लॉर्ड हेस्टिंग्स  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

laaurd hestings

laaurd hestings 1813 se 1823 ee. tak bharat ka gavarnar-janaral raha. usane garvanar-janaral ke roop men bharat men rajanitik shreshthata ko aur badhane ka prayatn kiya. usake samay men sarvapratham 'angl-nepal yuddh' lada gaya. angrez janaral 'gilisapaee' ne is yuddh men viragati prapt ki thi. is yuddh ke parinamasvaroop almoda par adhikar kar liya gaya, aur gorakhaon ki poorn roop se parajay huee. laaurd hestings ke kal men hi tisara angl-maratha yuddh lada gaya tha, jisamen marathon ki parajay huee thi. hestings ko pindariyon ka daman karane ka shrey bhi diya jata hai.

angl-nepal yuddh

is yuddh men angrezon ki or se 'janaral aktaraloni', 'karnal nikalas' v 'gardanar', 'janaral gilisapaee' adi nayak the. janaral gilisapaee ka kalng ke durg par akraman viphal raha, tatha vah svayn viragati ko prapt hua. usake uttaradhikari 'mejar martidal' bhi jaitak durg ko jitane men asaphal rahe, kintu angrez is viphalata se hatash nahin hue tatha karnal nikalas aur gardanar ne kumaoon ki pahadiyon men sthit almoda nagar par vijay prapt kar li aur janaral astaraloni ne malaon nagar ko amar sinh thapa se chhin liya. is yuddh men gorakhaon ki poorn parajay huee. 1816 ee. men eest indiya kampani evn gorakhon ke madhy ‘sugauli sandhi’ huee, jisase yah yuddh samapt hua. sugauli sandhi ki sharton ke anusar gadhaval tatha kumaoon angrezon ke adhikar men a ge. gorakhon ne kathamadoon men british sena rakhana svikar kiya. shimala, ranikhet, nainital angrezon ke niyantran men ho gaye. prasngatah 'charls nepiyar' ka vah kathan ullekhaniy hai, jisamen usane kaha tha, "yadi main 12 varsh ke lie bharat ka badashah ban jaoon, to bharat men ek bhi bharatiy naresh nahin rahega, nizam ka nam bhi koee nahin sunega aur nepal hamara hoga." laaurd hestings ke kal men tisara angl-maratha yuddh bhi lada gaya, jisamen marathe parajit hue.

gorakhon ki bharti

sugauli sandhi ki sharton ke anusar gorakhaon ne sikkim ko khali kar diya. is sandhi ka sabase bada labh gorakhon ka angrezi sena men bharati hona tha. 1857 ee. men bhi ye rajabhakt bane rahe tatha unhonne angrezi samrajy ke prasar men yogadan diya.

pindariyon ka daman

laaurd hestings ko pindariyon ke daman ka bhi shrey prapt hai. angrez itihasakar pindariyon ko afagan lutera manate the, aur daulatarav shinde ko inaka ek matr neta manate the, parantu isaki satyata pramanit nahin hoti. pindariyon ka pahala ullekh mugalon ke maharashtr par 1689 ee. ke akraman ke samay milata hai. bajirav pratham ke kal se ye avaitanik roop se marathon ki or se ladate the aur keval loot men bhag lete the. pindari kisi bhi dharm ko n manate hue lootamar men snlagn rahane vale vyakti the. 19vin sadi ke prarambhik varshon men 'vasil muhammad', 'chitoo' tatha 'karim khan' inake neta the. 1812 ee. men pindariyon ne angrezon ke adhikar vale kshetr- mirzapur tatha 'shahabad' par akraman kar diya. hestings ne unake daman ko apana lakshy banakar unake viruddh karyavahi ki. usane 1,13,000 sena tatha 300 topen ekatrit kar lin. uttari sena ki kaman usane svayn li tatha dakshini sena ki kaman 'taaumas hisalop' ko de di. unake netaon men vasil muhammad ne atmahatya kar li. karim khan ko gorakhapur men ek chhoti-si riyasat de di gayi, aur chitoo ko jngal men sher marakar kha gaya. mailkal ne pindariyon ko "maratha shikariyon ke sath shikari kutton" ki upama di. 1824 ee. tak pindariyon ka saphaya ho chuka tha.

bajirav dvitiy ko penshan

laaurd hestings ke samay men hi marathon ke sath angrezon ki antim ladaee huee thi, jisamen marathe parajit hue. 13 joon, 1817 ee. ko peshava ne apani har svikar karake ek sandhi par hastakshar kiya, jisake anusar maratha sngh samapt ho gaya. 5 navambar, 1817 ee. ko shinde se ek sandhi ki gayi, jisake anusar maharaja ne 5000 sainik pindariyon ke viruddh abhiyan ke lie dena svikar kiya. nagapur ke appa sahab sitavardi men tatha holkar mahidapur men parajit hue. laaurd hestings ne bajirav dvitiy ko gaddi se utarakar 18 lakh rupaye varshik penshan dekar kanapur ke samip bithoor ke sthan par bhej diya. satara ki gaddi shivaji ke vnshaj pratap sinh ko de di gayi.

raiyatavadi vyavastha

laaurd hestings apane sathiyon ke sath hathi par savar hokar lakhanoo men pravesh karate hue

hestings ke bharat ane ke pahale tak mugal samrat ko aupacharik roop se sarvashreshth mana jata tha. samrat kampani ke lie ‘hamara vishesh kripapatr bhrity’, ‘adaraniy putr’ jaise shabdon ko prayog men lata tha. hestigs ne dilli ane par shart rakhi ki, vah samrat se tabhi milana chahega, jab ye purane shishtachar khatm kiye jayn. usaki yah ichchha poori huee. usake prativad ka prabhav yah raha ki, laaurd hestings ka uttaradhikari laaurd emsaharst 1827 ee. men samrat se barabari ke samman se mila. hestings ke samay men hi 'sar taaumas munaron' 1820 ee. men madras ka garvanar bana aur usane malabar, kannad, koyambatoor, madurai aur dindigal men raiyatavadi vyavastha ko lagoo kiya. is vyavastha ke antargat krishakon ko sidhe bhoo-svami man liya gaya tatha bichailiyon ka astitv samapt ho gaya.

any sudhar

laaurd hestings ke samay men hi 'elaphinstan' ne bambee men 'mahalavadi' tatha raiyatavadi vyavastha' ke mishran ko lagoo kiya. bngal men raiyat ke adhikaron ko surakshit rakhane ke lie 1822 ee. men 'tainensi ekt' ya 'kashtakari adhiniyam' lagoo kiya gaya. is ekt ke antargat yadi raiyat apane hisse ki nishchit rashi kiraye men deta rahata tha, to use visthapit nahin kiya ja sakata tha. asamany paristhitiyon ke atirikt lagan men vriddhi bhi nahin ki ja sakati thi. hestings ne pres par lage pratibandh ko samapt kar pres ke margadarshan ke lie bhi niyam banaye.


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