अंग्रेज़ी साहित्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

angrezi bhasha hind-yooropiy bhasha parivar ki bhasha hai aur is prakar se hindi, urdoo, farasi adi bhashaon ke sath isaka door ka snbndh hai. ise duniya ki sarvapratham antarrashtriy bhasha mana jata hai. purani angrezi ka jo sahity upalabdh hai, usake adhar par pata lagata hai ki prachin yug ke lekhakon aur kaviyon ki vishesh ruchi yatravarnan tatha rochak kahani kahane men thi. us yug ki pramukh rachanaen hain 'vidasith', 'di vandarar' tatha 'biolph'. madhy angrezi ki do bhashaen thi. pashchimi bhasha men poorvavarti englo-saiksan sahity ki parampara akshunn bani rahi. is shakha ki pratinidhi rachanaen hain viliyam laigalaind ki 'di vizan aph pipars plaumain' aur kisi agyat kavi ke dvara virachit 'gevet end di grin nait' tatha 'di parl'. doosari arthath dakshin-poorvi shakha ke pratinidhi lekhak the-

  • jaaun govar (1325-1408 ee.) tatha
  • chaausar (1340-1400 ee.).

chaausar ko adhunik angrezi ka pratham kavi mana jata hai aur usaki rachanaon ka angrezi sahity men vishesh mahattv hai. isake uparant pray: dedh sau varshon tak usaka anusaran hota raha aur koee mahanh kavi nahin paida hua. isi kal men pahale-pahal kaikstan ne inglaind men chhapakhana sthapit kiya. mudran ki suvidha se gady sahity ki vishesh unnati huee. lagabhag 16vin shati ke madhy se inglaind men yooropiy navajagaran (rinesan) ka prabhav prakat hone laga. prachin sahity ke adhyayan ke sath hi sath frech tatha itailiyan sahity ka bhi adhyayan hone laga aur in tinon ke sammilit prabhav se angrezi sahity ka navotthan hua.

  • kavita ke kshetr men vayat, sare, 'pheyari kvin' ke praneta edamnd spensar (1552-99 ee.), sar philip sidani prabhuti ne vishesh yash prapt kiya.
  • natak ka mahattvapoorn abhyuday hua tatha grin (1562-92 ee.), lili (1554-1606 ee.), tamas kid (1557-95 ee.), marlo (1564-93 ee.) adi natakakaron ne apani sundar kritiyan prastut kin. angrezi natak sahity ka param utthan sheksapiyar (1564-1616 ee.) ki rachanaon men hua. sheksapiyar ke natak tatha kavy vishv sahity ki gauravapoorn vibhooti hain.
  • satrahavin shati men bahut badi snkhya men angrezi natak likhe gaye. ben jaaunsan (1573-1673 ee.) ne sheksapiyar k roomani natakon ke viparit klasiki adarsh par sukhant aur du:khant natakon ki rachana ki. bement aur phlechar ne anek sukhant aur du:khant-sukhant natakon ka saphal nirman kiya.
  • chepamain (1559-1634 ee.), bebstar (1580-1625 ee.), sharle (1596-1666 ee.), toorno (1575-1626 ee.), aur philip mesinzar (1583-1648 ee.) ne apane katipay sukhant natakon ki saphalata dvara vishesh khyati arjit ki. 1642 ee. se 1660 ee. tak lndan ke natyagrih pyooritanon ke dvara band kar diye gaye.
  • 1660 ee. ke uparant natakon ki rachana aur unaka pradarshan phir se arambh hua. du:khant natakon ka ek naya roop samane aya. isake pramukh lekhak the draiden (1631-1700 ee.), ataven (1652-85 ee.) aur li (1653-92 ee.). sukhant natakon ki 1660 ee. ke bad vishesh pragati huee. parishkrit bhasha men uchch varg ke jivan ka isamen chitran kiya gaya. is varg ke pramukh lekhak the, itharij (1634-91 ee.), baikarale (1640-1716 ee.) aur kangriv (1670-1729 ee.).
  • shatabdi ke pratham arddhansh men spensar, sheksapiyar aur ben jaaunsan se prabhavit hokar kavita likhi gayi. adhyatmik kavy ke pradhan rachayita the jaaun daaun (1572-1631 ee.), jinaki rachanaon men dharmik vicharon aur shrringarik bhavanaon ki abhivyakti durooh kalpana ke adhar par huee hai. ben jaaunsan aur unake anuyayiyon ki rachanaen apekshakrit saral hain. is shatabdi ke pradhan kavi jaaun miltan (1608-74 ee.) ki ganana snsar ke mahakaviyon men ki jati hai. sphut kavy ke atirikt unhonne apane suvikhyat mahakavy 'di pairadaiz laaust' ki rachana karake apana nam amar bana diya hai.
  • shatabdi ke uttarardh ke pradhan kavi the jaaun braiden, jinhonne varnanatmak aur vyngyatmak kavy rachana men vishesh saphalata prapt ki. draiben k poorv angrezi gady prachin laitin gady ke anukaran men likha jata tha. is prachin vishad shaili ke pramukh lekhak the taaumas braun (1605-82 ee.), jeremi telar (1613-67 ee.) aur miltan' draiben ki rachanaon men navin angrezi gady ki srishti huee. navin gady ka nirman susnskrit janon ki bolachal ki bhasha ko adhar manakar hua tha.
  • 18vin shati ka angrezi sahity gaharaee tak us nav-lasiki siddhant se prabhavit tha, jisaka udabhav aur vikas mukhy roop se frans men hua tha. niyamon ke agrah aur kathor niyatrnn ko manakar kavy rachana hoti thi. pop (1688-1744 ee.) ki rachanaon se is bat ka spasht pata lagata hai. anek any kaviyon ke bare men bhi yah bat saty hai, kintu kuchh aise kavi bhi the, jinaki rachanaen prakriti prem aur tivr bhavanaon se prerit thi.
  • 18vin shati men gady hi pramukhata thi. patr-patrikaon men prakashit nibandhon ki parampara sudridh ho gayi. pramukh nibandhakar the edisan (1672-1719 ee.), stil (1672-1729 ee.), gold smith (1730-74 ee.) aur daau. jaaunsan (170984 ee.).
  • isi shatabdi men panch yashasvi lekhakon ne angrezi upanyas lekhan ki ninv dali. ve the filding (1707-54 ee.), richardasan (1689-1761 ee.), smaaulet (1721-70 ee.), starn (1713-68 ee.), aur goldasmith. is kal men natakon ki koee vishesh unnati nahin huee. adhikansh natak bhavanaon ke atishay pradarshan se vikrit ho gaye the. sheriden (1751-1816 ee.) ne kangriv ki poorvavarti shaili men natak likhane ka prayas kiya.
  • goldasmith ne bhi prashnsaniy natak likhe. shatabdi ke pichhale tis varshon men parivartan ke chihn drishtigochar hone lage the. taaumas gre (1716-71 ee.), kaaulins (1721-59 ee.), barns (1751-96 ee.), blek (1757-1827 ee.), koopar adi ki kavy rachanaon ke prati anastha saf-saf dikhayi deti hai.
  • anek pravrittiyon aur prabhavon ne milakar unnisavin shati ke prarambh se hi angrezi sahity ko ek navin roomani svaroop de diya. ab niyamon ki avahelana tatha svabhavik prerana ke vashibhoot hokar kavyarachana hone lagi. kalpana aur bhavana, unmukt tatha shaili nirbandh ho gayi. is navin pravritti ka sarvottam pratiphal vardasavarth (1770-1850 ee.), kolarij (1772-1834 ee.), skaaut (1771-1832 ee.), sheli (1792-1822 ee.), kits (1795-1821 ee.), bayaran (1788-1824 ee.) adi ke kavy men hua.
  • is shreni ka adhikansh kavy muktakon men likha gaya hai tatha tivr anubhooti se otaprot hai. skaaut ke upanyason tatha laib prabhriti nibandhakaron ke lekhon men bhi roomani prabhav lakshit hua hai. sab milakar unnasavin shati ke 40 varshon ka roomani sahity atyant rochak aur mahattvapoorn hai.
  • lagabhag 1840 ee. ke bad viktoriyan yug ka arambh hua. is yug ki avadhi lambi thi aur isamen roomani aur klasiki prabhan ne milakar ek santulit avastha utpann ki.
  • vigyan tatha audyogik unnati evn padarthavadi darshan ke vikas dvara is navin yug ki visheshataen nirdharit hueen. kintu sath hi sath poorvavarti kalpanajanya bhavanajany pravrittiyan bhi nirmool nahin hueen. yadi brauning (1812-89 ee.) ke kavy men roomani pravrittiyan adhik spasht hain to tenisan (1809-92 ee.) ke kavy men klasiki visheshataon ki pramukhata hai. age chalakar vahi mishran maithyoo arnald (1822-88 ee.), meredith (1828-1909 ee.), hardi (1840-1928 ee.) prabhriti ki rachanaon men drishtigochar hota hai.
  • gady sahity ka utthan drut gati se ho raha tha. upanyason men yatharth chitran dikens (1812-70 ee.) adi ne manovigyan ka adhar liya tha; meredith aur hardi ne apana naya jivan darshan apani rachanaon men prastut kiya. is shati men nibandh aur alochana ki bhi santoshaprad unnati huee.
  • bisavin shati ka angrezi sahity vaividhy tatha navinata se samanvit hai. svikrit moolyon ki phir se janch ho rahi hai aur naye-naye prayog kiye ja rahe hain. sahity itane prachur pariman men prakashit ho raha hai ki samany nishkarshon men use sametana kathin ho gaya hai. natakon men pahale to yatharthavad ki hi pramukhata thi. barnard shaau (1853-1950 ee.), galsavardi (1867-1933 ee.) adi ne yatharth niroopan ki shaili men katipay samasyaon ka hal apane natakon men prastut kiya hai.
  • idhar pichhale tis varshon men kavy naty ne mahattvapoorn pragati ki hai. ti. es. iliyat, aden, stifen spendar, kristofar phraee adi ne prabhavotpadak kavy natak likhe hain. upanyas pahale to samajik vishayon par likhe gaye, phir bad men manovaigyanik tathyon par unaki rachana huee. pahali shreni ke pramukh lekhak hain–ech0 ji0 vels (1866-1946 ee.), galsavardi, arnald benet (1867-1913 ee.), aur doosari shreni ke varziniya volph (1822-1941 ee.), jems jvais (1822-1941 ee.), alds haksale (1894 ee.) adi.
  • idhar pichhale kuchh varshon se elizaveth boven, kamptan barnet, graham grin adi ne aise upanyas likhe hain, jinamen katha ki rochakata ki or vishesh dhyan diya gaya hai. bisavin shati ki angrezi kavita 1920 ee. ke poorv paramparagat thi. yah bat taaumas hardi, ravart brijez (1844-1930 ee.) adi ki rachanaon se vidit hai. jarjiyan kaviyon ki rachanaon men navinata avashy thi, kintu unhonne kavy ke kshetr men kranti nahin upasthit ki.
  • navin kavita ka arambh ti. es. iliyat ne kiya aur unake bad arden, spendar, livis, mainkanis, dailain taaumas adi ne use nirantar adhikadhik aur chamatkarapoorn banaya. ti. es. iliyat aur aee. e. richard ne vartaman shati men angrezi alochana shastr ko abhootapoorv riti se samriddh banaya hai. kolarij, arnald, valtar petar (1839-94 ee.) ke sath hi sath in donon ki bhi ganana angrezi ke pramukh sahityashastriyon men ki jaegi.
  • lagabhag 19vin shatabdi ke madhy se angrezi (jo ki us samay shasan ki bhasha thi) ka prachar drutagati se bharatavarsh men badhane laga aur phalat: hindi sahity angrezi sahity se prabhavit hua. tab se yah prabhav (yahan prabhav shabd apane simit, shastriy arth men prayukt ho raha hai) nirantar badhata hi gaya hai.
  • hindi gady bahut had tak angrezi gady ke adarsh par vikasit hua. katipay lekhakon ne prachin snskrit gady ka adarsh bhi samane rakha, kintu usaki apeksha adhunik angrezi gady ko hi apanaya gaya. hindi gady sahity vividh angon par angrezi sahity ki chhap hai.
  • hindi nibandhon ne angrezi nibandhon ka barabar anukaran kiya hai. hindi kathasahity ne prachin katha akhyayika ka marg chhodakar angrezi upanyas ki parampara apanayi hai. shaili, nirmanapaddhati tatha uddeshyaau–sabhi drishtiyon se aj ka hindi upanyas yooropiy upanyason ka rini hai.
  • yahi bat laghu kahaniyon ke sambandh men bhi thik hai. hindi natak men 19vin shatabdi men sheksapiyar ke natakon ka prabhav pada. unaka anuvad hua aur unhin ke dhng par natak likhe gaye. tadanantar barabar angrezi natakon ke prabhav men hindi natak likhe gaye hain. udaharanarth, hindi ke samasyamoolak natak ibsan, shaau aur galsavardi ki rachanaon se spashtataya prabhavit hain. jayashnkar prasad ke natakon men bharatiy tatha pashchaty pranali ka ekikaran hua hai.
  • hindi kavy-naty bhi pashchaty kavy-naty se prabhavit hai. hindi kavita ne 19vin shatabdi ke uparant nirantar angrezi kavita se prabhav grahan kiya hai. sabase adhik prabhav 19vin shatabdi ke angrez roomani kaviyon ka pada hai. chhayavadi kavita men yah prabhav pag-pag par dikhalaee padata hai. pichhale pachchis varshon men hindi kavita par ti. es. iliyat aur unake paravarti angrezi kaviyon ki kritiyon ka vishesh prabhav pada hai.



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