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madras
shrirngam ka ek drishy
vivaran madras athava madras presidensi jise adhikarik taur par phort sent jaaurj ki presidensi tatha madras provins ke roop men bhi jana jata hai.
sthapana sanh 1639 ee. men eest indiya knpani ke karmachari fransis de ne vijayanagar ke raja se kuchh bhoomi lekar is nagar ki sthapana ki thi.
sima dakshin bharat ke adhikansh hisson sahit vartaman bharatiy rajy tamil nadu, uttari keral ka malabar kshetr, lakshadvip dvipasamooh, tatiy andhr pradesh aur andhr pradesh ke rayalasima kshetr, gnjam, malkanagiri, koraput, rayagadh, navarngapur aur dakshini udisa ke gajapati jile aur bellari, dakshin kannad aur karnatak ke udupi jile shamil the.
dharmik mahattv madras ke upanagar mayalapur men kapalishvar shiv ka prachin mndir hai. mayalapur ka shabdik arth mayooranagar hai. pauranik janashruti ke anusar parvati ne mayoor ka roop dharan karake shiv ji ki is sthan par pooja ki thi. isi katha ka ankan is mndir ki moortikari men hai. mndir ke pichhe ek pavitr tal hai. tripliken men parthasarathi ka mndir bhi ullekhaniy hai.
any janakari hindoo, musalaman aur eesaee am taur par ek snyukt parivar pranali ka anusaran karate the. samaj mote taur par pitrisattatmak tha jisamen sabase jyeshth purush sadasy parivar ka mukhiya hota tha. presidensi ke adhikansh bhag men virasat ki pitrivnshiy pranali ka anusaran kiya jata tha.

madras (angrezi: Madras) athava madras presidensi jise adhikarik taur par phort sent jaaurj ki presidensi tatha madras provins ke roop men bhi jana jata hai. madras, british bharat ka ek prashasanik anumndal tha. apani sabase vistrit sima tak presidensi men dakshin bharat ke adhikansh hisson sahit vartaman bharatiy rajy tamil nadu, uttari keral ka malabar kshetr, lakshadvip dvipasamooh, tatiy andhr pradesh aur andhr pradesh ke rayalasima kshetr, gnjam, malkanagiri, koraput, rayagadh, navarngapur aur dakshini udisa ke gajapati jile aur bellari, dakshin kannad aur karnatak ke udupi jile shamil the. madras ka vartaman nam chennee hai. sanh 1639 ee. men eest indiya knpani ke karmachari fransis de ne vijayanagar ke raja se kuchh bhoomi lekar is nagar ki sthapana ki thi. us samay ka bana hua qila abhi tak vidyaman hai. madras ke upanagar mayalapur men kapalishvar shiv ka prachin mndir hai. mayalapur ka shabdik arth mayooranagar hai. pauranik janashruti ke anusar parvati ne mayoor ka roop dharan karake shiv ji ki is sthan par pooja ki thi. isi katha ka ankan is mndir ki moortikari men hai. mndir ke pichhe ek pavitr tal hai. tripliken men parthasarathi ka mndir bhi ullekhaniy hai. madras ke sthan par prachin samay men chennapatam namak gram basa hua tha. hindoo, musalaman aur eesaee am taur par ek snyukt parivar pranali ka anusaran karate the. samaj mote taur par pitrisattatmak tha jisamen sabase jyeshth purush sadasy parivar ka mukhiya hota tha. presidensi ke adhikansh bhag men virasat ki pitrivnshiy pranali ka anusaran kiya jata tha.

itihas

1683 aur 1686 ke chartar

9 agast, 1683 ko inglaind ke samrat charls dvitiy ne nyay prashasan ko saksham banane ke lie ek chartar jari kiya. isase bharat men angrejon aur any yooropiy vyaktiyon dvara kie jane vale anadhikrit vyapar ko niyntrit karane ke lie kuchh pratibndh lagae ge the. is ke dvara knpani ko jahan avashyak ho vahan naukadhikaran sthapit karane ka adhikar diya gaya tha. adhikaran men ek sivil vidhi ke visheshgy sahit do sahayakon ki niyukti ki ja sakati thi. is nyayalay ko jalayanon ki jabti, jaladasyuta, atichar, kshati, sadosh karyon adi ke vyaparik aur samudrik karyon ki shakti di gee. is ke uparant 12 apral 1686 ko samrat jems dvitiy dvara jari chartar ke dvara knpani ko jalayan ke lie nausenadhyaksh, up-nausenadhyaksh, sah-nausenadhyaksh, kaptan aur any adhikariyon ko niyukt karane aur sena vidhi ko pravartit karane ke adhikar bhi de die ge. madras men 10 julaee 1686 ko pahala naukadhikaran sthapit kiya aur sentajaaun ko is ka pramukh niyukt kiya. is nyayalay ko samudrik vivadon ke sath divani aur aparadhik mamalon ke nipatare ka adhikar bhi diya gaya tha. in adhikaron ke mil jane se yah nyayalay ek kort aauph judikechar ke roop men kam karane laga.

1687 ka chartar madras ka pahala nagar nigam

madras ki janasnkhya men lagatar vriddhi ho rahi thi. ek nishchit nyay paddhati aur yuktisngat prashasanik vyavastha ke n hone se yahan ke nivasi aur vibhinn samuday prashasan aur nyay se vnchit rahe the aur asntosh badh raha tha. knpani dvara grihakar lagane par use janata ke tivr janavirodh ka samana karana pada. knpani apane prabhutv ko sthayitv pradan karane men asaphal ho rahi thi. is karan se knpani ne 1600 ke chartar ke adhin prapt adhikaron ke antargat 30 disnbar 1687 ko ek chartar jari kiya jisamen jan pratinidhi shasan ki sthapana, sucharoo nyayik paddhati ka vikas aur kararopan adhikaron ka ullekh kiya gaya. is chartar ke upabndhon ke anusar 29 sitnbar 1688 ko madras ke pahale nagar nigam ki sthapana ki gee.

koynbatoor relave steshan, madras

nagar nigam men ek meyar (keval angrez), tin varishth angrez, ek phransisi, do purtagali, tin hindoo tin armeniyan tatha yahoodi vyapariyon sahit barah eldaramen tatha 8 se 120 tak nagarik pratinidhiyon ke lie pravadhan kiya gaya tha. nagarik pratinidhiyon men 30 jatiy pratinidhi sammilit the. nagarik pratinidhiyon ki niyukti meyar aur aildaramen dvara chunav ke jarie tatha kuchh ki manonayan ke jarie ki jati thi. prarnbhik niyuktiyan knpani dvara ki gee thin. meyar ka karyakal ek varsh ka hone ke karan aildaramenon dvara prativarsh kisi ko meyar chunane ka pravadhan bad men kar diya gaya. ek vyakti ekadhik bar meyar rah sakata tha. aildaramen ajivan ya madras men nivas karane tak apane padon par bane rahate the. aildar men ka pad rikt hone par nagarik pratinidhiyon men se chunav ke adhar par us ki poorti kar li jati thi. meyar aur aildaramenon ko bhavan nirman ka kar lagane aur karmachariyon ke vetan ka bhugatan karane ka adhikar diya gaya tha.[1]

angrezi basti

soorat men vyaparik kendr majaboot ho jane ke bad eest indiya knpani ne any mahatvapoorn sthanon par apani phaiktriyan sthapit karane ka nirnay kiya jis ke parinam svaroop madras, kolakata aur mumbee ki angrezi bastiyan astitv men aeen jinhen presidensi nagar kaha gaya. madras in men pahala aur mahatvapoorn tha. 1639 men chnndragiri ke hindoo raja se knpani pratinidhi phrasins devis ne ek chhota bhoo-bhag anudan men prapt kiya aur 1640 men vahan phaiktri kayam ki. jis ka nam phort sent jaaurj rakha gaya. knpani ne raja se sikke dhalane aur prachalan ka adhikar prapt karane ke sath hi nikatasth gram madrasapattanamh ka prashasanik niyntran bhi apane hathon men le liya. jisake badale bndaragah se prapt hone vale rajasv ka adha bhag raja ko dene ka samajhauta snpann hua. phaiktri ke karan kuchh hi varshon men vahan vikas dikhaee dene laga. yah ilaka do bhagon men bnta tha. pahala phaiktri ke andar ka bhag jahan angrej rahate the jo vhait siti kaha jata tha aur doosara nikatavarti kshetr jahan sthaniy nivasi rahate the aur jise blek siti kaha jata tha. donon ke ekikaran se madras nagar bana.

nyay prashasan

bas, madras (1932)

arnbh men yahan ka prashasan soorat phaiktri ke adhin tha aur ise aijent star pradan kiya gaya tha. mukhy prashasak aijent kahalata tha jo apani parishad ke sahayog se vyaparik, prashasanik aur nausainik gatividhiyon ka snchalan karata tha. prarnbh men aijent ko vhait siti men rahane vale angrejon se sambndhit samany prakriti ke divani aur aparadhik mamale nipatane ke lie pradhikar diya gaya tha. lekin un ki shaktiyan aur adhikarita spasht nahin thi. gnbhir prakriti aur mrityudnd ke mamale inglend men uchchadhikariyon ko preshit kie jate the jis se nyay men bahut deri hoti thi aur bahut samay nasht hota tha. 1600 aur 1623 ke chartaron men yah spasht nahin tha ki aijent ko bharatiyon ke mamalon men bhi nyayik pradhikar tha ya nahin is karan se bharatiyon ke mamale a jane par un ke sath koee nyay nahin ho pata tha. ek mahila se balatsng ka arop hone par ek bharatiy ko bina koee nyayik prakriya poori hue hi use phansi par lataka diya gaya tha. ek bharatiy ki ek angrej ki laparavahi ke karan huee durghatana men mrityu ho jane par yah kah kar ki yah durghatana snyog thi, aparadhi ko bari kar diya gaya. vhait siti ke bahar ke kshetron ke lie raja ne nyayalay sthapit kie hue the lekin un men nyay bharatiy vidhi se hota tha. prarnbhik avastha men nyay ke lie prakriya men aspashtata ke karan bharatiyon ko pakshapat ka bhagi banana padata tha. bharatiyon ko kathor dnd die jate the vahin angrejon ko apekshakrit halake dndon se dndit kar chhod diya jata tha. 1661 ke chartar ke dvara presidensi ke gavarnar aur us ki parishad ko nyayik shaktiyan pradan kar di geen aur knpani ke karmachariyon tatha presidensi men nivas karane vale sabhi bharatiyon par adhikarita pradan kar angreji vidhi ke anusar nirnay dene ka anumodan kar diya gaya.[1]

chitr vithika


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 madras ka pratham nagar nigam aur meyar ka nyayalay : bharat men vidhi ka itihas-14 (hindi) tisara khnba. abhigaman tithi: 8 navambar, 2014.

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