पालि भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

pali prachin bharat ki ek bhasha thi. yah hind-yooropiy bhasha-parivar ki ek boli ya prakrit hai. pali ka shabdik arth, pavitr rachana hai. isako bauddh tripitak ki bhasha ke roop men bhi jana jata hai.

visheshataen

  • pali, brahmi parivar ki lipiyon men likhi jati thi .
  • pali sahity men mukhyat: bauddh dharm ke snsthapak bhagavan buddh ke upadeshon ka sngrah hai kintu isaka koee bhag buddh ke jivanakal men vyavasthit ya likhit roop dharan kar chuka tha, yah kahana kathin hai .
  • ek prachin bharatiy bhasha jisamen mukhyat: tripitik adi bauddh dharm-grnnthon ki rachana huee. yah kis kshetr vishesh ki bhasha thi, yah nishchit nahin hai kintu isake vyakaran ka dhancha aur prayukt shabd dekhakar ise madhyadesh ki bhasha mana jata hai.
  • tripitakon ke bad pali bhasha men 'milind prashn' namak grnth likha gaya.
  • panchavi shatabdi men achary buddhaghosh ne 'atth kathaon' ki rachana ki. bad men 'dipavnsh' aur 'mahavnsh' grnth rache ge jinamen prachin sinhal (shrilnka) dvip ka itihas varnit hai.
  • adhunik kal men yah bhasha samany vyavahar men nahin rah gee hai,kintu uchch shiksha snsthanon men isake pathan-pathan ki vyavastha hai.

bauddh dharmashastr ki bhasha

pali bhasha theravadi bauddh dharmashastr ki pavitr bhasha hai. uttar bharatiy mool ki madhy bharatiy-ary bhasha hai. pali bhasha ka itihas buddhakal se shuroo hota hai. buddh apani shikshaon ke madhyam ke lie vidvanon ki bhasha snskrit ke viruddh the aur apane anuyayiyon ko sthaniy boliyon ke prayog ke lie protsahit karate the, isalie bauddh dharm shastriy bhasha ke roop men pali bhasha ka upayog shuroo hua. dhire-dhire unake maukhik upadesh bharat se shrilnka lagabhag tisari shatabdi ee.poo. pahunche, jahan unhen pali bhasha men likha gaya, jo deshi mishrit mool ki sahityik bhasha thi. antat: pali ek samadrit, manak aur antarrashtriy bhasha ban gee.

bharat men pali 14vin shatabdi men sahityik bhasha ke roop men samapt ho gee, lekin any sthanon par yah 18vin shatabdi tak prachalan men rahi. pali ka snbndh madhy bharatiy-ary bhasha samooh se hai, jo vaidik kal ke turnt bad sthapit huee. dharmashastriy rachanaen ek jivit bhasha ke nikat pratit hoti hain, jo unaki tikaon ke viparit hain aur banavati kritiyan pratit hoti hain. is parnpara ka satik varnan 'chullavagga' (chhote samooh) men hai, jisamen bataya gaya hai ki pratyek shishy in upadeshon ko apani boli men doharae.

pali ki utpatti ke sthan ke bare men bhinn mat hain. kuchh logon ka manana hai ki isaki utpatti dakshin bharat men huee. yah bhi dava kiya jata hai ki yah vindhy parvat ke madhy se pashchim men paida huee, jo is anuman par adharit hai ki us kal men ujjain nagar snskriti ka kendr tha. jahan kuchh vidvanh pali ko magadhi bhasha ka sahityik svaroop manate hain vahin kuchh any magadh ka paksh lete hain. pali ke vidvanh 'rais devid' kosal ko pali ki utpatti ka sthan manate hain. pahali bar is shabd ka upayog panchavin shatabdi ke mahanh tikakar buddhaghosh ne path shabd ke samanarthi ke roop men kiya tha. buddhaghosh ne apani atthakathaon men pali shabd ka prayog kiya hai, kintu yah bhasha ke arth men nahin, buddhavachan athava moolatripitak ke path ke arth men kiya hai. kuchh vidvanh is shabd ko pnkti, paryay, pal dhatu, pataliputr nagar ( vartaman ghatana) aur palli (ganv) se bhi utpann hua manate hain. yah kee lipiyon men likhi jati thi lekin mukhy roop se ise likhane ke lie brahmi lipi ka prayog hota tha. jaise jaise theravad bauddh dharm dakshin poorvi eshiya men phaila to ise likhane ke lie sthaniy lipiyon ka prayog hone laga. buddh, poorvi bharat men boli jane vali magadhi bhasha bolate the. prachin bauddhon ka manana hai ki pali ya to purani magadhi bhasha hai ya usake jaisi bhasha hai. aj yah prachalan men nahin hai lekin bauddh dharmagranthon ko samajhane ke lie isaka adhyayan kiya jata hai.

parnpara ke anusar, pali dharmashastr ka snkalan buddh ki mrityu ke bad shuroo hua aur sau varshon ke bad tisari parishad men ise aupacharik roop se poora kiya gaya. is prakar, dharmashastr lagabhag 400 varshon tak maukhik roop se prasarit hota raha. is kal men isaki samagri men lagatar vridhdi hoti gee aur bad men ise vibhinn snkalanon men vargikrit kiya gaya. apani uchch naitikata, manovigyan aur anushasanatmak prakriti ke karan pali bhasha bhikshu samuday tak hi simit rahi. ashok ke abhilekhon ki prakrit bhasha men is bhasha se kuchh samanataen parilakshit hoti hain. samrath ashok ke shilalekh men tripitak ke 'dhammapariyay' shabd sthan par magadhi pravritti ke anusar 'dhamm paliyay' shabd ka prayog paya jata hai, jisaka arth buddh ka upadesh ya vachan hota hai. kyoonki yah bhikshu samuday ke bauddhik samoohon men prachalit thi, isalie yah adhik utkrisht hai.

is bhasha ke mool men kee prakrit pravrittiyan hai, isalie ise ve log bhi samajh sakate the, jo bhikshuon ke bhasha samuday se snbndhit nahin the. pali anivary roop se am bolachal ki bhasha thi, isalie pali bhasha men svar vigyan aniyamit aur yathechchh hai. sadrishikaran ek mahattvapoorn svar vaigyanik prakriya hai, jisamen mool shabdon ko asan svaroop men parivartit kiya jata hai. udaharan ke liye, 'saty-sachch', 'karm-kamm', 'dharm-dhamm' ban jata hai. is bhasha ki visheshata isake shabd sngrah men hai. isake shabd us samay ki prachalit bhashaon se lie ge aur unake upayog men shlesh ke madhyam se kuchh parivartan kiya gaya. adhikansh pali shabd bharatiy-ary mool ke hain aur inamen se kee shabd parivartit snskrit se lie ge hain, jo madhy bharatiy- ary bhasha ki boli ke anuroop hain. is bhasha men vaky vinyas vibhakt hai. isamen snskrit se bhi samanata parilakshit hoti hai. vyakaran svaroopon ka kafi saralikaran hua hai.


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adhar
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madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika-tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

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