bharatakosh ke snsthapak/snpadak ke fesabuk laiv ke lie yahan klik karen.

पाटलिपुत्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

pataliputr athava pataliputr prachin samay se hi bharat ke pramukh nagaron men gina jata tha. pataliputr vartaman patana ka hi nam tha. aj patana bharat ke bihar prant ki rajadhani hai. adhunik patana duniya ke gine-chune un vishesh prachin nagaron men se ek hai, jo ati prachin kal se aj tak abad hain. is shahar ka bahut hi aitihasik mahattv hai. eesa poorv megasthanij (350 ee.poo.-290 ee.poo.) ne apane bharat bhraman ke pashchath likhi apani pustak 'indika' men is nagar ka ullekh kiya hai. 'palibothra'[1], jo gnga aur 'arennovas'[2] ke sngam par basa tha. us pustak ke akalanon se prachin 'patana'[3] 9 mil[4] lamba tatha 1.75 mil[5] chauda tha. adhunik patana gnga nadi ke dakshini kinare par sthit hai, jahan par gnga, ghaghara, son aur gndak jaisi sahayak nadiyon se milati hai. yahan par gnga nadi ka svaroop nadi jaisa n hokar sagar jaisa virat dikhata hai- anant aur athah.

prachinata

magadh rajy ki prasiddh rajadhani, jo son nadi aur gnga nadi ke sngam par vartaman patana nagar ke nikat thi. yahan ke durg ka nirman ajatashatru (494-467 ee. poorv ke lagabhag) ne karaya tha. isaka rajadhani ke roop men vikas chandragupt maury ke samay men hua. nagar ki raksha ke lie charon or ek khaee banaee gee thi, jisamen son nadi ka pani bhara rahata tha. maigasthaniz ne is nagar ki badi prashnsa ki hai. ashok ne nagar ke andar patthar ka mahal banavaya tha. panchavi shatabdi men fahyan us mahal ko dekhakar chakit rah gaya tha. gupt samraton ne 320 ee. se 500 ee. tak yahan se rajy kiya. bharatiy itihas ke is svarnim kal men pataliputr snskrit ka mukhy kendr tha. satavin shatabdi men isaka sthan kannauj ne le liya aur isake bad pataliputr ka mahattv ghatata gaya.

itihas

gautam buddh ke jivanakal men, bihar men gnga ke uttar ki or lichchhaviyon ka 'vrijji ganarajy' tatha dakshin ki or 'magadh' ka rajy tha. buddh jab antim bar magadh ge the, to gnga aur shon nadiyon ke sngam ke pas 'patali' namak gram basa hua tha, jo 'patal' ya 'dhak' ke vrikshon se achchhadit tha. magadharaj ajatashatru ne lichchhavi ganarajy ka ant karane ke pashchath ek mitti ka durg pataligram ke pas banavaya, jisase magadh ki lichchhaviyon ke akramanon se raksha ho sake. buddhacharit se gyat hota hai ki yah qila magadharaj ke mantri varshakar ne banavaya tha.[6] ajatashatru ke putr 'udayin' ya 'udayibhadr' ne isi sthan par pataliputr nagar ki ninv dali. pali grnthon ke anusar bhi nagar ka nirman 'sunidhi' aur 'vassakar'[7] namak mantriyon ne karavaya tha. pali anushruti ke anusar gautam buddh ne patali ke pas kee bar rajagrih aur saishali ke bich ate-jate gnga ko par kiya tha aur is gram ki badhati huee simaon ko dekhakar bhavishyavani ki thi, ki yah bhavishy men ek mahanh nagar ban jaega. ajatashatru tatha usake vnshajon ke lie pataliputr ki sthiti mahattvapoorn thi. ab tak magadh ki rajadhani rajagrih thi, kintu ajatashatru dvara vaishali[8] tatha kashi ki vijay ke pashchath magadh ke rajy ka vistar bhi kafi badh gaya tha aur isi karan ab rajagrih se adhik kendriy sthan par rajadhani banana avashyak ho gaya tha.

jainagrnth ka vivaran

jainagrnth vividh tirthakalp men pataliputr ke namakaran ke snbndh men ek manornjak sa ullekh hai. isake anusar ajatashatru ki mrityu ke pashchath usake putr udayi ne apane pita ki mrityu ke shok ke karan apani rajadhani ko chnpa se anyatr le jane ka vichar kiya aur shakun batane valon ko nee rajadhani banane ke lie upayukt sthan ki khoj men bheja. ye log khojate-khojate gngatat par ek sthan par pahunche. vahan unhonne pushpon se lada hua ek patal vriksh[9] dekha, jis par ek nilaknth baitha hua kide kha raha tha. is drishy ko unhonne shubh shakun mana aur yahan par magadh ki nee rajadhani banane ke lie raja ko mantrana di. phalasvaroop jo naya nagar udayi ne basaya, usaka nam 'pataliputr' ya 'kusumapur' rakha gaya. vividhatirth kalp men chandragupt maury, bindusar, ashok aur kunal ko kramash: pataliputr men raj karate bataya gaya hai.

jain sadhu sthoolabhadr ne pataliputr men hi tapasya ki thi. is grnth men nnd aur usake vnsh ko nasht karane vale chanaky ka bhi ullekh hai. inake atirikt sarvakalavid mooladev aur achal sarthavah shreshthi ka nam bhi pataliputr ke snbndh men aya hai. vayupuran ke anusar 'kusumapur' ya 'pataliputr' ko udayi ne apane rajyabhishek ke chaturth varsh men basaya tha. yah tathy 'gargi snhita' ki sakshi se bhi pusht hota hai. parishishtaparvan[10] ke anusar bhi is nagar ki ninv udayi[11] ne dali thi. pataliputr ka mahattv shon-gnga ke sngam kon men basa hone ke karan, suraksha aur vyapar, donon hi drishtiyon se shighrata se badhata gaya aur nagar ka kshetraphal bhi lagabhag 20 varg mil tak vistrit ho gaya. shri chin.vi. vaidy ke anusar mahabharat ke paravarti snskaran ke samay se poorv hi pataliputr ki sthapana ho gee thi, kintu is nagar ka namollekh is mahakavy men nahin hai, jabaki nikatavarti rajagrih ya girivraj aur gaya adi ka varnan kee sthanon par hai.

maigasthanij ka ullekh

pataliputr ki vishesh khyati bharat ke aitihasik kal ke vishalatam samrajy, maury samrajy ki rajadhani ke roop men huee. chndragupt maury ke samay men pataliputr ki samriddhi tatha shasan-suvyavastha ka varnan yoonani rajadoot maigasthaniz ne bhali-bhanti kiya hai. usamen pataliputr ke sthaniy shasan ke lie bani ek samiti ki bhi charcha ki gee hai. us samay yah nagar 9 mil lnba tatha dedh mil chauda evn chartubhujakar tha. chndragupt ke bhavy rajaprasad ka ullekh bhi megesthanij ne kiya hai, jisaki sthiti da. spoonar ke anusar vartaman 'kumharar' ke nikat rahi hogi. yah chaurasi stnbho par adhrit tha. is samay nagar ke chaturdink lakadi ka parakota tatha jal se bhari huee gahari khaee bhi thi. ashok ne pataliputr men bauddh dharm ki shikshaon ka prachar karane ke lie do prastar-stnbh prasthapit kie the. inamen se ek stnbh utkhanan men mila bhi hai. ashok ke shasanakal ke 18ven varsh men 'kukkutaram' namak udyan men 'mogaliputr tissa'tishy ke sabhapatitv men dvitiy bauddh sngiti[12] huee thi.

maury shasan

jain dharm ki anushruti men bhi kaha gaya hai ki pataliputr men hi jain dharm ki pratham parishad ka satr snpann hua tha. isamen jain dharm ke agamon ko sngrahit karane ka kary kiya gaya tha. is parishad ke sabhapati 'sthoorabhadr' the. inaka samay chauthi shati ee.poo. men mana jata hai. maury kal men pataliputr se hi snpoorn bharat[13] ka shasan snchalit hota tha. isaka praman ashok ke bharat bhar men pae jane vale shilalekh hain. giranar ke rudradaman abhilekh se bhi gyat hota hai ki maury kal men magadh se saikadon mil door saurashtr pradesh men bhi pataliputr ka shasan chalata tha.

mauryon ke pashchath shungon ki rajadhani bhi pataliputr men hi rahi. is samay yoonani menendar ne saket aur pataliputr tak pahunchakar desh ko akrant kar dala, kintu shighr hi pushyamitr shung ne ise parast karake in donon nagaron men bhali prakar shasan sthapit kiya. gupt kal ke pratham charan men bhi gupt samrajy ki rajadhani pataliputr men hi sthit thi. kee abhilekhon se yah bhi jan padata hai ki chndragupt dvitiy vikramadity ne, jo bhagavat dharm ka mahanh poshak tha, apane samrajy ki rajadhani ayodhya men banaee thi. chini yatri fahyan ne, jo is samay pataliputr aya tha, is nagar ke aishvary ka varnan karate hue likha hai ki, "yahan ke bhavan tatha rajaprasad itane bhavy evn vishal the ki shilp ki drishti se unhen atimanaviy hathon ka banaya hua samajha jata tha."

  • gupt kalin pataliputr ki shobha ka varnan snskrit ke kavi 'vararuchi' ne is prakar kiya hai-

'sarvavitabhayai: prakrishtavadanairnityotsavavyapritai: shrimadratnavibhooshanannagarachanai: straggndhavastrojjvalai:,
kidasaukhyaparayanairvirachit prakhyatanama gunairbhoomi: pataliputracharootilaka svargayate sanpratamh.

gupt kal men pataliputr ka mahattv gupt samrajy ki avanati ke sath-sath kam ho chala. tatkalin mudraon ke adhyayan se gyat hota hai ki gupt samrajy ke tamr-sikkon ki takasal samudragupt aur chndragupt dvitiy ke samay men hi ayodhya men sthapit ho gee thi.

yuvanachvang ka vivaran

chhathi shati ee. men hoonon ke akraman ke karan pataliputr ki samriddhi ko bahut dhakka pahuncha aur usaka raha-saha gaurav bhi jata raha. 630-645 ee. men bharat ki yatra karane vale chini paryatak yuvanachvang ne 638 ee. men pataliputr men sainkadon khndahar dekhe the aur gnga ke pas divar se ghire hue is nagar men usane keval ek sahastr manushyon ki abadi hi paee. yuvanachvang ne likha hai ki purani basti ko chhodakar ek nee basti basaee gee thi. maharaj harsh ne pataliputr men apani rajadhani n banakar 'kanyakubj' ko yah gaurav pradan kiya. 811 ee. ke lagabhag bngal ke pal naresh dharmapal dvitiy ne kuchh samay ke lie pataliputr men apani rajadhani banaee. isake pashchath saikadon varsh tak yah prachin prasiddh nagar vismriti ke gart men pada raha. 1541 ee. men sherashah ne pataliputr ko pun: ek bar basaya, kyonki bihar ka nivasi hone ke karan vah is nagar ki sthiti ke mahattv ko bhalibhnti samajhata tha. ab yah nagar 'patana' kahalane laga aur dhire-dhire bihar ka sabase bada nagar ban gaya. sherashah se pahale bihar prant ki rajadhani bihar namak sthan men thi, jo pal nareshon ke samay men 'uddndapur' nam se prasiddh tha. sherashah ke pashchath mugal kal men patana hi sthayi roop se bihar prant ki rajadhani rahi. british kal men 1892 men patana ko bihar-udisa ke snyukt soobe ki rajadhani banaya gaya.

utkhanan kary

patana men bankipur tatha kumharar ke sthan par utkhanan dvara anek prachin avashesh prakash men ae hain. chndragupt maury ke samay ke rajaprasad tatha nagar ke kashth nirmit parakote ke chihn bhi daauktar spoonar ko 1912 men mile the. inamen se kir snrachanaen kashth ke stnbhon par adhrit maloom hoti thi. vastav men mauryakalin nagar kumharar ke sthan par hi basa tha. ashokakalin stambh ke khndit avashesh bhi khudaee men prapt hue the. bauddh grnthon men varnit 'kukkuta ram'[14] ke atirikt yahan kee any bauddhakalin sthan bhi utkhanan ke parinamasvaroop prakash men ae hain. oogamasar ke nikat pnchapahadi par kuchh prachin khadnhar hain, jinamen ashok ke putr mahendr ke nivas-sthan ka soochak ek tila bataya jata hai, jise bauddh aj bhi pavitr manate hain. yahan prachin sarovaron men se ramasar[15] aur shyamasar[16] aur mngalasar aj bhi sthit hain. gautam-gotriy jainachary sthoolabhadr[17] ke stoop ke pas ki bhoomi kuchh ubhari huee hai, jise sthaniy log 'kamaladah' kahate hain. janashruti hai ki maithilakokil vidyapati ko is tadag[18] ke kamal bahut priy the. shri ka. pr. jayasaval-snstha dvara 1953 ki khudaee men maury prasad ke dakshin ki or arogyavihar mila hai, jisaka nam yahan se prapt mudraon par hai. in par 'dhanvantari' shabd bhi ankit hai. jan padata hai ki yahan rogiyon ki paricharya hoti thi.

any tathy

'kumharar ke hal' ke utkhanan se gyat hota hai ki prachin pataliputr do bar nasht hua tha. parinibban sutt men ullekh hai ki buddh ki bhavishyavani ke anusar yah nagar keval badh, agni ya parasparik phoot se hi nasht ho sakata tha. 1953 ki khudaee se yah pramanit hota hai ki maury samraton ka prasad agnikand se nasht hua tha. sherashah ke shasanakal ki bani huee 'shaharapanah' ke dhvns patana se prapt hue hain. chauk thana ke pas madarasa masjid hai, jo shayad 1626 ee. men bani thi. isi ke nikat 'chahal satoon' namak bhavan tha, jisamen chalis stnbh the. isi bhavan men farrukhasiyar aur shahalam ko astonmukh mugal samrajy ki gaddi par bithaya gaya tha. bngal ke navab sirajuddaula ke pita hayatajng ki samadhi begamapur men hai. prachin masjidon men sherashah ki masjid aur anbar masjid hain. sikhon ke dasaven guru govind sinh ka janm patana men hi hua tha. unaki smriti men yahan ek gurudvara bhi bana hua hai. vayupuran men pataliputr ko 'kusumapur' kaha gaya hai. kusum 'patal' ya 'dhak' ka hi paryay hai. kalidas ne is nagari ko 'pushpapur' likha hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. pataliputr
  2. sonabhadr-hiranyavah
  3. palibotha
  4. 14.5 ki.mi.
  5. 2.8 ki.mi.
  6. buddhacharit 22,3
  7. varshakar
  8. uttar bihar
  9. dhak ya kinshuk
  10. parishishtaparvan (jaikobi dvara snpadit, pri0 42
  11. udayi
  12. mahasammelan
  13. gandhar sahit
  14. jahan ashok ke samay pratham bauddh sngiti huee thi
  15. ramakatora
  16. seve
  17. kuchh vidvanon ke mat men ye bauddh the
  18. sarovar

snbndhit lekh


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