लॉर्ड डलहौज़ी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

laaurd dalahauzi
Lord Dalhousie

1848 ee. men laaurd dalahauzi, jise 'arl aauf dalahauzi' bhi kaha jata tha, gavarnar-janaral banakar bharat aya. usaka shasan kal adhunik bharatiy itihas men ek smaraniy kal raha kyonki usane yuddh v vyapagat siddhant ke adhar par angrez samrajy ka vistar karate hue anek mahattvapoorn sudharatmak karyon ko sampann kiya. laaurd dalahauzi ne bharatiy riyasaton ko tin bhagon men vibhajit kiya tha. vah bharatiy riyasaton ki upadhiyon v padaviyon par sada hi prahar karata raha. dalahauzi ne mugal samrat ki upadhi bhi chhinane ki koshish ki thi, par apane is kary men vah saphal nahin ho saka. dalahauzi nagar, aupaniveshak bharat ke british gavarnar-janaral, laaurd dalahauzi ke nam par hi pada hai.

mahattvapoorn saphalataen

laaurd dalahauzi ke samay men angrejon dvara prapt ki gee mahattvapoorn saphalataain is prakar se hain:-

  1. dvitiy angl-sikh yuddh tatha pnjab ka british samrajy men vilay (1849 ee.) dalahauzi ki pratham saphalata thi.
  2. multan ke garvanar moolaraj ke vidroh, do angrez adhikariyon ki hatya aur hazara ke sikkh garvanar, chatar sinh ke vidroh ne pnjab men sarvatr angrez virodh ki sthiti paida kar di thi. atah dalahauzi ne dvitiy angl sikkh yuddh ke pashchath 29 march, 1849 ee. ki ghoshana dvara pnjab ka vilay british samrajy men kar liya.
  3. maharaja dalip sinh ko penshan de di gayi. is yuddh ke vishay men dalahauzi ne kaha tha ki, 'sikkhon ne yuddh manga hai, yah yuddh pratishodh sahit lada jayaga.'
  4. laaurd dalahauzi ne sikkim par do angrez daauktaron ke sath durvyavahar ka arop lagakar us par adhikar kar liya (1850 ee.).
  5. loar barma tatha pigoo ka british samrajy men vilay dalahauzi ke samay men hi kiya gaya.
  6. usake samay men hi dvitiy angl-barma yuddh lada gaya, jisaka parinam tha, barma ki har tatha loar barma evn pigoo ka angrezi samrajy men vilay (1852 ee.).

bharatiy riyasaton ka vibhajan

laaurd dalahauzi ke shasan kal ko usake 'vyapagat siddhant' ke karan adhik yad kiya gaya hai. isane bharatiy riyasaton ko tin bhagon men banta tha:-

  1. pratham varg - is varg men aisi riyasaten shamil thin, jisane n to angrezon ki adhinata svikar ki thi, aur n hi 'kar' deti thin.
  2. dvitiy varg - is varg men aisi riyasaten (bharatiy) sammilit thin, jo pahale mugalon evn peshavaon ke adhin thin, par vartaman samay men angrezon ke adhinnasth thin.
  3. tritiy varg - is varg men aisi riyasaten shamil thin, jise angrezon ne sanadon dvara sthapit kiya tha.

dalahauzi ne yah tay kiya ki, pratham varg ya shreni men jo riyasaten hain, jinake god lene ke adhikar ko ham nahin chhin sakate. doosare varg ya shreni ke antargat ane vali riyasaton ko hamari agya se god lene ka adhikar mil sakega. ham is mamalen men anumati de bhi sakate hain aur nahin bhi; vaise prayas anumati dene ka hi rahega, parantu tisari shreni ya varg ki riyasaton ko uttaradhikar men god lene ki anumati kadapi nahin di jani chahie. bharatiy riyasaton ka in tin vargon men vibhajan laaurd dalahauzi ne apani marji se kiya. is prakar dalahauzi ne apane vilay ki niti se bharat ki prakritik simaon tak angrezi rajy ka vistar kar diya.

rajyon ka vilay

dalahauzi dvara vilay kiye gaye rajy
rajy varsh
satara 1848 ee.
jaitapur, snbhalapur 1849 ee.
baghat 1850 ee.
udayapur 1852 ee.
jhansi 1853 ee.
nagapur 1854 ee.
karauli 1855 ee.
avadh 1856 ee.

vyapagat siddhant ke anusar vilay kiya gaya pratham rajy satara tha. satara ke raja appa sahab ne apani mrityu ke kuchh samay poorv eest indiya kampani ki anumati ke bina ek 'dattak putr' bana liya tha. laaurd dalahauzi ne ise ashrit rajy ghoshit kar isaka vilay kar liya. 'kamans sabha' men josef hnoom ne is vilay ko 'jisaki lathi usaki bhains' ki sngya di thi. isi prakar snbhalapur ke raja narayan sinh, jhansi ke raja gngadhar rav aur nagapur ke raja raghuji tritiy ke rajyon ka vilay kramashah 1849 ee., 1853 ee. evn 1854 ee. men unake putr ya uttaradhikari ke abhav men kiya gaya. unhen dattak putr ki anumati nahin di gayi.

laaurd dalahauzi ne upadhiyon tatha penshanon par prahar karate hue 1853 ee. men karnatak ke navab ki penshan bnd karava di. 1855 ee. men tnjaur ke raja ki mrityu hone par usaki upadhi chhin li. dalahauzi mugal samrat ki bhi upadhi chhinana chahata tha, parantu saphal nahin ho saka. usane peshava bajirav dvitiy ki 1853 ee. men mrityu hone par usake dattak putr nana sahab ko penshan dene se mana kar diya. usaka kahana tha ki penshan peshava ko nahin, balki bajirav dvitiy ko vyaktigat roop se di gayi thi. haidarabad ke nizam ka karz ada karane men apane ko asamarth pakar 1853 ee. men barar ka angrezi rajy men vilay kar liya gaya. 1856 ee. men avadh par kushasan ka arop lagakar lakhanoo ke rejident autram ne avadh ka vilay angrezi samrajy men karava diya, us samay avadh ka navab 'vajid ali shah' tha.

sudhar kary

apane prashasanik sudharon ke antargat laaurd dalahauzi ne bharat ke gavarnar-janaral ke karyabhar ko kam karane ke lie bngal men ek lephtinent garvanar ki niyukti ki vyavastha ki. un naye pradeshon, jinhe hal men hi british samrajy men milaya gaya tha, ke lie dalahauzi ne sidhe prashasan ki vyavastha ki, jise ‘naaun reguleshan pranali’ kaha gaya. isake antargat pradeshon men niyukt kamishnaron ko pratyaksh roop se garvanar janaral ke prati uttaradayi banaya gaya. sainy sudharon ke antargat dalahauzi ne topakhane ke mukhyalay ko kalakatta se merath sthanantarit kiya aur sena ka mukhyalay shimala men sthapit kiya. yah sab kary dalahauzi ne 1856 ee. men kiya. dalahauzi ne sena men bharatiy sainikon ki katauti evn british sainikon ki vriddhi ki. usane pnjab men nee aniyamit sena ka gathan evn gorakha rejiment ke sainikon ki snkhya men vriddhi ki.

shiksha yojana

shiksha sambandhi sudharon men laaurd dalahauzi ne 1854 ee. men 'vud dispech' ko lagoo kiya. prathamik shiksha se lekar vishvavidyalay star ki shiksha ke lie ek vyapak yojana banayi gayi. isake tahat zilon men 'englo-varnakyoolar skool', pramukh nagaron men sarakari kaaulejon tatha tin prasidensiyon-kalakatta, madras evn bambee men ek-ek vishvavidyalay sthapit kiye aur sath hi pratyek pradesh men ek shiksha nideshak niyukt kiya gaya.

bharatiy relave ka janak

laaurd dalahauzi ko bharat men relave ka janak mana jata hai, kyonki usi ke prayatnon ke phalasvaroop maharashtr men 1853 ee. men bambee se thanen tak pratham relagadi chalayi gayi. rel vyavastha dalahauzi ke vyakgit prayason ka pratiphal thi. angrezon ne isamen khoob poonji lagaee. dalahauzi ko bharat men vidyut tar ki bhi shuruat karane ka shrey prapt hai. 1852 ee. men usane o, shaidhanesi ko vidyul tar vibhag ki adhyakshata saunpi thi.

any sudhar kary

dak vibhag men sudhar karate hue dalahauzi ne 1854 ee. men naya ‘post aaufis ekt’ pas kiya. is ekt ke tahat tinon presidensiyon men ek-ek mahanideshak niyukt karane ki vyavastha ki gee. desh ke andar 2 paise ki dar se patr bhejane ki vyavastha ki gee. pahali bar dalahauzi ne bharat men dak tikaton ka prachalan prarambh kiya. laaurd dalahauzi ne prithakh roop se bharat men pahali bar ‘sarvajanik nirman vibhag’ ki sthapana ki. gnga nahar ka nirman kar 8 aprail, 1854 ee. ko use sinchaee ke lie khol diya gaya. pnjab men bari doab nahar par nirman kary ki shuruat ki gee. dalahauzi ne grand trnk rod ka nirman kary bhi punah shuroo karavaya. vanijyik sudharon ke antargat dalahauzi ne bharat ke bandaragahon ko antarrashtriy vyapar ke lie khol diya. karachi, kalakatta evn bambee ke bandaragahon ko adhunik banane ka prayas kiya gaya. ek kamishan ki riport ke adhar par dalahauzi ne 1854 ee. men ek svatntr vibhag ke roop men ‘sarvajanik nirman vibhag’ ki sthapana ki.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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