लॉर्ड रिपन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

laaurd ripan
Lord Ripon

laaurd ripan ka poora nam 'jaaurj fredarik saimual rabinsan' tha. yah 1880 ee. men laaurd litan pratham ke bad bharat ke vayasaray banakar aye the. apane se pahale aye sabhi vayasarayon ki tulana men yah adhik udar the. laaurd ripan ke samay men bharat ek taraph dharmik, samajik, rajanitik jagaran ki sthiti se guzar raha tha, vahin doosari or litan pratham ke karyo se bharatiy janata karah rahi thi. glaidaston ki bhanti ripan ka bhi rajanitik drishtikon udar tha, jisake karan vah lokapriy shasak siddh hue.

sudhar kary

apane sudhar karyon ke antargat laaurd ripan ne sarvapratham samachar-patron ki svatantrata ko bahal karate hue 1882 ee. men 'varnakyoolar pres ekt' ko samapt kar diya. inake sudhar karyon men sarvadhik mahattvapoorn kary tha- 'sthaniy svashasan' ki shuruat. isake antargat gramin kshetron men sthaniy bord banaye gaye, zile men zila upavibhag, tahasil bord banane ki yojana bani. nagaron men nagarapalika ka gathan kiya gaya evn inhen kary karane ki svatantrata evn ay prapt karane ke sadhan upalabdh karaye gaye. in snsthaon men gair sarakari logon ki adhik bhagidari nishchit ki gee.

janaganana karyakram

pratham janaganana 1872 ee. men meyo ke shasan kal men shuroo huee, kintu ripan ke shasan kal men 1881 ee. men niyamit janaganana ki shuruat huee. tab se lekar ab tak pratyek das varsh ke antaral par janaganana ki jati hai.

faistri adhiniyam

pratham faiktri adhiniyam, 1881 ee. ripan dvara hi laya gaya. adhiniyam ke antargat yah vyavastha ki gee ki, jis karakhane men sau se adhik shramik kary karate hain, vahan par 7 varsh se kam ayu ke bachche kam nahin kar sakenge. 12 varsh se kam ayu ke bachchon ke lie kam karane ke lie ghante tay kar diye gaye aur is qanoon ke palan ke lie ek nirikshak ko niyukt kar diya gaya. ripan ne unhin arthik nitiyon ko protsahan diya, jise laaurd meyo apane shas kal men laye the. unhonne prantiy arthik uttaradayitv ko badhaya tatha kar ke sadhanon ko shahi madon, prantiy madon evn bati huee madon men vibhajit kiya.

shiksha niti

laaurd ripan ke shaikshik sudharon ke antargat 'viliyam hantar' ke netritv men ek ayog ko gathit kiya gaya. ayog ne 1882 ee. men apani riport prastut ki. ayog ki riport men kaha gaya tha ki, bharat men praimari aur madhyamik skool shiksha ki sarvatha apeksha ki gee hai, parantu vishvavidyalay ki shiksha par apekshakrit adhik dhyan diya gaya hai. riport men vyavastha ki gee ki praimari star ki shiksha ka adhikar lokal bordon evn myoonisipal bordon ko diya jay tatha shiksha snsthaon par se sarakari niyntran hata diya jay. ripan ki sarakar ne is riport ko usaki sharton ke sath svikar kar kriyanviyat karane ka prayatn kiya.

ilbart bil

1881 ee. men hi bharatiy karakhanon ke shramikon ki sthiti sudharane ke lie ek qanoon bana, jisake dvara nabalig balakon ki suraksha hetu anek kary ke ghanton ke nirdharan evn khataranak mashinon ke charon or bachav hetu samuchit raksha vyavastha tatha nirikshakon ki niyukti ka pravadhan kiya gaya. kintu sudharon ki drishti se usaka sabase mahattvapoorn kary 1883 ee. ka ilbart bil tha. jisake dvara nyay ke kshetr men rngabhed ko door karane ka prayas kiya gaya tha. is bil ke dvara bharatiy nyayadhishon ko bhi yooropiy nyayadhishon ki bhanti yooropiyanon ke faujadari vadon ki sunavaee ka adhikar diye jane ka sujhav tha. kintu is bil (prastav) ka yooropiyan tatha engloindiyan samuday ke dvara itana adhik virodh kiya gaya ki bil ki dharaon men vishesh parivartan karake hi use parit kiya gaya aur rngabhed bana hi raha. phir bhi aisa prastav rakhane matr se bharatiy janata men laaurd ripan ki lokapriyata kafi badh gee.

shvet vidroh

ilbart bil men faujadari dand vyavastha men prachalit bhedabhav ko samapt karane ka prayatn kiya gaya tha. ilbart bil men bharatiy nyayadhishon ko yooropiy mukadamon ko sunane ka adhikar diya gaya. bharat men rahane vale angrezon ne is bil ka virodh kiya. parinamasvaroop ripan ko is vidheyak ko vapas lekar snshodhan karake punah prastut karana pada. snshodhan ke bad is adhiniyam men yah vyavastha ki gee ki, bharatiy nyayadhish yooropiy nyayadhish ke sahayog se mukadamon ka nirnay karenge. is vidheyak ke virodh men angrezon dvara kiye gaye vidroh ko ‘shvet vidroh’ ke nam se jana jata hai. is vidheyak par hue vad-vivad ka bharatiy janamanas par gahara prabhav pada.

ripan ka kathan

laaurd ripan ne namak kar ko kam karate hue 1882 ee. men 'tairif' men se mooly ke anusar 5 pratishat ayat shulk ko kam kar diya. ripan ne ilbart bil par hue vad-vivad ke karan karyakal poora hone se poorv hi tyagapatr de diya. 'florens naitingel' ne laaurd ripan ko 'bharat ke uddharak' ki sngya di hai. bharatiy log ripan ko 'sajjan ripan' ke roop men yad karate hain. ripan ke shasan kal ko bharat men svarnayug ka arambh kaha jata hai. ripan ne apane bare men kalakatta (adhunik kolakata) ke apane pratham vyaktavy men hi kaha tha ki, mera moolyankan mere karyon se karana shabdon se nahin.

tyagapatr

1884 ee. men tyagapatr dekar prasthan karate samay bharatiyon ne laaurd ripan ko saikadon abhinandan patr dekar sammanit kiya aur shimala se bambee (vartaman mumbee) tak ki yatra ke dauran sthan-sthan par unhen bhavabhini vidaee di gee.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

(pustak 'bharatiy itihas kosh') prishth snkhya-411

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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