औपनिवेशिक स्वराज्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

aupaniveshaki svarajy (dominiyan stetas) ki mang bharatiy rashtriy kangres ne pahali bar 1908 ee. men ki thi. us samay isaka arth keval itana hi tha, ki antarik mamalon men bharatiyon ko svashasan ka adhikar diya jae, jaisa ki british samrajy ke antargat kanada ko prapt tha. kintu british bharatiy sarakar ne is mang ko svikar nahin kiya. 21 varsh ke bad, 31 aktoobar, 1929 ee. ko vaisaray laaurd iravin ne ghoshana ki ki, bharat men snvaidhanik pragati ka lakshy aupaniveshik svarajy ki prapti hai. kintu 'aupaniveshik svarajy' ke svaroop ki spasht paribhasha nahin ki gee. phalat: bharatiy rashtriy kangres ne is prakar ki aspasht aur vilambit ghoshana par sntosh prakat karane se inkar kar diya.

svarajy ki ghoshana

kangres ne varsh ke ant men apane lahaur adhiveshan men bharat ka lakshy 'poorn svadhinata' ghoshit kiya. is prakar bharat aur briten ke bich ki khaee badhati hi rahi. aupaniveshik svarajy ki ghoshana yadi 20 varsh pahale hi ki gee hoti, to kadachit vah bharatiy akankshaon ki poorti kar deti. lekin dvitiy vishvayuddh ke poorv badalati huee antarrashtriy paristhitiyon ke sath badhate hue rashtravad ko aupaniveshik svarajy ki ghoshana sntusht n kar saki. isake bad bhi 6 varsh tak british sarakar ne us ghoshana ko lagoo karane ke lie kuchh bhi nahin kiya. ant men jab 1935 ka 'gavarnament af indiya ekt' samane aya to vah kee drishtiyon se aupaniveshik svarajy ke vade ki poorti nahin karata tha.

vaisaray ko naye adhikaron ki prapti

naye shasan vidhan ke anusar kendr men dvaidh shasan ki vyavastha ki gee thi, jisake antargat videsh vibhag aur pratiraksha vibhag adi par nirvachit vidhan mndal ka koee niyntran nahin rakha gaya. doosari bat, is shasan vidhan men vaisaray ko anek nirnkush adhikar pradan kiye gaye the. tisari bat, bharatiy vidhan mndal dvara parit adhiniyamon par british samrat ki svikriti avashyak thi. british sarakar ukt adhiniyamon par svikriti dene se inkar bhi kar sakati thi. is prakar ke pratibandhon se spasht tha ki, bharatiy shasan vidhan (1935 ee.) men aupaniveshik svarajy ki jo kathit vyavastha thi, vah 1931 ee. ke 'stetyoot aauf vestamistar' ke antargat aupaniveshik svarajy ki paribhasha se bahut nichale darje ki thi. is stetyoot ke antargat antarik mamalon men upanivesh ki prabhusatta ko svikar kiya gaya tha aur vaideshik mamalon men poorn svashasan diya gaya tha, jisake anusar upanivesh ko videshon se sndhi karane ka avadh adhikar prapt tha. sath hi yuddh adi men tatasth rahane aur british samrajy se alag hone ka adhikar bhi upanivesh ko diya gaya tha.

bharatiyon ki asntushtata

aupaniveshik svarajy nihit uparyukt samast adhikar 1935 ee. ke 'gavarnament aauf indiya ekt' men nahin pradan kiye gaye the, atev vah bharatiy janamat ko sntusht karane men poornataya viphal ho gaya. isake alava shasan vidhan men sampradayik pratinidhitv ke siddhant ko is prakar vikasit kiya gaya tha ki, usane bharat ke bhavi vibhajan ki spasht adharashila taiyar kar di gee. aisi avastha men sar staifard krips ne jab 11 march, 1942 ee. ko aupaniveshik svarajy ke lakshy ki ghoshana ki pun: ki, to bharatiy rashtravadiyon men usase koee utsah nahin utpannh hua.

svatntrata prapti

dvitiy vishvayuddh men jab briten ko dhan-jan ki ghor hani pahunchi aur bharatiy rashtriy andolan tivr se tivratar hota gaya, to use 1931 ee. ke stetyoot af vestamistar ke antargat bharat aur pakistan ko poorn aupaniveshik svarajy dene ki ghoshana karani padi. 15 agast, 1947 ee. ko bharat ne british rashtramndal ke antargat poorn svadhinata prapt kar li. yah sthiti 1949 ee. men aur adhik spasht ho gee, jab bharat ko sarvabhaum prabhusatta sampann svadhin ganarajy ke roop men manyata pradan kar di gee. bharat ne svechchha se rashtramndal men bane rahane ka nirnay kiya. usane ghoshana ki ki, vah shanti, svatntrata aur pragati ki niti se apane ko alag nahin karega aur british samrat ko rashtramndal ka pratik adhyaksh svikar karega aur jab bhi vah apane hit men rashtramndal se alag hona avashyak samajhega, use alag hone ka poora adhikar hoga.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bhattachary, sachchidanand bharatiy itihas kosh, dvitiy snskaran-1989 (hindi), bharat diskavari pustakalay: uttar pradesh hindi snsthan, 68.

snbndhit lekh

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