तमिल भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

tamil bhasha ek dravid bhasha hai, jisake vishvabhar men panch karod se adhik bolane valon men se lagabhag 90% bharat men rahate hain aur tamilanadu rajy men kendrit 83 pratishat hain. yah bharat ki panchavi sabase badi bhasha hai, jo desh ki lagabhag sat pratishat abadi ka pratinidhitv karati hai. mool roop se qarib 34 lakh tamil bhasha-bhashi log shrilnka men, tin lakh singapur men aur do lakh maleshiya men rahate hain. aupaniveshik kal men pravas kar ge tamil bhashi logon ke vnshaj maaurishas, fiji aur dakshin amerika men bas ge hain, inaki tamil dakshata alag-alag hai, sath hi vidyalayon men aupacharik adhyayan ki suvidha men bhi bhinnata hai. dakshin bharat ki lipiyon ke visheshgy barnel ka mat tha ki arambh men tamil bhasha ke granth vatteळuttu lipi men likhe jate the.

bhasha

tamil bhasha bharatiy snvidhan men soochibaddh 18 bhashaon men se ek hai, jinhen vishesh sthiti aur kary pradan kie ge hain. tamil tamilanadu (1956) se aur kendrashasit pradesh pandicheri (1965) ki sarakari bhasha aur shrilnka tatha singapur ki sarakari bhashaon men se ek hai. tamil lagabhag 50 lakh logon ki doosari bhasha hai.

itihas

tamil ka lagabhag 2,500 varshon ka akhandit itihas likhit roop men hai. mote taur par isake aitihasik vargikaran men prachin- panchavi shatabdi ee. poo. se eesa ke bad satavin shatabdi, madhy- athavin se solahavin shatabdi aur adhunik- 17vin shatabdi se kal shamil hain. kuchh vyakaranik aur shabdik parivartan in kalon ko ingit karate hain, lekin shabdon ki vartani men prastut svar vaigyanik snrachana jyon ki tyon bani huee hai. boli jane vali bhasha men kafi parivartan hua hai, jisamen shabdon ki svar vaigyanik snrachana bhi shamil hai. is vajah se tamil jan-dvibhashit bhasha ban gee hai. is bhasha ke utkrisht prakar ko vidyalayon men padhaya jata hai tatha lekhan v aupacharik bhashan men isaka upayog hota hai, jabaki gharon men vikasit hua nimn prakar anaupacharik batachit men prayukt hota hai. nimn prakar ka bhi ek manak svaroop hai, jo kshetriy aur samajik (jatiy) prakaron se bhinn hai, jisaka upayog shikshit vakta karate hain. bharatiy aur shrilnkaee (jafana) tamil bhasha ke bich vyapak kshetriy bhinnata hai. tamilanadu ke bhitar uttar, pashchimi aur dakshini boli men antar ke lakshan suspasht dikhaee dete hain. kshetriy bhinnata samajik bhinnata ke anuroop hai.

lekhan pranali

aitihasik roop se tamil lekhan pranali ka vikas brahmi lipi se vatte-lutatu (mude hue akshar) aur kole-luttu (lambakar akshar) ke sthaniy roopantaranon ke sath hua. sabase prachin rachana panchavin shatabdi ee. poo. ki ek-pnkti vale abhilekhon tatha bartanon ke tukadon par milati hai. samay ke sath-sath aksharon ke akar men vyapak parivartan hue. bad men 16vin shatabdi men mudran ke arambh hone se yah tham gaya. anngikrit snsakrit shabdon ko likhane ke lie prayukt madhyakalin 'granth' aksharon ko shamil kie jane v kuchh asatat akar ke aksharon ko adhunik kal men satat roop dene ke alava varnamala men koee vyapak parivartan nahin hua hai.

hindi-tamil

niche kuchh hindi aksharon ke tamil samanantar diye ge hain -

  • a - அ
  • a - ஆ
  • i -இ
  • ee - ஈ
  • u - உ
  • oo - ஊ
  • e - ஏ
  • ऎ - ஐ
  • o - ஓ
  • au -ஔ
  • k - க
  • kh -(க)
  • g - க
  • gh - (க)
  • n - ங
  • ch - ச
  • chh - (ச)
  • j - ஜ
  • jh - (ஜ)
  • n - ஞ
  • t - ட
  • th - (ட)
  • d - ட
  • dh - (ட)
  • n - ண
  • t - த
  • th - (த)
  • d - த
  • dh - (த)
  • n - ந, ன
  • p - ப
  • ph -(ப)
  • b - ப
  • bh - (ப)
  • m - ம
  • y - ய
  • r - ர, ற
  • v - வ
  • sh - ச
  • sh - ஷ
  • s - ஸ
  • h - ஹ

karak

snrachana ki drishti se tamil ek kriyant bhasha hai. isake vaky men shabdakram men loch hota hai aur yah arthakriyatmak roop se niyntrit hota hai. visheshan, sambandh soochak upavaky, kriya visheshan aur kriyarthak sngya jaise visheshak samanyatah shirsh se pahale lagae jate hain. karak chihn ko sngya ke bad joda jata hai. vakyon ka samuchchay antim vaky ko chhodakar sabhi vakyon ki kriyaon ke kridnt roopon ke zariye hota hai. roop-vidhan ki drishti se tamil ek samriddh bhasha hai, jisamen kriyaon ke bad kee tarah ke pratyay jode jate hain. pratyayon ke alava roop-vidhan svaroopon men samapika kriya bhi shamil hai, jo ayam, kriya bhav aur vakta ke rukh ko pradarshit karati hai. svar vigyan men tamil apane 't', 'n' aur 'aee' pratham do ke dnty, varts aur moordhany tatha tisare varts, moordhany aur parshv avasthiti ke tin tarafa vibhed ke lie ullekhaniy hai. tamil ke itihas men yah tin tarafa vibhed ghatakar do tarafa rah gaya hai, halanki varnamala men yah ab bhi baraqarar hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah