शैली  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

shaili hindi shabdakosh ka ek shabd hai, jo angrezi ke 'stail' ka anuvad hai aur angrezi sahity ke prabhav se hindi men aya hai. prachin sahityashastr men shaili se milate-julate arth ko dene vala ek shabd prayukt hua hai- 'riti'. 'kavyalnkarasootr' ke lekhak achary vaman ne riti ko 'vishishtapad rachana' kahakar paribhashit kiya hai. is paribhasha men 'vishisht' shabd ka arth hai, gun-yukt.

ritiyon ke roop

achary vaman 'riti' ko 'kavy ki atma' manate hain. inake anusar ritiyon ke tin roop hain-

  1. vaidarbhi
  2. gaudiy
  3. panchali

vaidarbhi riti men, vaman ke anusar, oj, prasad adi samast gun rahate hain. gaudi riti ke pradhan gun oj aur kanti hai aur panchali ke madhurata aur sukumarati. vaman ke mat men vaidarbhi riti hi sarvatha grahy hai. doosare acharyon ne ukt ritiyon ke doosare prakar ke varnan diye hain. kuchh acharyon ne yah bhi nirdesh karane ki koshish ki hai ki kis prakar ke varnon adi ke prayog se vishesh riti astitv men ati hai. ritiyon ke ye vyakhyan yah snket dete hain, mano ritittv ka pramukh adhar vishisht padayojana ho. yahan ek bat aur lakshit karane ki hai-vaman adi ke mat men riti achchhe lekhan ka hi dharm hai. isaka matalab yah hua ki ghatiya rachana men riti ki upasthiti nahin hoti.

vidvan vichar

kya isi prakar yah mana jana chahie ki 'shaili' namak tattv achchhi rachanaon men hi upasthit rahata hai? kya kharab lekhakon men shaili ka abhav rahata hai? yadi yah mana jae ki shaili ek sprihaniy gun hai, to kahana hoga ki achchhe lekhak hi achchhe shailikar bhi hote hain. prasiddh yoonani vicharak 'aphalatoon' ya 'pleto' ka yahi mat hai- "jab vichar ko tattvik roopakar de diya jata hai to 'shaili' ka uday hota hai." prasiddh fransisi upanyasakar standhal ne bhi shaili ko achchhi rachana ka gun manate hue usaka vivechan kiya hai. usake vichar men "shaili ka astittv isamen nihit hai ki diye hue vichar ke sath un sab paristhitiyon ko jod diya jae, jo ki us vichar ke abhimat prabhav ko sampoornata men utpann karane vali hai." isase milata-julata hi barnard sha ka yah vichar hai ki "prabhavapoorn abhivyakti hi shaili ka ath aur iti hai."

paribhasha

yahan prashn uthata hai, yah kaise jan sakate hain ki koee rachana sampoorn abhisht prabhav ko utpann kar rahi hai ya nahin? is prashn par gambhirata se vichar karane par jan padata hai ki kisi rachana ki shaili ko us rachana se prithakh karake moolyankan ka vishay nahin banaya ja sakata. hamari samajh men, shaili ko ek gun manate hue, usaki paribhasha is prakar karani chahie-

"shaili anubhoot vishayavastu ko sajane ke un tariqon ka nam hai, jo us vishayavastu ki abhivyakti ko sundar evn prabhavapoorn banate hain."

is drishti se dekhane par yah jan padega ki 'shaili' n to keval anubhoot vishayavastu ka dharm hai aur n kahane ke tariqe ka hi. shaili ki atma mukhyat: ve sambandh hai, jinake dhanche men anubhoot vishayavastu ko samahit ya vyavasthit kiya jata hai. vishayavastu men ukt sambandh ki sthapana ras ki utpatti ke lie ki jati hai.

mool tattv

kavy-sahity ki rasatmakata ko usake prabhav se alag nahin kiya ja sakata. jis vibhavatmak vishayavastu ko sahityakar snjokar pathakon ke samane rakhata hai, usamen prabhav ya ras ke utpadan ki kshamata nihit rahati hai. kintu yah kshamata sambaddh vishayavastu ka hi dharm hai. sahityakar anubhoot vishayavastu ko naye sambandhon men grnthit karake usamen naye prabhav utpann karane ki kshamata sthapit kar deta hai. is prakar ki kshamata utpann karane ke upadan hi shaili ke mool tattv hote hain.

prayog

vibhinn rachanaen jin prabhavon ko utpann karati hain, ve bhinn-bhinn kotiyon ke hote hain, phalat: shailiyan bhi bhinn hoti hain. ek prakar ki shaili hamare man par komal sneh athava najuk saundary ki chhap chhodati hai, to doosari udatt garima ki. kabhi-kabhi shailikar ka uddeshy keval chitr khade karana hota hai, jinake anuchintan men koee tikha ya gahara ragatmak alodan n rahate hue bhi buddhi chamatkrit ho jati hai. aise kavy ke udaharan bihari ki 'satasee' tatha urdoo ke kavy men bahut-se mil sakenge. kalidas jaise mahakavi ki rachanaon men anek shailiyan bhi payi jati hain. 'raghuvnsh' ke pratham sarg ki shaili ek hai aur 'raghu' ke digvijay ka varnan karane vale chauthe sarg ki doosari.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. pustak, hindi sahity kosh, bhag-1; prishth snkhya-680

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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