मैथिली भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

maithili hindi pradesh ki upabhasha 'bihari' ki yah ek boli hai. 'maithili' nam us kshetr ke nam 'mithila' se sambaddh hai. 'mithila' shabd bharatiy sahity men bahut pahale se hai. maithili mukhy roop se bharat men uttari bihar aur nepal ke taraee ke eelaqon men boli jane vali bhasha hai. yah prachin bhasha hind ary parivar ki sadasy hai aur bhashaee taur par hindi,(jisase isaki lagabhag 65 pratishat shabdavali ati hai), bangla, asamiya, udiya aur nepali se isaka kafi nikat ka snbndh hai.

snkshipt parichay

  • lipi— tirahuta v devanagari
  • kendr— mithila ya videh ya tirahut
  • bolane valon ki snkhya— 1.5 karod
  • sahity— sahity ki drishti se maithili bahut sampann hai.
  • rachanakarvidyapati (padavali)— yadi brajabhasha ko sooradas ne, avadhi ko tulasidas ne charamotkarsh par pahunchaya to maithili ko vidyapati ne, harimohan jha (upanyas— kanyadan, dviragaman, kahani sngrah—ekadashi, 'khattar kakak tarng'), nagarjun (maithili men 'yatri' nam se lekhan; upanyas— paro, kavita sngrah— 'kavik svapn', 'patrahin nagn gachh'), rajakamal chaudhari ('svaragngha') adi.
  • athavin anusoochi men sthan— 92van snvidhan snshodhan adhiniyam, 2003 ke dvara snvidhan ki 8vin anusoochi men 4 bhashaon ko sthan diya gaya. maithili hindi kshetr ki boliyon men se 8vin anusoochi men sthan pane vali ekamatr boli hai.
  • namoonapatana kie elah? patana eliai nokari karaile.

bhetalah nokari? nakari kattau ni bhetal. gan men kaj ni bheti chhalah? bhetai chhalai, roopaiyabala ni, aanabala. takhan ela kiai? riniyan tan kelaki, tai. katte rin chhah? chair bis. sood katte li chhah? doo pai mahinabari.

itihas

yagyvalky smriti tatha valmiki ramayan men bhi isaka ullekh hai. 'mithila' shabd ki vyutpatti anishchit hai. ek matanusar yahan ke ek prachin raja ka nam 'mithi' tha. unhin ke adhar par yah 'mithila' kahalaya. ek doosara mat unadi sootrakar ka hai. ve ise mnth dhatu (mathana) se sambaddh manate hain. kuchh log isi se sambaddh kalpana yah bhi karate hain ki pahale yahan samudr mnthan yahin hua tha, at: yah mithila kahalaya. ek chauthe mat ke anusar 'mithila' namak rishi se isaka sambandh hai. ek adhunik mat yah bhi hai ki 'mith' ka arth hai 'ekasath' ya 'mila hua'. yah pradesh tin prachin chhote - chhote rajyon vaishali, videh tatha ang ka mila roop hai, at: ise mithila kaha gaya hai. chhatha mat shakatayan ka diya ja sakata hai, jinake anusar 'mithila' ka arth hai, 'vah desh jahan shatruon ka daman ho.' saty yah hai ki ye sabhi mat anuman matr hain. inamen pusht pramanon par koee bhi adharit nahin hai. maithili bhasha ke lie ek prachin nam 'desil bana' vidyapati milata hai. isaka ek any nam 'tirahutiya' bhi hai. yah nam bhi 'maithili' nam se purana hai. isaka pratham ullekh 1771 men 'tirutiyan' roop men beligatti likhit 'abphabetum brahmanikum' ki amduji ki bhoomika men[1] milata hai.

lipi

pahale ise mithilakshar tatha kaithi lipi men likha jata tha jo bangla aur asamiya lipiyon se milati thi par kalantar men devanagari ka prayog hone laga. maithili ke lie tin lipiyon ka prayog hota hai. maithil brahmanon men maithili lipi prachalit hai, jo bngala se bahut milati-julati hai. any jatiyon ke log sthaniy roopantaron ke sath kaithi lipi ka prayog karate hain. sahityik karyon ke lie nagari ka prayog hota hai. ab nagari ka prayog dhire- dhire sabhi karyon men badh raha hai.

vikas

prachin maithili ke vikas ka shuruati daur prakrit aur apabhrnsh ke vikas se joda jata hai. lagabhag 700 ee. ke asapas isamen rachanaen ki jane lagi. vidyapati maithili ke adikavi tatha sarvadhik gyat kavi hain. vidyapati ne maithili ke atirikt snskrit tatha avahatt men bhi rachanaen likhin. ye vah do pramukh bhashaen hain jahan se maithili ka vikas hua. lagabhag 1 se 1.2 karod log maithili ko matri-bhasha ke roop men prayog karate hain aur isake prayogakarta bharat ke vibhinn hisson sahit vishv ke kee deshon men phaile hain.

adhunik samay men

'maithili' nam ka prayog adhunik kal men hai. sarvapratham 1801 men kolabruk ne is nam ka ullekh apane likhon men kiya. griyarsan ke bhasha- sarvekshan ke anusar isake bolane valon ki snkhya ek karod se kuchh oopar thi. 'maithili' ka kshetr bihar ke uttari bhag men poorvi champaran, mujaphpharapur, munger, bhagalapur, darabhnga, poorniyan tatha uttari snthal paragana men hai. isake atirikt yah maldah aur dinazapur men tatha bhagalapur evn tirahut sab - divijan ki sima ke pas nepal ki taraee men bhi boli jati hai.

upaboliyan

'uttari maithili', 'dakshin maithili', poorvi maithili', 'pashchimi maithili' , 'chhika- chhiki' tatha 'jolaha boli' maithili ki ye chh: upaboliyan hain. kuchh log poorvi sitapur tatha madhubani sab - divijan ki nimn shreni ki jatiyon ki boli ko kendriy janasadharan ki maithili ka nam dete hain. is prakar isaki boliyon ki snkhya sat ho jati hai. inamen uttari maithili hi 'maithili' ka parinishthit roop hai, jo uttari darabhnga tatha asapas ke brahmanon men vishesh roop se prayukt hoti hai. bihari boliyon men keval 'maithili' hi sahityik drishti se sampann hai. isake prasiddh kavi vidyapati hindi ki vibhooti hain. yahan ke any sahityikon men umapati, nandipati, ramapati, mahipati tatha manabodh jha adi pradhan hain. ab 'maithili' bhasha - bhashi sahity men khadi boli hindi ka prayog kar rahe hain. maithili ki utpatti magadhi apabhrnsh ke madhy ya kendriy roop se mani jati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani

  1. beligatti likhit 'abphabetum brahmanikum' ki amduji ki bhoomika men

tika tippani aur sndarbh

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