepathy se rngapith men ane jane ke lie kinaron par do daravaze hote the, jinamen snbhavat: kivade nahin laga karate the. rngapith ke oopar hi, char khnbhon par chhat rakhakar, mattavarani banaee jati thi. mattavarani snbhavat: atari ka dyotak hai. khnbhon par pray: hathi ke sir ke sadrish bani ghodiyon ke oopar yah chhat rahati thi, isi se (shayad) ise mattavarani kahate the. prekshagrih sidhinuma banaya jata tha. in sidhiyon men se pratyek 1 hath oonchi hoti thi, aur us par lakadi ke patare bhi laga karate the, shayad usi prakar ke jaise roman thietaron men hote the.

divaron ki sajavat

divaron ko bhitar ki or sajane ka bhi vidhan hai. bharat ke anusar bhit par achchha bhittilep (plastar) chadhana chahie. vidvanon ka mat hai ki mitti tatha bhoosi ko milakar leva chadhaya jata tha. ise pitakar samatal kiya jata tha. phir ek parat choone ki chadhaee jati thi, jise ghis ghisakar chikana kiya jata tha. isake oopar shnkh pisakar chadhate the, aur paaulish karate the. in bhiton par sundar chitrakari ki jati thi.

natyamndap men divaron ke sath khnbhe banakar oopar chhat banaee jati thi. ratri ke samay prakash ke lie dipak vyavahar men ate the. bahut se dipakon ke atirikt shayad mashal se bhi kam liya jata raha hoga. dhvani niyntran tatha vistar ka koee prabndh shayad n tha; isalie bhi natyashalaen kuchh chhoti hi hua karati thin. bharatiy prekshagrih akar men grik prekshagrihon ki apeksha, jo bahudha khule hua karate the, bahut chhote hote the.

bharat natyashastr men die hue natyamndap ke akar prakar tatha sajavat se aisa gyat hota hai ki us samay tak bharat ke adivasiyon ke natyamndapon ka prathamik roop, jo hamen sitavnga gupha, hathigunpha, tatha nasik ke pas phulumee gupha men prapt hota hai, aryon ke prachinatam lakadi ke makanon ke roop men samanvit hokar tatha donon ke sammishran se ek naya dhancha khada ho chuka tha. yahi nahin, natyamndap ke roop ke vishay men niyam bhi ban chuke the tatha un par dharm ka niyntran bhi prarnbh ho chuka tha. ye niyam itane kade the ki mapane ki rassi toot jana tatha ek bhi stnbh ka doshayukt hona, natyamndap ke svami ke maran ka soochak samajha jane laga tha. bharat ke samay tak bharatiy rngamnch is mahanh snsar ka dyotak mana jane laga tha, jahan stri purush pavisht hokar apani poorvanishchit lila karate hain tatha usaki samapti par yahan se vida lete hain.

vartaman bharatiy rngamnch

nautnki, bengalor

adhunik bharatiy naty sahity ka itihas ek shatabdi se adhik purana nahin hai. islam dharm ki kattarata ke karan natak ko mugal kal men us prakar ka protsahan nahin mila jis prakar ka protsahan any kalaon ko mugal shasakon se prapt hua tha. is karan mugal kal men ke do dhaee sau varshon men bharatiy parnpara ki abhinayashalaon athava prekshagaron ka sarvatha lop ho gaya. angrejon ka prabhutv desh men vyapt hone par unake desh ki anek vastuon ne hamare desh men pravesh kiya. unake manornjan ke nimitt pashchaty natakon ka bhi pravesh hua. un logon ne apane natakon ke abhinay ke lie yahan abhinayashalaon ka snyojan kiya, jo thietar ke nam se adhik vikhyat hain. is dhng ka pahala thietar, kaha jata hai, plasi ke yuddh ke bahut pahale, kalakatta men ban gaya tha. ek doosara thietar 1795ee. men khula. isaka nam 'lephed pheyar' tha. isake bad 1812 ee. men 'ethiniyam' aur doosare varsh 'chaurngi' thietar khule.

is prakar pashchaty rngamnch ke snpark men sabase pahale bngal aya aur usane pashchaty thietaron ke anukaran par apane natakon ke lie rngamnch ko naya roop diya. doosari or bnbee men parasi logon ne in videshi abhinayashalaon ke anukaran par bharatiy natakon ke lie, ek ne dhng ki abhinayashala ko janm diya. parasi natak knpaniyon ne rngamnch ko akarshak aur manornjak banakar apane natak upasthit kie.

pashchaty rngamnch

yoonan aur rom ki prachin sabhyata men ham chauthi shati ee. poorv men rngamnch hone ki kalpana kar sakate hain. itihas prasiddh dayonisan ka thietar ethens men aj bhi us kal ki yad dilata hai. ek any thietar epidaras men hai, jisaka nrityamnch gol hai. 364 ee. poorv rom vale itraskan abhinetaon ki ek mndali apane nagar men lae aur unake lie 'sarkas maiksiyas' men pahala roman rngamnch taiyar kiya. isase kalpana ki jati hai ki itrooriyavalon se hi (jinaka udgam vivadagrast hai) natyakala aur phalat: rngamnch ka prarnbhik roop rom men aya. sizar (kaisar) aaugastas (doosari shati ee.poo.) ne rom ko bahut unnat kiya. panpeee ka shanadar thietar tatha ek any (patthar ka) thietar usi ke banavae batae jate hain.

lagabhag doosari shati eesavi men rngamnch kamadev ka sthan mana jane laga. eesaiyat ke janm lete hi padariyon ne natyakala ko hi hey man liya. girajaghar ne thietar ka aisa gala ghota ki vah ath shatabdiyon tak n panap saka. kuchh utsahi padariyon ne to yahan tak phatava diya ki roman samrajy ke patan ka karan thietar hi hai. roman rngamnch ka antim sndarbh 533 ee. ka milata hai. kintu dharm janasamany ki annd manane ki bhavana ko n daba saka aur lokanrity tatha lokanaty, chhipe chhipe hi sahi, panapate rahe. jab eesaiyon ne itar jatiyon par adhipaty kar liya, to ek madhyam marg apanana pada. riti rivajon men phir se is kala ka pravesh hua. bahut dinon tak girajaghar hi natyashala ka kam deta raha, aur vedi hi rngamnch bani. 10 vin se 13 vin shatabdi tak baibil ki kathaen hi pramukhat: abhinay ka adhar banin, phir dhire-dhire any kathaen bhi aeen, kintu ye natak svatntr hi rahe. chir pratishthit rngamnch, jo yoorop bhar men jagah-jagah toote phoote pade the, phir n apanae ge.

punarjagaran

italavi punarjagaran ke sath vartaman rngamnch ka janm hua, kintu us samay jahan sare yoorop men any sabhi kalaon ka punarudvar hua, rngamnch ka pun: apana shaishav dekhana pada. 14 vin shatabdi men phir se natyakala ka janm hua aur lagabhag 16 vin shatabdi men use praudhata prapt huee. shahi mahalon ki atynt saji dhaji nrityashalaen natakiy rngamnch men parinat ho geen. bad men udyanon men bhi rngashalaen banin, jinamen anek divaron ke sthan par vrikshavali ya jhadabndi hi hua karati thi.

rngamnch ka vikas visenja aur parama men bani huee rngashalaon se spasht parilakshit hota hai. visenja ki olinpiyan akadami men ek sundar rngashala sanh‌ 1580-1585 men bani, jis par chhat bhi thi. isamen pichhe ki or vithikaon jaise anek kaksh badhae ge. sanh‌ 1588 men saiviyoneta men skamozi ne in kakshon ko mukhy rngamnch se mila diya, aur dhire-dhire bad men ve bhi rngamnch hi ho ge. age chalakar sanh‌ 1618-1619 men parama thietar men samoocha rngamnch hi pichhe kar diya gaya aur prishthabhoomi ki chitrit divar age a gee, jis par bich men bane ek bade dvar se hi natak dekha ja sakata hai. is dvar par parda lagaya jane laga. parda uthane par drishy kisi phrem men jadi tasvir jaisa dikhaee padata hai. rngamnch men bhi drishyon ke anukool prabhav utpann karane ke lie anek parden lagae jane lage. milan ka 'la skala' aaupera haus 18 vin - 19 vin shati men rngamnch ke vikas ka adarsh mana jata hai. isamen pakhavaiyan lagane ke lie bagalon men sthan bane hain.

punarjagaran sare yoorop men phailata hua elizabeth kal men inglaind pahuncha. sanh‌ 1574 tak vahan ek bhi thietar n tha. lagabhag 50 varsh men hi vahan rngamnch sthapit hokar charam vikas ko prapt hua. is kala ki pragati ki jyoti itali se phrans, spen aur vahan se inglaind pahunchi. rani elizabeth ko ardabar aur tadak bhadak se prem tha. isase rngamnch ko bhi protsahan mila. 1590 se 1620 ee. tak sheksapiyar ka bolabala raha. rngamnch vishisht varg ka hi nahin, janasamany ke manornjan ka sadhan bana. kintu protestait snpraday dvara isaka virodh bhi hua aur phalasvaroop 1642 ee. men naty kala par rok lag gee. dhire-dhire darabariyon aur janata ka agrah prabal hua, aur rok hatani padi. marlo, sheksapiyar tatha jaaunasan adi ke vishvavishrut natak pun: prakash men ae. glob thietar elizabeth kalin rngamnch ka pratinidhi hai. isamen purani dharmashalaon ka svaroop parilakshit hota hai, jahan pahale natak khele jate the. prangan ke bich men rngamnch hota tha aur charon or tatha chhajjon men darshakon ke baithane ka sthan rahata tha.

jab sare yoorop ke rngamnch lokatntr ki or agrasar ho rahe the, snyukt rajy amerika, men apani hi kism ke jivan ka svatntr vikas ho raha tha. charlsatan, philadelfiya, nyooyaaurk, aur bostan ke rngamnchon par lndan ka prabhav bilakul nahin pada. phir bhi amariki rngamnchon men koee ullekhaniy visheshata nahin thin. unake samany rngamnch ghumntoo knpaniyon ke se hi hote the. kintu 18 vin shati ke ant tak anek utkrisht kati ke thietar ban ge, jinamen filadelfiya ka chestanat strit thietar (1794 ee.) aur nyooyaaurk ka park thietar (1798 ee.) ullekhaniy hain. inamen sundar prekshagrih bane, aur kuchh yooropiy prabhav bhi a gaya. tadanntar 20-25 varsh men hi amaraki rngamnch yooropiy rngamnch ke samakaksh, balki usase bhi utkrisht ho gaya.

adhunik rngamnch

pnjabi poshak men rngamnch par natak karate kalakar

adhunik rngamnch ka vastavik vikas 19vin shati ke uttarardh se arnbh hua aur vinyas tatha akalpan men prati varsh ne-ne sudhar hote rahe hain; yahan tak ki 10 varsh pahale ke thietar purane pad jate rahe hain, aur 20 varsh pahale ke avikasit aur aprachalit samajhe jane lage hain. nirman ki drishti se lohe ke dhanchonvali rachana, vigyan ki pragati, vidyuth prakash ki snbhavanaen aur nirman snbndhi niyamon ka anivary palan hi mukhyat: is pragati ke mool karan hain. samajik aur arthik dasha men parivartan hone se bhi kuchh sudhar hua hai. abhi kuchh hi varsh pahale ke thietar, jinamen anivaryat: khnbhe, chhajje aur dirghaen hua karati thin, ab prachin mane jate hain.

adhunik rngashala men ek tal pharsh se niche hota hai, jise vaditr kaksh kahate hain. oopar ek dhaloo balakani hoti hai. kabhi kabhi is balakani aur pharsh ke bich men ek chhoti balakani aur hoti hai. prekshagrih men baithe pratyek darshak ko rngamnch tak sidhe dekhane ki suvidha honi chahie, isalie usamen upayukt dhal ka vishesh dhyan rakha jata hai. dhvani upachar bhi uchch star ka hona chahie. samay ki kami ke karan ajakal natak bahudha adhik lnbe nahin hote, aur ek doosare ke bad kram se anek khel hote hain. isalie darshakon ke ane jane ke lie sidhiyan, galiyare, tikataghar adi suvidhajanak sthanon par hone chahie, jisase avyavastha n phaile.

1890 ee. tak rngamnch se chitrakari ko door karane ki koee kalpana bhi n kar sakata tha, kintu adhunik rngamnchon men rng, kapadon, pardon, aur prakash tak hi simit rah gaya hai. rngamnch ki rngachhuhi aur sajja poornataya lupt ho gee hai. sadagi aur gnbhirata ne usaka sthan le liya hai, taki darshakon ka dhyan bnt n jae. vidyut prakash ke niyntran dvara rngamnch men vah prabhav utpann kiya jata hai jo kabhi chitrit pardon dvara kiya jata tha. prakash se hi vividh drishyon ka, unaki doori aur nikatata ka aur unake prakat aur lupt hone ka abhas karaya jata hai.

vibhinn drishyon ke parivartan men abhinetaon ke ane jane men jo samay lagata hai, usamen darshakon ka dhyan akarshit rakhane ke lie kuchh avakash git adi karane ki avashyakata hoti thi, jinaka khel se pray: koee snbndh n hota tha. ab paribhrami rngamnch banane lage hain, jinamen ek drishy samapt hote hi, rngamnch ghoom jata hai, aur doosara drishy jo usamen anyatr pahale se hi saza taiyar rahati hai, samane a jata hai. isamen kuchh kshan hi lagate hain. abhi sanh‌ 1962 men jabalapur (madhy pradesh) men ek paribhrami rngamnch taiyar hua hai. aise rngamnch ab pray: sabhi pragatishil deshon men banane lage hain.

chitrapat aur rngamnch

chitrapat (sinema) ke a jane se rngamnch ka sthan bahut snkirn ho gaya hai. vishal prekshagrihon men, keval ek chhota sa rngamnch jis par kabhi-kabhi avashyakata padane par chhote mote nrity, ya ekanki adi khele ja saken, bana dena paryapt samajha jata hai. prishthabhoomi par rajatapat rahata hai: avashyakatanusar ek do parde bhi lagae ja sakate hain. vaditr ke lie rngamnch ke samane ek gadhe men thoda sa sthan rahata hai. darshakon ke lie adhik sthan hone ke karan upayukt snvatan, dhvaniniyntran, evn any vyavasthaon ki or adhik dhyan diya jata hai. ab to panch chhah hazar darshakon ke lie sthan vale, badi sukhaprad kursiyon se yukt prekshagrih sabhi bade nagaron men banate hain.

sinema ka akarshan adhik hone par bhi, natakon ke lie upayukt rngamnch banane ka pashchaty deshon men kafi prayas ho raha hai. manornjan ki drishti se kam, shiksha ki drishti se inaki upayogita adhik samajhi gee hai. shaikshanik rngamnch men amarika snsar men agrani hai. amariki shaikshanik rngamnch ki shakhaen bahut se vishvavidyalayon men khuli hain.

bharat men bhi sinema ka prachar din-b-din badh raha hai. kintu yahan dehat adhik hone ke karan rngamnch ke lie ab bhi paryapt kshetr hai aur protsahan milane par yah samajik jivan ka mahattvapoorn ang bana rahega. is drishti se rngamnch ke prati kendriy sarakar aur rajy sarakaron ki anubhooti badhati rahi hai aur ve sakriy sahayata bhi deti hain. kendriy sarakar ne sngit natak akadami ko marphat sanh‌ 53 se 58 ee. tak 10.5 lakh rupaya anudan ke roop men vividh snsthaon ko diya hai. bnbee rajy ne rngamnchon ke lie 33.3 pratishat manornjan kar samapt kar diya hai. rngamnch ke vikas ka anuman govaliya taink (bnbee) men gokuladas thietar, aur bidala thietar jaisi adhunik aur vatanukoolit rngashalaon ke nirman se lagata hai; yadyapi unake mnch aur prishthamnch men samuchit suvidhaon ka ayojan nahin kiya gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. snketakshar- n=nepathy, r=rngapith, m=mattavarani, r.sh.=rngashirsh tatha pre.=prekshagrih.
  • hindi vishvakosh khand- 10 (prishth- 2)
  • ray govindachndr: bharat naty shastr men natyashalaon ke roop;
  • bharatiy rngamnch ke kshitij, (vaigyanik anusndhan aur sanskritik kary mntralay, bharat sarakar);
  • ar.ke. yagyik: di indiyan thietar;
  • mulkaraj annd: di indiyan thietar;
  • elaradais nikol: di devalapament aauv di thietar;
  • richard likraaupht: sivik thietar dizain.

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