लॉर्ड इरविन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

laaurd iravin

iravin ka poora nam 'laaurd edavard fredarik lindale vud iravin' tha. ye dvitiy baikaunt 'hailifaiks' ka putr tha. isaka janm 1881 ee. men hua tha. isane eetan men shiksha prapt ki aur 1910 se 1925 ee. tak british parliyament ka sadasy raha. is dauran british mntrimndal ke vividh padon par bhi vah raha. gandhi ji ke namak satyagrah andolan ke karan sare bharat men badi hi halachal ka mahaul tha. laaurd iravin ne yukti poorvak kam liya aur gandhi ji ke sath men ek samajhauta kiya, jo 'gandhi-iravin samajhaute' ke nam se prasiddh hai. iravin ke karyakal ke dauran hi 12 march, 1930 ee. men savinay avgya andolan gandhi ji dvara arambh kiya gaya. lala lajapat ray ki mrityu ke badalen men 'bharati charamapnthiyon' dvara dilli ke asembali haaul men 1929 ee. men bam phenka gaya. 1929 ee. men hi prasiddh 'lahaur shadyntr' evn svatntrata senani jatinadas ki 64 din ki bhookh hadatal ke bad jel men mrityu ki ghatana huee thi.

bharat ka vayasaray

1926 ee. se 1931 ee. tak vah bharat ka vayasaray tatha gavarnar-janaral raha. bharat ke vayasaray ke roop men usaka karyakal atyant toofani kaha gaya. 1920 ee. men arambh kiya gaya asahayog andolan us samay bhi jari tha. 1919 ee. ke 'gavarnament aauf indiya ekt' ki karyavidhi ka moolyankan karane ke lie, jo saiman kamishan niyukt kiya gaya tha, usake sabhi sadasy angrez the. usamen koee bhi bharatiy sadasy n niyukt kiye jane se sare desh men gahari rajanitik ashanti phail gee. laaurd iravin ne bharatiy janamat ko shant karane ke uddeshy se 31 aktoobar ko british sarakar se paramarsh karake ghoshana ki ki, aupaniveshik svarajy ki sthapana bharat ki snvaidhanik pragati ka svabhavik lakshy hai aur saiman kamishan ki riport milane ke bad parliyament men naya bharatiy snvaidhanik bil pesh kiye jane se poorv lndan men sabhi bharatiy rajanitik partiyon ka ek golamej sammelan bulaya jaega.

kangres ka adhiveshan

golamej sammelan ke turantu bad hi british adhikariyon ne aupaniveshak svarajy ki vyakhya karate hue spasht kar diya ki, usaka ashay kanada jaise aupaniveshak svarajy prapt desh ka darja pradan karana nahin hai, balki bharat ko ek adhinasth desh banae rakhakar use svayattashasi sarakar pradan karana hai. is spashtikaran ke phalasvaroop laaurd iravin ki ghoshana bharatiy rashtriy kangres ko sntosh nahin pradan kar saki aur 1929 ee. men 'lahaur adhiveshan' men ghoshana kar di gee ki, kangres ka dhyey poorn svadhinata hai.

satyagrah andolan

kangres ne 1930 ee. men mahatma gandhi ke netritv men satyagrah andolan shuroo kiya. gandhi ji ne apane kuchh anuyayiyon ke sath 'dandi yatra' ki or kooch kiya aur janaboojhakar sarakar ka 'namak qanoon' toda. yah 'namak satyagrah andolan' shighr hi sare desh men phail gaya, jisase bhari halachal mach gee. laaurd iravin ne yuktipoorvak sthiti ko sambhalane ka prayas kiya. ek or to usane qanoon aur vyavastha ko banaye rakhane ke lie rajy ki sari shakti laga di tatha 'kangres varking kameti' ke sabhi sadasyon ko giraphtar kar liya. doosari or vah mahatma gandhi se samajhauta varta chalata raha. vah gandhi ji se kee bar mila aur ant men 'gandhi-iravin samajhauta' ho gaya.

samajhaute ki sharten

is samajhaute ke anusar kangres ne satyagrah andolan sthagit kar diya aur vah golamej sammelan ke doosare adhiveshan men gandhi ji ko apana ekamatr pratinidhi banakar bhejane ko taiyar ho gee. kangres ne is sammelan ke pahale adhiveshan ka bahishkar kiya tha. udhar sarakar ne bhi sabhi rajanitik bndiyon ko riha kar diya. sirf un bndiyon ko nahin chhoda gaya, jin par hinsatmak upadravon men bhag lene ke arop the.

avakash

gandhi-iravin samajhaute ke ek mahine ke bad laaurd iravin ne bharat ke vayasaray ke pad se avakash grahan kar liya aur apane uttaradhikari laaurd vilingadan par yah bhar chhod diya ki, vah chahe to usaki niti ko age badhae aur n chahe to samapt kar de. bharat se avakash grahan karake laaurd iravin 1940 ee. se 1946 ee. tak amerika men british rajadoot raha. 1944 ee. men use 'arl aauf hailifaiks' ki padavi pradan ki gee.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bhattachary, sachchidanand bharatiy itihas kosh, dvitiy snskaran-1989 (hindi), bharat diskavari pustakalay: uttar pradesh hindi snsthan, 54.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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