मिथिला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

jab ham kosalapuri ayodhya ka nam lete hain, us samay videh-puri mithila ka bhi smaran ho ata hai. ye donon hi dharmik puriyan har kal men hamare lie prerana evn snbal ka srot rahi hain. yah vartaman men uttari bihar aur nepal ki taraee ka ilaqa hai jise mithila ya mithilanchal ke nam se jana jata tha. mithila ki lokashruti kee sadiyon se chali a rahi hai jo apani bauddhik parnpara ke liye bharat aur bharat ke bahar jana jata raha hai. is ilake ki pramukh bhasha maithili hai. dharmik grnthon men sabase pahale isaka ullekh ramayan men milata hai. bihar-nepal sima par videh (tirahut) ka pradesh jo kosi aur gndaki nadiyon ke bich men sthit hai. is pradesh ki prachin rajadhani janakapur men thi. mithila ka ullekh mahabharat, ramayan, puran tatha jain evn bauddh granthon men hua hai.

ramayan-kal

  • ramayan-kal men yah janapad bahut prasiddh tha tatha sita ke pita janak ka rajy isi pradesh men tha. mithila janakapur ko bhi kahate the.[1] ahilyashram mithila ke sannikat sthit tha.
  • valmiki ramayan[2] ke anusar mithila ke rajyavnsh ka snsthapak nimi tha. mithi isake putr the aur mithi ke putr janak. inhin ke nam rashi vnshaj sita ke pita janak the. hamare sahity evn maukhik paramparaon men mithila ke raja janak utane hi jivit hain, jitana ki ayodhya ke raja dasharath. ve apani darshanik abhiruchi tatha anasakti ke liye prasiddh the.
  • ramayan ke anusar mithila ke nagarik shisht evn atithiparayan the. is granth ke anusar maharshi vishvamitr ram evn lakshman ko sath lekar char dinon ki yatra karane ke pashchath mithila pahunche the.

puran

  • vayu puran[3] aur vishnu puran[4] men nimi ko videh ka raja kaha hai tatha use ikshvaku vnshi mana hai.[5] mithila raja mithi ke nam par prasiddh hue. vishnu puran men mithilavan ka ullekh hai.[6] vishnu puran[7] men mithila ko videh nagari kaha gaya hai.
  • majjhimanikay[8] aur nimijatak men mithila ka sarvapratham raja makhadev bataya gaya hai. jatak[9] men mithila ke mahajanak namak raja ka ullekh hai.

mahabharat

  • mahabharat men mithila ke janak ki nimn darshanik uktiyon ka ullekh hai.[10] vastav men janak nam ke rajaon ka vnsh mithila ka sarvaprasiddh rajy vnsh tha. mahabharat[11] men bhim sen dvara videharaj janak ki parajay ka varnan hai. mahabharat men mithiladhip janak ka ullekh hai.[12]
  • mahabharat ke sabhaparv men varnan milata hai ki krishn apane sath pandavon ko lekar is nagar men aye the.
  • mahabharat men ek katha ati hai jisake anusar mithila ka nagar bhaynkar agnidah men khak hone laga. is samay janak jara bhi vichalit nahin hue. unhonne badi hi anasakti ke sath logon se kaha ki yah sahi hai ki meri rajadhani aj jal kar khatm hone ja rahi hai par mujhe is bat ki koee chinta nahin hai, kyonki isamen mera apana kuchh bhi nahin jal raha hai. isalie janak ko videh kaha gaya hai.

jain tirth

  • jain grnth vividhakalp sootr men is nagari ka jain tirth ke roop men varnan hai. is grnth se nimn soochana milati hai, isaka ek any nam jagati bhi tha. isake nikat hi kanakapur namak nagar sthit tha. mallinath aur neminath donon hi tirthnkaron ne jain dharm men yahin diksha li thi aur yahin unhen 'kaivaly gyan' ki prapti huee thi. yahin aknpit ka janm hua tha. mithila men gnga aur gndaki ka sngam hai. mahavir ne yahan nivas kiya tha tatha apane paribhraman men vahan ate-jate the. jis sthan par ram aur sita ka vivah hua tha vah shakaly kund kahalata tha. jain sootr-prgyapana men mithila ko mililavi kaha hai.

jatakon ke anusar

jatakon ke anusar yah nagari tin tarah ki khaiyon se ghiri huee thi:-

  1. udak-parikha (jal se bhari khaee).
  2. kardam-parikha (kichad se bhari khaee).
  3. shushk-parikha (sookhi khaee).

yahan ullekhaniy hai ki in tinon koti ki parikhayen pray: unhin nagaron men hoti thin, jinaka vishesh mahattv hua karata tha. isake pahale nirdesh kiya ja chuka hai ki vaishali nagar bhi in tinon tarah ki khaiyon se ghira hua tha. ye donon hi nagar buddh-kal men vajjisngh ke andar ate the. atev bahut snbhav hai ki usi samay in donon hi nagaron men suraksha ki drishti se tinon hi tarah ki parikhaen khod di geen.

jan jivan

mithila ke prasng men is tarah ki aur bhi madhur ghatanaon ki smritiyan hamare prachin sahity ke pannon men surakshit hain. vahan ke nagarik kala aur snskriti ke premi the. mahilaen bahumooly abhooshan tatha sugandhit dravon ko vyavahar men lati thin. nagar ke bhitar oonchi attalikaen, ramy chatvar, manoram vatikaen evn udyan maujood the. mithila nam kaise pada, is snbandh men puranon men ek bharatiy parampara ullikhit milati hai. isake anusar is nagar ko mithi namak raja ne basaya. ve is puri ko janm dene men samarth siddh hue, atev ve janak nam se prasiddh ho ge.

vyaparik sambandh

gnga-ghati ke nagaron ke sath mithila ka vyaparik sambandh sada se hi tha. shravasti evn kashi ke vyapari yahan ate the. vahan ke nagarik banarasi silk ke bade hi shauqin the. jatak granthon ke anusar mithila-nareshon ke darabari kashi ke silk ki dhoti, pagadi aur mirjee pahanate the. mithila-nagarik bade hi utsahi the. vahan ke jigyasu navayuvak adhyayan ke liye pahale takshashila jaya karate the, jo is nagar se saikadon mil ki doori par sthit tha. atev lagata hai ki bahut prarambh men mithila-puri shiksha-kendr n thi. par bad men vahan bauddhik vikas badi shighrata ke sath arnbh hua. bahy akramanon se surakshit hone ke karan is nagar ka vatavaran shantimay tha. phalat: vahan shiksha evn uchch snskriti ki abhivriddhi snbhav huee. yah puri pnditon ki khan samajhi jane lagi. mithila-mandal ke vidvanon men mandanamishr ullekhaniy hain, jinhonne shnkarachary se takkar li thi jayadev evn vidyapati mithila ki vibhooti the.

mahattv

kuchh dinon tak yahan tirabhukti, jise tirahut bhi kaha jata hai, ki bhi rajadhani sthit thi. isilie log kabhi-kabhi is pur ko 'tirabhukti' bhi kahate the. is nam ke padane ka karan yah tha ki yah pradesh badi gndak aur bagamati, in donon nadiyon ke tir (taton) ke bich sthit tha. aj ke yug men bhi hamare dharmik evn sanskritik jivan men mithila ka ek vishesh sthan hai. is nagar ka pratinidhitv adhunik janakapur karata hai, jisake darshanarth bharatavasi door bhagon se bhi prabhoot snkhya men vahan ekatr hote hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. ’tat: paramasatkarn sumate prapy raghavau, upyatatr nish:mekan jagmatu: mithila tat:
    tan ddashtava munay: sarve janakasy purin shubhamh sadhusadhvatishnsanto mithilan snpoojayanh.
    mithil pavane tatr ashramn ddashy raghav:
    , puran nijane ramyn prayachchh munipungavamh’
    , de. valmiki ramayan balakand 48-49
  2. valmiki ramayan, 1,71,3
  3. vayu puran 88,7-8
  4. vishnu puran 4, 5, 1
  5. de. videh
  6. ’sa ch badavashatayojan pramanamagamatita punarapi vahyamana mithilavanoddeshe prananutsasarj’, vishnu puran 4, 13, 93
  7. vishnu puran 4, 13, 107
  8. majjhimanikay 2, 74, 83
  9. jatak sn. 539
  10. mithilayan pradiptayan name dahyati kinch’ mahabharat, shantiparv 219 dakshinaty path
  11. mahabharat, sabhaparv 30, 13
  12. kenavritten vritgy janako mithiladhip:’ shantiparv 218, 1

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