Makhanchor.jpg bharatakosh ki or se ap sabhi ko krishn janmashtami ki hardik shubhakamanaen Makhanchor.jpg

अभिनय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

abhinay ek kala hai jise sikhane aur abhyas karane ki zaroorat hoti hai yah jivan ke anubhav ka kavyatmak pratiroop hai. jaise- kisi abhineta ya abhinetri ke dvara kiya jane vala vah kary hai jisake dvara ve kisi katha ko darshate hain.

abhinay ke prakar

abhinay mukhy roop se char prakar ka hota hai-

  1. angik
  2. vachik
  3. ahary aur
  4. sattvik.
angik abhinay

angik abhinay ka arth hai- "sharir, mukh aur cheshtaon se koee bhav ya arth prakat karana, jisamen poore sharir ki vishesh cheshta ke dvara abhinay kiya jata hai." abhinay vishesh ras, bhav tatha snchari bhav ke anusar kie jate hain. angik abhinay men terah prakar ka snyukt hast abhinay, chaubis prakar ka asnyukt hast abhinay, chaunsath prakar ka nritt hast ka abhinay aur char prakar ka hath ke karan ka abhinay bataya gaya hai. isake atirikt vaksh ke panch, parshv ke panch, udar ke tin, kati ke panch, uru ke panch, jngha ke panch aur pair ke panch prakar ke abhinay batae ge hain. bharat ne solah bhoomichariyon aur solah akashachariyon ka varnan karake das akashamndal aur us bhaum mndal ke abhinay ka parichay dete hue gati ke abhinay ka vistar se varnan kiya hai ki kis bhoomika ke vyakti ki mnch par kis ras men, kaisi gati honi chahie, kis jati, ashram, varn aur vyavasay vale ko rngamnch par kaise chalana chahie tatha rath, viman, arohan, avarohan, akashagaman adi ka abhinay kis gati se karana chahie. gati ke hi saman asan ya baithane ki vidhi bhi bharat ne vistar se samajhaee hai. jis prakar yoorop men ghanavadiyon (kyoobrists) ne abhinayakaushal ke lie vyayam ka vidhan kiya hai vaise hi bharat ne bhi abhinay ka aisa vistrit vivaran diya hai ki abhinay ke snbndh men snsar men kisi desh men abhinay kala ka vaisa sangopang niroopan nahin hua.

vachik abhinay

abhineta rngamnch par jo kuchh mukh se kahata hai vah sabaka sab vachik abhinay kahalata hai. sahity men to ham log vyakrita vani hi grahan karate hain, kintu natak men avyakrita vani ka bhi prayog kiya ja sakata hai. siti dena ya dhoron ko hankate hue chatakari dena adi sab prakar ki dhvaniyon ko mukh se nikalana vachik abhinay ke antargat ata hai. bharat ne vachik abhinay ke lie 63 lakshanon ka aur unake dosh-gun ka bhi vivechan kiya hai. vachik abhinay ka sabase bada gun hai apani vani ke aroh-avaroh ko is prakar sadh lena ki kaha hua shabd ya vaky apane bhav aur prabhav ko banae rakhe. vachik abhinay ki sabase badi visheshata yahi hai ki yadi koee javanika ke pichhe se bhi bolata ho to keval usaki vani sunakar hi usaki mukhamudra, bhavabhngima aur akanksha ka gyan kiya ja sake.

ahary abhinay

vastav men abhinay ka ang n hokar nepathyakarm ka ang hai ahary abhinay aur isaka snbndh abhineta se utana nahin hai jitana nepathyasajja karane vale se. kintu aj ke sabhi pramukh abhineta aur naty prayokta yah manane lage hain ki pratyek abhineta ko apani mukhasajja aur roopasajja svayn karani chahie.

sattvik

satvik abhinay to un bhavon ka vastavik aur hardik abhinay hai jinhen ras siddhant vale satvik bhav kahate hain aur jisake antargat, sved, stnbh, knp, ashru, vaivarny, romanch, svarabhng aur pralay ki ganana hoti hai. inamen se sved aur romanch ko chhodakar shesh sabaka satvik abhinay kiya ja sakata hai. ashru ke lie to vishesh sadhana avashyak hai, kyonki bhav magn hone par hi usaki siddhi ho sakati hai. bharat ke natyashastr men sabase vichitr prakaran hai chitrabhinay ka, jisamen unhonne rituon, bhavon, anek prakar ke jivon, devataon, parvat, nadi, sagar adi ka, anek avasthaon tatha prat:, saayn, chndajyotsna adi ke abhinay ka vivaran diya hai. yah samoocha abhinayavidhan pratikatmak hi hai, kintu ye pratik us prakar ke nahin hain jis prakar ke yooropiy pratikabhinayavadiyon ne grahan kie hain.

abhinay karane ki pravritti bachapan se hi manushy men tatha any anek jivon men hoti hai. hath, pair, ankh, munh, sir chalakar apane bhav prakat karane ki pravritti sabhy aur asabhy jatiyon men saman roop se paee jati hai. unake anukaran krityon ka ek uddeshy to yah rahata hai ki isase unhen vastavik anubhav jaisa annd milata hai aur doosara yah ki isase unhen doosaron ko apana bhav batane men sahayata milati hai. isi doosare uddeshy ke karan sharirik ya angik cheshtaon aur mukhamudraon ka vikas hua jo jngali jatiyon men boli huee bhasha ke badale ya usaki sahayak hokar abhinay prayog men ati hai.

yoonan men devataon ki pooja ke sath jo nrity prarnbh hua vahi vahan ka abhinayakala ka pratham roop tha jisamen nrity ke dvara katha ke bhav ki abhivyakti ki jati thi. yoonan men prarnbh men dharmik vedi ke charon or jae natakiy nrity hote the unamen sabhi log saman roop se bhag lete the, kintu pichhe chalakar samavet gayakon men se kuchh chune hue samarth abhineta hi mukhy bhoomikaon ke lie chun lie jate the jae ek ka hi nahin, kee ki bhoomikaon ka abhinay karate the kyonki mukhauta pahanane ki riti ke karan yah snbhav ho gaya tha. mukhaute ke prayog ke karan vahan vachik abhinay to bahut samunnat hua kintu mukh mudraon se abhinay karane ki riti pallavit n ho saki.

itali vasiyon men abhinay ki ruchi badi svabhavik hai. natak likhe jane se bahut pahale se hi vahan yah sadharan pravritti rahi hai ki kisi dal ko jahan koee vishay diya gaya ki vah jhat usaka abhinay prastut kar deta tha. sngit, nrity aur drishy ke is prem ne vahan ke rajanaitik aur dharmik sngharsh men bhi abhinayakala ko jivit rakhane men badi sahayata di hai.

yoorop men abhinay kala ko sabase adhik mahatv diya sheksapiyar ne. usane svayn manav svabhav ke sabhi charitron ka chitran kiya hai. usane haimalet ke snvad men shreshth abhinay ke mool tatvon ka samavesh karate hue bataya hai ki abhinay men vani aur sharir ke angon ka prayog svabhavik roop se karana chahie, atirnjit roop se nahin.

18vin shatabdi men hi yoorop men abhinay ke snbndh men vibhinn siddhanton aur pranaliyon ka pradurbhav hua. phransisi vishvakoshakar deni didaro ne udattavadi (klasikal) phransisi natak aur usaki roodh abhinay paddhati se oobakar vastavik jivan ke natak ka siddhant pratipadit kiya aur bataya ki natak ko phrans ke burjuva (madhyavargiy) jivan ki vastavik pratichchhaya banana chahie. usane abhineta ko yah sujhaya ki prayog ke samay apane par dhyan dena chahie, apani vani sunani chahie aur apane avegon ki smritiyan hi prastut karani chahie. kintu 'masko stej aind inpiriyal thietar' ke bhootapoorv prayokta aur kala snchalak thiyodor kaumisarajevaski ne is siddhant ka khndan karate hue likh tha: 'ab yah siddh ho chuka hai ki yadi abhineta apane abhinay par savadhani se dhyan rakhata rahe to vah n darshakon ko prabhavit kar sakata hai aur n rngamnch par kisi bhi prakar ki rachanatmak srishti kar sakata hai, kyonki use apane antarik svatm par jo pratibinb prastut karate hain unapar ekagr hone ke badale vah apane bahy svatm par ekagr ho jata hai jisase vah itana adhik atmachetan ho jata hai ki usaki apani kalpana shakti nasht ho jati hai. at:, shreshthatar upay yah hai ki vah kalpana ke ashray par abhinay kare, navanirman kare, nayapan lae aur keval apane jivan ke anubhavon ka anukaran ya pratiroopan n kare. jab koee abhineta kisi bhoomika ka abhinay karate hue apani svayn ki utpadit kalpana ke vishv men vicharan karane lagata hai us samay use n to apane oopar dhyan dena chahie, n niyntran rakhana chahie aur n to vah aisa kar hi sakata hai, kyonki abhineta ki apani bhavana se udbhut aur usaki agya ke anusar kam karanevali kalpana abhinay ke samay usake aveg aur abhinay ko niyntrit karati, path dikhalati aur snchalan karati hai.

20vin shatabdi men anek natyavidyalayon, natyasnsthaon aur rngashalaon ne abhinay ke snbndh men anek ne aur spasht siddhant pratipadit kie. marks rinahart ne jarmani men aur firmi gemie ne peris men us prakritivadi natyapaddhati ka prachalan kiya jisaka pratipadan phrans men ande antvan ne aur jarmani men kroneg ne kiya tha aur jisaka vikas barlin men otobrahm ne aur masko men stanislavaski ne kiya. in prayoktaon ne bich-bich men prakritivadi abhinay men ya to ritivadi (phormalists) logon ke vicharon ka sannivesh kiya ya sanh‌ 1910 ke pashchath‌ kromisarajevaski ne abhinay ke snshleshanatmak siddhanton ka jo pravarttan kiya tha unaka bhi thoda bahut samavesh kiya; kintu adhikansh phransisi abhineta 18vin shatabdi ki prachin romansavadi (romantik) paddhati ka ardhodatt (soodo-klasikal) abhinayapaddhati ka hi prayog karate rahe.

sanh‌ 1910 ke pashchath‌ jitane abhinayasiddhant prasiddh hue unamen sarvaprasiddh masko art thietar ke prayokta stanisalavaski ki pranali hai jisaka siddhant yah hai ki koee bhi abhineta rngamnch par tabhi svabhavik aur sachcha ho sakata hai jab vah un avegon ka pradarshan kare jinaka usane apane jivan men anubhav kiya ho. abhinay men yah antarik prakritivad stanisalavaski ki koee nee soojhi nahin thi kyonki kuchh phransisi natygyon ne 18vin shatabdi men inhin vicharon ke adhar par apani abhinay paddhatiyan pravartit ki thin. stanisalavaski ke anusar ve hi abhineta prem ke drishy ka pradarshan bhali-bhanti kar sakate hain jo vastavik jivan men prem kar rahe hon.

stanasilavaski ke siddhant ke viruddh pratikavadiyon (sinbolists), ritivadiyon (farmalists) aur abhivynjanavadiyon (ekspreshanists) ne nee riti chalaee jisamen satyata aur jivanatulyata ka poorn bahishkar karake kaha gaya ki abhinay jitana hi kam, vastavik aur kam jivanatuly hoga utana hi achchha hoga. abhineta ko nishchit charitr nirman karane ka prayatn karana chahie. use goodh vicharon ka roodh riti se apani vani, apani cheshta aur mudraon dvara prastut karana chahie aur vah abhinay roodh, jivan-samy-hin, chitramay aur kathaputali--nrity--shaili men prastut karana chahie.

roodhivadi log age chalakar meyarahold, tayarof aur aravin piskatar ke netritv men abhinay men itani uchhal-kood, natavidya aur layagati ka prayog karane lage ki rngamnch par unaka abhinay aisa pratit hone laga manon koee sarakas ho raha ho jisamen uchhal-kood, sharir ka kalatmak sntulan aur isi prakar ki gatiyon ki pradhanata ho. yah abhinay hi ghanavadi (kyoobistik) abhinay kahalane laga. in layavadiyon men se meyarahold to age chalakar kuchh prakritivadi ho gaya kintu liyopold jessavar, nikolasaivarenov adi abhivynjanavadi, ya yon kahie ki atirnjit abhinayavadi log kuchh to roodhivadiyon ki pranaliyon ka anusaran karate rahe aur kuchh manovaigyanik prakritivadi paddhati ka.

is prakar abhinay ki drishti se yoorop men panch prakar ki abhinay paddhatiyan chalin: (1) roodhivadi ya sthir ritivadi (farmalist), (2) prakritivadi (nechuralist), (3) abhivynjanavadi (ekspeshanist) jo atirnjit abhinay karate the, (4) ghanavadi (kyoobist) jo sntulit vyayam poorn gatiyon dvara yntratmak abhinay karate the aur (5) pratikavadi (sibolists), jinhonne apane abhinay men pratyek bhav ke anusar kuchh nishchit mukh mudraen aur angik gatiyan pratik ke roop men man li thin aur un sab bhavon ki avasthaon men se log unhin pratikon ka abhinay karate the. kintu ye pratik bharatiy mudrapratikon se poornat: bhinn the. yah pratikavad yoorop men saphal nahin ho saka.

20vin shatabdi ke chauthe dashak se, arthath‌ dvitiy mahayuddh ke asapas, yoorop ki abhinayapranali men parivartan hua aur pray: sabhi yooropiy tatha amariki rngashalaon men pratyek abhineta se yah asha ki jane lagi ki vah apane abhinay men koee navinata aur maulikata dikhakar atynt apratyashit dhng ka abhinay karake logon ko sntusht kare. ajakal abhineta ke lie yah avashyak mana jane laga hai ki vah apani kalpana ka prayog karake natak ke bhav ki pratyek paristhiti men apane abhinay ka aisa snshlisht snyojan kare ki usase natak men kuchh vishesh chetana aur sajivata utpann ho. usaka dharm hai ki vah rngashala ke vyavaharik drishtikon ko dhyan men rakhakar apani pratibha ke bal se natakakar ki bhavana ka uchit aur spasht snrakshan karata hua natak ka pravah aur prabhav banae rakhe.

ajakal ke prasiddh abhinetaon ka kathan hai ki abhineta ko kisi vishesh paddhati ka anusaran nahin karana chahie aur n kisi abhineta ka anusaran karana chahie. vastav men abhinay ka koee ek siddhant nahin hai, jo do natakon ke lie ya do abhinetaon ke lie kisi ek paristhiti men saman kaha ja sake. ajakal ke abhineta snchalak (aiktar-mainejar) isi mat ke hain ki achchhe abhineta ko snsar ke sab natakon ki sab bhoomikaon ke lie koee nishchit pranali dhoondh nikalani chahie aur tadanusar apane ko svayn shikshit karate chalana chahie. ajakal ke adhikansh natyagharon ka mat hai ki natak ko prabhavashali banane ke lie abhineta ko n to bahut adhik prakritivadi hona chahie aur n adhik abhivynjanavadi ya layavadi. atirnjit abhinay to kabhi karana hi nahin chahie.

ajakal ki abhinayapranali men ek charitrabhinay (kairektar aikting) ki riti chali hai jisamen ek abhineta kisi vishesh prakar ke charitr men visheshata prapt karake sad sab natakon men usi prakar ki bhoomika grahan karata hai. chalachitron ke karan is prakar ke charitr abhineta bahut badhate ja rahe hain.[1]

bhoomika men svikrit pad, prakriti, ras aur bhav ke anusar chhah prakar ki gatiyon men abhinay hota hai---atynt karun men stabdh gati, shant men mnd gati, shrringar, has aur bibhats men sadharan gati, vir men drut gati, raudr men vegapoorn gati aur bhay men ativegapoorn gati. in sabaka vidhan vibhinn bhavon, vyaktiyon, avasthaon aur paristhitiyen par avalnbit hota hai. abhinay ka kshetr bahut vyapak hai. snkshep men yahi kaha jae sakata hai ki abhineta ko maulik hona chahie aur kisi paddhati ka anusaran n karake yah prayatn karana chahie ki apani rachana ke dvara natakakar jo prabhav darshakon par dalana chahata hai usaka uchit vibhajan ho sake.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 175 |
  2. sn.gn.-bharat: natyashastr; ke. ainbros: klaisikal dansej aind kaaustyooms aauv indiya (1952); nndikeshvar: abhinayadarpan (1934); sitaram chaturvedi: abhinav natyashastr (1950); sharadatanay: bhavaprakashan (1930); ladins nikal: varld drama (1951); sidani dablyoo. kairol: aikting an di stej (1947); en. dindase: di thietar (1948); en. cherakasov: nots aauv e soviyat aiktar (1956); sara varnahat: di art aauv di thietar (1930).

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