उत्तिरमेरूर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

uttirameroor mandir, kanchipuram

uttirameroor, uttarameroor athava uttaramerur (angrezi: Uthiramerur) dakshin bharat men tamilanadu rajy ke kanchipuram zile ka ek pnchayati gram hai. chol rajy ke antargat brahmanon (agrahar) ke ek bade gram men dasavin shatabdi ke pashchath anek shilalekh sthaniy rajaniti par prakash par prakash dalate hain, jo is prakar hain-

  • gram 30 bhagon men vibhajit tha, jinamen se pratyek bhag ka pratinidhi latari dvara chuni gee varshik parishad men upasthit hota tha. parishad panch upasamitiyon men vibhajit thi jinamen se tin kramash: udyanon tatha vatikaon, talabon tatha sinchaee aur jhagadon ke nibatare ke lie uttaradayi thin, jabaki antim do ke kary anishchit hain.
  • sadasy avaitanik hote the tatha durvyavahar ke karan padachyut kiye ja sakate the. parishad men sammilit hone ka adhikar sampatti yogyata dvara simit tha, jisamen makan tatha chhota bhoo-bhag sammilit tha. sadasyata 35 tatha 70 varsh ki ayu ke madhy vale vyaktiyon ke lie simit thi jo ek varsh tak karyabhar snbhal lete the, ve tin varsh ke lie pun: niyukti hetu ayogy ho jate the.
  • uttirameroor vidhan ki do antim visheshataen any gramon ke vidhanon men bhi payi jati hain, jinaki lekha aj bhi prapt hain. aisa pratit hota hai ki sabhi ne yuvakon tatha vriddhon ke pravesh ka apani parishadon men nishedh kar diya tha aur kuchh men nyoonatam ayu 40 varsh nishchit ki gayi thi. adhikansh ne vishram-grahan kiye hue sadasyon ki pun:niyukti par pratibandh laga diye the. nissandeh yah bhrashtachar-nivaran ke liye tatha vyaktigat prabhav ki vriddhi ko rokane ke lie kiya gaya tha. ek sthan men to kisi vishram-grahan karane vale sadasy ke nikat sambndhiyon ko sadasyata se panch varsh ke lie vnchit kar diya tha, doosare sthan par vishram prapt sadasy ki das varsh tak pun: niyukti nahin ho sakati thi.

Blockquote-open.gif uttirameroor se pallav evn chol kal ke lagabhag do sau abhilekh mile hain. in abhilekhon se parigyat hota hai ki pallav evn chol shasan ke antargat gram adhikatam svayattata ka upabhog karate the. Blockquote-close.gif

  • dakshin ki ye parishaden n keval jhagadon ka nibatara karati thin tatha sarakar ki sima ke bahar samajik karyon ka prabandh karati thin, apitu malagujari ekatr karane, vyaktigat sahayog ka mooly nirdharit karane ki batachit ke lie uttaradayi thin. ganv ki bnjar bhoomi ka svamitv vikray adhikar sahit nishchit roop se unaka tha tatha ve sinchaee, marg-nirman tatha any janakaryon men vishesh ruchi rakhate the. unake adan pradan ka vivaran gram ke mandiron ki divaron par ankit rahata tha jisase ek shaktishali samudayik jivan ka abhas milata hai aur jo prarambhik bharatiy rajaniti ke sarvashreshth ansh ke sthayi smarak hain.[1]

itihas

uttirameroor se pallav evn chol kal ke lagabhag do sau abhilekh mile hain. in abhilekhon se parigyat hota hai ki pallav evn chol shasan ke antargat gram adhikatam svayattata ka upabhog karate the. 10vin shatabdi ka ek lekh aj bhi ek mandir ki divar par khuda hai, jo yah batata hai ki chol shasan ke antargat sthaniy 'sabha' kis prakar kary karati thi. sabha ka chunav upayukt vyaktiyon men se latari nikalakar hota tha. gram star par svayattata itani thi ki prashasan ke uchch staron aur rajanitik dhanche men hone vale parivartanon se ganv ka dainandin jivan aprabhavit rahata tha. yah isalie sambhav ho saka tha, kyonki ganv paryapt roop se atmanirbhar the. adhunik pnchayaton ki chol kalin sthaniy prashasan se tulana karana sarthak evn ruchikar hoga. [2]

prajatntr ka snvidhan

uttirameroor mandir, kanchipuram

un rajaon ke jamane men bhi gram prashasan men prajatntr ka jo anokha udaharan milata hai, usase sahaj hi anuman lagaya ja sakata hai ki un dinon hamari samajik vyavastha kitani susabhy aur unnat thi. bas adde ke pas hi ek shiv mndir hai. usaki divaron par charon taraph hamare snvidhan ki dharaon ki tarah gram prashasan se snbndhit vistrit niyamavali utkirn hai jisamen gram sabha ke sadasyon ke nirvachan vidhi ka bhi ullekh milata hai. ise raja parntaga sundara chol ne apane shasan ke 14 ven varsh utkirn karavaya tha. un dinon gram sabha ke sadasyon ke nirvachan hetu jo paddhati apanaee jati thi. use “kudamolai paddhati” kaha gaya hai. koodam ka arth hota hai mataka aur olai tad ke patte ko kahate hai. ganv ke kendr men kahin ek bade matake ko rakh diya jata tha aur nagarik, ummedavaron men se apane pasnd ke vyakti ka nam ek tad patr par likh kar matake men dal diya karate the. bad men usaki ganana hoti thi aur gram sabha ke sadasyon ka chunav ho jaya karata tha. utkirn abhilekhon ke adhar par kaha ja sakata hai ki gram sabha ki sadasyata ke lie jo nirdharit manadnd the ve hamen sharminda karate hain. nirvachan men bhag lene ke lie jo patrataen darshaee gee hain ve nimnanusar hain.[3]

  1. pratyek ummedavar ke pas ek chauthaee veli (bhoomi ka kshetr) krishi bhoomi ka hona avashyak hai.
  2. anivaryatah usake pas svayn ka ghar ho.
  3. ayu 35 ya usase adhik parntu 70 varsh se kam ho.
  4. mool bhoot shiksha prapt kiya ho aur vedon ka gyata ho.
  5. pichhale tin varshon men us pad par na raha ho.[3]
aise vyakti gram sabha ke sadasy nahin ban sakate
  1. jisane shasan ko apani ay ka byora na diya ho.
  2. yadi koee bhrasht acharan ka doshi paya gaya ho to usake khud ke atirikt usase rakt se juda koee bhi vyakti sat pidhiyon tak ayogy rahega.
  3. jisane apane kar na chukae hon.
  4. grihasth rah kar par stri gaman ka doshi.
  5. hatyara, mithya bhashi aur darookhor ho .
  6. jis kisi ne doosare ke dhan ka hanan kiya ho
  7. jo aise bhojy padarth ka sevan karata ho jo manushyon ke khane yogy na ho.[3]

dand ka pravadhan

uttirameroor mandir ki divaron par prajatntr snbndhi abhilekh

gram sabha ke sadasyon ka karyakal vaise to 360 dinon ka hi rahata tha parntu is bich kisi sadasy ko anuchit karmon ke lie doshi pae jane par balapoorvak hatae jane ki bhi vyavastha thi. us samay ke logon ki prashasanik evn rajanitik soojaboojh ka andaza isi bat se lagata hai ki lok sevakon ke lie vaiyaktik tatha sarvajanik jivan men acharan ke lie adarsh manak nirdharit the. galat acharan ke lie jurmane ki vyavastha banaee gayi thi. jurmana gram sabha hi lagati thi aur jise bhi yah saza milati, use dusht kah kar pukara jata. jurmane ki rashi prashasak dvara usi vittiy varsh men vasoolana hota tha anyatha gram sabha sngyan lete hue svayn mamale ka nipatara karati. jurmane ki rashi ke patane men deri kie jane par vilnb shulk bhi lagaya jata tha. nirvachit sadasy bhi galatiyon ke lie jurmane ke bhogi ban sakate the.

vahan se prapt shilalekhon se pata chalata hai ki har vyavasay ko paradarshi banae rakhane ke lie parikshan ki vyavastha banaee gayi thi. isake lie ek 10 sadasyon vali samiti hoti thi jo satyapit karati thi. 3 mah men ek bar gram sabha ke sammukh upasthit hokar is samiti ko shapath lena hota tha ki unhonne koee bhrasht acharan nahin kiya hai. isi tarah alag alag karyon ke lie samitiyon ka gathan kiya jata tha jaise, jal apoorti, udyan tatha vaniki, krishi unnayan adi adi aur aise har samiti ke lie alag se disha nirdesh bhi die gaye hai. sarvajanik vidyalayon men vyakhyataon ki niyukti ke bhi niyam the. anivary roop se ve shastron, vedon adi ke gyata rahate the, aur sadaiv bahar se hi bulae jate the.[3]

mandir ki divaron se mile shilalekh [4]

uttirameroor ke mandir ki divar par khuda lekh vistarapoorvak batata hai ki sthaniy 'sabha' kis prakar kary karati thi. yah lekh dasavin shatabdi ka hai. isamen likha hai:

tis halake honge. in tis halakon men pratyek halake ke nivasi ekatrit honge aur inamen se aise pratyek vyakti ko chunenge jinamen latari dvara chune jane ke lie nimnalikhit yogyataen hongi:

  • usake pas ek-chauthaee adhik dene yogy bhoomi ho. vah apani hi bhoomi par bane hue makan men rahata ho. usaki ayu sattar varsh se kam aur paintis varsh se adhik ho. vah mntron aur brahmanon ka gyan rakhata ho.

yadi vah bhoomi ke keval athaven bhag ka svami ho to bhi usaka nam sammilit kar liya jaega basharte ki usane ek ved aur charon bhashyon men ek knthasth kiya ho. in yogyataon ko rakhane valon men se keval ve vyakti lie jaenge jo sabha ityadi ki karyavahiyon se parichit aur sachcharitr hain. jo eemanadar se apani ajivika kamata hai, jisaka man pavitr hai tatha jo antim tin varshon men kisi bhi samiti ka sadasy nahin raha hai vah bhi chuna jaega. jo kisi bhi samiti ka sadasy to raha hai parntu jisane apana hisab nahin diya hai vah aur usake nimnalikhit snbndhi tikaton par apana nam likhavane ke adhikar nahin honge:

uttirameroor mandir ki divaron par prajatntr snbndhi abhilekh

usaki chhoti tatha badi mausiyon ke putr.
usaki bua tatha mama ke putr.
usake pita ka sahodar bhaee.
usake mata ka sahodar bhaee.
usaka sahodar bhaee.
usaka shvasur.
usaki patni ka sahodar bhaee.
usaki sahodar bahin ke putr.
usaki sahodar bahin ka pati.
usaka jamata.
usaka pita.
usaka putr.

  • vah vyakti bhi tikat par nam likhavane ka adhikari nahin hoga jisake viruddh nikat snbndhi se vyabhichar athava panch mahapapon men char mahapap darj hon. (yah panch mahapap hain: brahmahatya, madirapan, chori, vyabhichar, tatha aparadhiyon ka sng). usake uparokt sabhi snbndhi latari dvara nahin chune ja sakenge. jo nimn logon ki sngati ke karan asprishy ho gaya hai vah us samay tak nahin chuna jaega.

jab tak ki vah prayashchit nahin kar leta.
jo du:sahasi hai.....
jisane doosaron ki sampatti churaee hai......
jisane varjit bhojan kiya hai......
jisane pap kiya hai aur jise shuddhi ke lie prayashchit karana pada hai.......

  • in sabako chhodakar tis vardon ke lie tikaton par nam likhe jaenge aur in barah galiyon men pratyek vard tis vardon ke lie tikaton ke alag-alag paiket taiyar karega. ye paiket ek ghade men rakh diye jaenge. tikat nikale jane ke samay yuva aur vriddh sadasyon sahit mahasabha ki poori baithak bulaee jaegi. mandiron ke samast purohit jo us din us gram men honge, bina kisi apavad ke, us bhitari haaul men bithae jaenge, jahan mahasabha ki baithak hogi.
    uttirameroor mandir par abhilekh
    ]]
  • mandir ke purohiton men sabase vayovriddh vyakti khada hokar ghada oopar uthaega taki sab log use dekh saken. nikat khade hue kisi ladake dvara-jo yah nahin janata ki isamen se ek tikat nikalakar pnch niyukt kiya jaega. is prakar die ge tikat ko pnch apani khuli hatheli par prapt karega. vah is tikat ko padhakar sunaega. phir us kaksh men upasthit tikat ko padhenge. is prakar padha gaya nam svikar kar liya jaega. isi prakar tis halakon men se pratyek ke lie ek-ek vyakti chuna jaega.
  • is prakar chune ge tis vyaktiyon men se jo upavan samiti ya jalashay samiti par rah chuke honge, aur jo gyanavan tatha anubhavi honge, ve varshik samiti ke lie chune jaenge. shesh men se barah upavan samiti ke lie chune jaenge aur chhah jalashay samiti ke lie. in samitiyon ke mahanh vyakti pure 360 din tak padadhikari rahakar avakash grahan karenge. is kameti ka koee sadasy yadi kisi aparadh ke lie doshi paya gaya to use tatkal apane pad se hata diya jaega. inake avakash grahan ke pashchath samiti niyukt karane ke lie barah galiyon ki nyay nirikshan samiti niyukt ki jaegi.
  • pnch-sootri samiti aur svarn-samiti niyukt ke lie tison vardon men ghade ke tikat ke lie nam likhe jaenge (pranali vahi hogi). jo gadhe par chadh chuka hai (arthath jo dndit ho chuka hai) athava jisane jalasaji ki hai vah sammilit nahin kiya jaega. koee pnch jo eemanadari se ajivika kamata hai, vah ganv ka lekha- jokha rakhega. is pad ke lie tab tak koee likhakar pun: niyukt nahin kiya jaega, jab tak ki vah mukhy samiti ke mahanh purushon ko apana hisab prastut nahin kar deta aur vah eemanadar ghoshit nahin kar diya jata. jo hisab vah likhata raha hai, use vah svayn poora karega aur isake lie any koee vyakti nahin chuna jaega. is prakar is varsh se age jab tak chand aur soory chamakate rahenge, samitiyan sadaiv latari se niyukti ki jaya karengi ham, uttirameroor ki sabha 'chaturvedimngalam' ne apane gram ki samriddhi ke lie yah vyavastha ki hai taki dusht logon ka nash ho aur shesh samriddh hon. is sabha men baithe hue mahanh vyaktiyon ke adesh se, mainne, pnch kadadipottan shivakkuri raj mallamngalapriy ne is prakar ki vyavstha likhi hai.

doosare shilalekh men bhi pray: isi pranali ka ullekh hai, lekin yogyataon, apekshaon, svikrit vyay ki tadad men thoda antar hai. mahasabha ki baithak nagada bajakar bulaee jati thi aur yah baithak sadharanataya mandir ke ahate men hoti thi. in gram sabhaon men paraspar sahakar sahayog ek am bat thi.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. vasham, e.el. adbhut bharat (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: shivalal agraval knpani, agara-3, 74.
  2. jain, daau. hukam chand bharatiy aitihasik sthal kosh (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: jain prakashan mandir, jayapur, 34.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 1000 varsh poorv ke prajatntr ka snvidhan (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) malhar blaaug. abhigaman tithi: 29 agast, 2011.
  4. thapar, romila bharat ka itihas, 1975 (hindi), bharatadiskavari pustakalay: rajakamal prakashan, nee dilli, 183-185.

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