चोल साम्राज्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

chol samrajy ka sikka jo shrilnka men mila

chol samrajy ka abhyuday nauvin shatabdi men hua aur dakshin pray:dvip ka adhikansh bhag isake adhikar men tha. chol shasakon ne shrilnka par bhi vijay prapt kar li thi aur maladiv dvipon par bhi inaka adhikar tha. kuchh samay tak inaka prabhav kaling aur tungabhadr doab par bhi chhaya tha. inake pas shaktishali nausena thi aur ye dakshin poorvi eshiya men apana prabhav qayam karane men saphal ho sake. chol samrajy dakshin bharat ka niahsandeh sabase shaktishali samrajy tha. apani prarambhik kathinaiyon par vijay prapt karane ke bad qarib do shatabdiyon tak arthath barahavin eesvi ke madhy tak chol shasakon ne n keval ek sthir prashasan diya, varanh kala aur sahity ko bahut protsahan diya. kuchh itihasakaron ka mat hai ki chol kal dakshin bharat ka 'svarn yug' tha.

chol samrajy ki sthapana

chol samrajy ki sthapana vijayalay ne ki, jo arambh men pallavon ka ek samnti saradar tha. usane 850 ee. men tnjaur ko apane adhikar men kar liya aur pandy rajy par chadhaee kar di. chol 897 tak itane shaktishali ho ge the ki, unhonne pallav shasak ko harakar usaki hatya kar di aur sare taund mndal par apana adhikar kar liya. isake bad pallav, itihas ke pannon se vilin ho ge, par chol shasakon ko rashtrakooton ke viruddh bhayanak sngharsh karana pada. rashtrakoot shasak krishn tritiy ne 949 ee. men chol samrat parantak pratham ko parajit kiya aur chol samrajy ke uttari kshetr par adhikar kar liya. isase chol vnsh ko dhakka laga, lekin 965 ee. men krishn tritiy ki mrityu aur rashtrakooton ke patan ke bad ve ek bar phir uth khade hue.

chol samrajy ka utthan

chhathi shatabdi ke madhy ke bad dakshin bharat men pallavon, chalukyon tatha pandy vnshon ka rajy raha. pallavon ki rajadhani kanchi, chalukyon ki badami tatha pandyon ki rajadhani maduree thi, jo adhunik tnjaur men hai aur dakshin arthath keral men, cher shasak the. karnatak kshetr men kadamb tatha gngavnshon ka shasan tha. is yug ke adhikatar samay men gng shasak rashtrakooton ke adhin the ya unase milate hue the. rashtrakoot is samay maharashtr kshetr men sabase adhik prabhavashali the. pallav, pandy tatha cher apas men tatha milakar rashtrakooton ke viruddh sngharsharat the. inamen se kuchh shasakon visheshakar pallavon ke pas shaktishali nausenaen bhi thin. pallavon ke dakshin poorv eshiya ke sath bade paimane par vyaparik sambandh the aur unhonne vyapar tatha sanskritik sambandhon ko badhane ke lie kee rajadoot bhi chin bheje. pallav adhikatar shaiv mat ke anuyayi the aur inhonne adhunik chennee ke nikat mahabalipuram men kee mandiron ka nirman kiya.

rajaraj ka kal

chol vnsh ke sabase shaktishali raja rajaraj (985-1014 ee.) tatha usaka putr rajendr pratham (1012-1044 ee.) the. rajaraj ko usake pita ne apane jivan kal men hi apana uttaradhikari niyukt kar diya tha aur sinhasan par baithane ke pahale hi usane prashasan tatha yuddh-kaushal men dakshata prapt kar li thi. rajaraj ne sabase pahale apana dhyan pandy tatha cher shasakon tatha unake mitr shrilnka ke shasak ki or diya. usane trivendram ke nikat cher ki nausena ko nasht kiya tatha kuilan par dhava bol diya. usake bad usane maduree tak vijay prapt ki aur pandy shasak ko apana bndi bana liya. usane shrilnka par bhi akraman kiya aur us dvip ke uttari hisse ko apane samrajy ka ang bana liya. ye qadam usane isalie uthaya kyonki vah dakshin-poorv eshiya ke deshon se hone vale vyapar ko apani mutthi men rakhana chahata tha. un dinon koro mndal tat tatha malabar, bharat tatha dakshin poorv eshiya ke bich hone vale vyapar ke kendr the. rajaraj ne maladiv dvipon par bhi chadhaee ki. uttar men rajaraj ne gng pradesh ke uttar-pashchimi hisson ko bhi apane adhikar men le liya tatha vengi ko bhi vijit kar liya.

rajendr pratham ka kal

rajendr pratham ne raj ke vistar ki niti ko apanaya aur pandy cher deshon par vijay prapt kar unhen apane samrajy men mila liya. usane shrilnka par bhi poorn vijay prapt ki aur ek yuddh men shrilnka ke raja aur rani ke mukuton aur raj chihnon ko apane adhikar men le liya. agale pachas varshon tak shrilnka chol shasakon ke niyntran se mukt n ho saka.

raja rajaraja chol aur guru (shikshak) karoovurar

rajaraj tatha shailendr pratham ne vibhinn jagahon par shiv tatha vishnu ke mandiron ka nirman kar apane vijay ke praman die. inamen se sabase prasiddh tnjavur ka rajarajeshvar mandir hai jisaka nirman kary 1010 ee. men poora hua. chol shasakon ne in mandiron ki divaron par apani vijay ke bade-bade abhilekh khudavae. inhin se hamen chol shasakon aur unake poorvajon ke bare men bahut kuchh pata lagata hai. rajendr pratham ka ek pramukh abhiyan vah tha jisamen vah kaling hota hua bngal pahuncha jahan usaki sena ne do nareshon ko parajit kiya. is abhiyan ka netritv 1022 ee. men ek chol senadhyaksh ne kiya aur usane vahi marg apanaya jo mahanh vijeta samudragupt ne apanaya tha. is abhiyan ki saphalata ki prashasti men rajendr pratham ne 'gngee kaundachol' (arthath gnga ka chol vijeta) ki padavi grahan ki. usane kaveri ke tat par ek nayi rajadhani 'gngaeekond cholapuramh' (gnga ke chol vijeta ka shahar) ka nirman kiya. rajendr pratham ka ek aur mukhy abhiyan shailendr samrajy ke viruddh nau sainik abhiyan tha. shailendr samrajy ka athavin shatabdi men uday hua tha aur malaya prayadvip, sumatra, java tatha usake nikat ke dvipon par isaka adhikar tha. chin ke sath sadak ke raste hone vale vyapar par bhi isaka niyntran tha. shailendr vnsh ke shasak bauddh the, cholon ke sath inake bade achchhe sambandh the. shailendr shasak ne nagapattam men ek bauddh math ka nirman kiya tha aur usake anurodh par rajendr pratham ne math ke kharch ke lie ek gram ka anudan diya tha. in donon ke bich sambandh tootane ka karan yah tha ki chol shasak bharatiy vyapar men padane vali badhaon ko hatana chahate the. is abhiyan se unhen kadaram ya kedar tatha malaya pray:dvip aur sumatra men kee sthanon par vijay mili. kuchh samay tak is kshetr men cholon ki nausena sabase adhik shaktishali thi tatha bngal ki khadi cholon ki jhil ke saman ho gee thi.

chol shasakon ne apane kee doot chin bhi bheje. sattar vyapariyon ka ek mndal 1077 ee. men chol dooton ke roop men chin gaya aur vahan use 81,800 kansy mudraon ki mala mili, arthath yah snkhya utani hi thi, jitani un vyapariyon ki vastuen thin, jisamen kapoor, kadhaee kie kapade, hathi dant, gaindon ke sing tatha shishe ka saman tha. chol samraton ne rashtrakooton ke uttaradhikari chalukyon se barabar sngharsh kiya. inhen uttarakalin chaluky kaha jata hai aur inaki rajadhani kalyani men thi. chol aur chalukyon men vengi (rayalasima), tungabhadr aur karnatak ke uttar-pashchim men gngon ke kshetr par prabhutv ke lie sngharsh hua. is sngharsh men kisi bhi paksh ki nishchit roop se vijay nahin huee aur donon paksh antatah kamazor pad ge. aisa lagata hai ki is yug men yuddh ki bhaynkarata badhati gee. chol shasakon ne chalukyon ke shaharon ko, jinamen kalyani shamil tha, tahas-nahas kar dala aur janata ka, jisamen brahman aur bachche shamil the, qatleam kiya. yahi niti unhonne pady rajaon ke sath apanaee. unhonne shrilnka ki prachin rajadhani anuradhapur ko bhi dharashayi kar diya aur vahan ke raja aur rani ke sath badi kathorata ka vyavahar kiya. ye kary chol samrajy ke itihas par kalnk hain. lekin isake bavajood chol kisi bhi desh par vijay prapt kar lete the, to usamen thos shasan vyavastha qayam karate the. chol-prashasan ki ek pramukh bat yah thi ki, ve apane sare samrajy ke gramon men svashasan ko protsahit karate the.

chol barahavin shatabdi tak samriddhashali bane rahe, lekin terahavin shatabdi ke arambh men unaka patan shuroo ho gaya. barahavin shatabdi tak maharashtr men uttar kalin chalukyon ki shakti bhi kshin pad gee thi. chol samrajy ki jagah ab dakshin men pandy tatha hoyasal samraton tatha uttarakalin chol samraton ki jagah yadav aur kakatiy samraton ne le li thi. in rajyon ne bhi kala tatha sthapaty ko badhava diya. durbhagyavash unhonne apas men sngharsh kar svayn ko kamazor bana liya. inhonne ek doosare ke nagaron ka vidhvns kiya aur yahan tak ki mandiron ko bhi nahin chhoda. antatah chaudahavin shatabdi ke arambh men dilli ke sultanon ne inako jad se ukhad diya.

chol prashasan

chol shasak
kr.sn. shasak shasan kal
1. uravappaharre ilan jet chenni -
2. karikal -
3. vijayalay 850-875 ee.
4. adity (chol vnsh) 875-907 ee.
5. parantak pratham 907-953 ee.
6. gndharadity 953 se 956 ee.
7. parantak dvitiy 956 se 973 ee.
8. uttam chol 973-985 ee.
9. rajaraj pratham 985-1014 ee.
10. rajendr pratham 1014-1044 ee.
11. rajadhiraj 1044-1052 ee.
12. rajendr dvitiy 1052-1064 ee.
13. vir rajendr 1064-1070 ee.
14. adhirajendr 1070 ee.
15. kulottung pratham 1070-1120 ee.
16. vikram chol 1120-1133 ee.
17. kulottung dvitiy 1133-1150 ee.
18. rajaraj dvitiy 1150-1163 ee.
19. rajadhiraj dvitiy 1163-1178 ee.
20. kulotung tritiy 1178-1218 ee.
21. rajaraj tritiy 1216-1256 ee.
22. rajendr tritiy 1246-1279 ee.

chol prashasan men sarvadhik mahattvapoorn pad raja ka hota tha. chol kalin shasan vyavastha rajatntratmak thi. raja ka pad vnshanugat vyavastha par adharit tha. raja ke lie ek mntriparishad ki vyavatha thi. rajakiy adeshon ka kriyanvayan 'olai' nam ke ativishisht adhikari kiya karate the. raja ke pradhan sachit ko 'aulanayamakam' kaha jata tha. chol prashasan men bhag lene vale uchch padadhikariyon ko 'perundanamh' evn nimn shreni ke padadhikariyon ko 'sherundanamh' kaha jata tha. is samay adhikariyon ke vetan ka bhugatan pakad roop men n karake bhoomi ke roop men kiya jata tha. 'vidaiyadhikarin' nam ka adhikari kary preshak kirane ke roop men kary karata tha. rajy ke uchch adhikariyon (mntriyon) ko 'udanakuttamh' kaha jata tha.

prashasakiy ikaiyan

prashasan ki suvidha hetu sampoorn chol samrajy 6 pranton men vibhakt tha. pranton ko 'mandalamh' kaha jata tha. prayah rajakumaron ko yahan ka prashasan dekhana padata tha. mandalamh ko kottam (kamishnari) men, kottam ko nadu (zile) men evn pratyek nadu ko kee kurramon (gram samooh) men vibhakt kiya gaya tha. bade-bade shahar ya ganv ek alag kurram ban jate the aur taniyoor ya tnkuram kahalate the. mandalamh se lekar gram star tak ke prashasan hetu sthaniy sabhaon ka sahayog liya jata tha. 'nadu' ki sthaniy sabha ko 'natoor' evn nagar ki sabhaon ko kramashah shreni aur poog kaha jata tha. chol samrat parantak pratham ke shasan ke 12ven evn 14ven varsh ke prasidv 'uttarameroor abhilekhon' men chol kalin sthaniy svashasan evn gram prashasan vyavastha ka sakshy milata hai. sthaniy svashasan chol shasan pranali ki mahattvapoorn visheshata thi. sthaniy svashasan men 'ur' tatha 'sabha' v mahasabha ke sadasy vayask hote the. ur sarvasadharan logon ki samiti thi, jisaka kary hota tha- sarvajanik kalyan ke lie talabon v bagichon ke nirman hetu ganv ki bhoomi ka adhigrahan karana.

sabha ya gram sabha

yah moolatah agraharon v brahmanon bastiyon ki snstha thi. isake sadasyon ko 'perumakkal' kaha jata tha. 'variyam' (karyakarini samiti) ki sadasyata hetu 35 se 70 varsh ke bich tak ke vyaktiyon ko avasar diya jata tha. isake atirikt vah kam se kam dedh ekad bhoomi ka malik evn vaidik mntron ka gyata ho. in arhataon ko poora karake chune gaye 30 sadasyon men se 12 gyani vyaktiyon ko varshik samiti 'samvatsar variyamh' ke lie chuna jata tha aur shesh bache 18 sadasyon men 12 udyan samiti ke lie evn 6 ko tadag samiti ke lie chuna jata tha.

sabhi ki baithak ganv men mandir ke vriksh ke niche evn talab ke kinare hoti thi. mahasabha ko 'poorugarri', isake sadasyon ko 'perumakkal' evn samiti ke sadasyon ko 'variyapperumakkal' kaha jata tha. vyapariyon ki sabha ko 'nagaramh' kaha jata tha. nagaron men vyapariyon ke vibhinn sngathan the, jaise- manigram, valnjiyar adi. chol kal ke 'ur' ka roop laghuganatntr jaisa tha. is samay sarvajanik bhoomi mahasabha ke adhikar kshetr men hoti thi. mahasabha gramavasiyon par kar lagane, use vasoolane evn begar lene ka bhi adhikar apane pas rakhati thi. sabha ya mahasabha varsh men ek bar kendriy sarakar ko kar deti thi. mahasabha ki ay aur vyay ka nirikshan kendr sarakar ke adhikari kiya karate the. kendr sarakar asamany sthitiyon men hi gramasabha ke svayatt shasan men hastakshep karati thi.

ay ka srot

chol kalin any kar
ayam rajasv kar
maramajjadi vriksh kar
kadamai supari par kar
manaiirai grih kar
kadhai़irai vyaparik pratishthanon par lagane vala kar
pevir telaghani kar
kidakkashu nar pashudhan kar
kadimai lagan
padikaval gram suraksha kar
vashalpiramam dvar kar
maganmai vyavasay kar
ajivakkashu ajivika par lagane vala kar

rajy ki ay ka mukhy sadhan bhoorajasv tha. bhoorajasv nirdharit karane se poorv bhoomi ka sarvekshan, vargikaran evn nap-jokh karaee jati thi. tatkalin abhilekhon se gyat hota hai ki, rajaraj pratham evn kulottung ke pair ki map hi bhoomi ki lambaee mapane ki ikaee bani. bhoomikar bhoomi ki urvarata evn varshik fasal chakr dekhane ke bad nirdharit kiya jata tha. sambhavatah chol kal men bhoomi kar upaj ka ek tihaee hua karata tha, jise ann v naqad donon roopon men liya jata tha. chol abhilekhon men bhoomi kar ke atirikt any karon ka ullekh milata hai.

rajasv vibhag ka uchch adhikari 'varitpottagakakh' kaha jata tha. in karon ke atirikth chol raja nikatavarti kshetron ki loot mar se bhi apani ay badhate the. vivah samaroh par bhi kar lagata tha. abhilekhon men karo v vasooliyon ke lie 'harai' ya 'vari', 'marunpadu' aur 'drndamh' shabd ka prayog kiya gaya hai. ann ka man ek kalam (tin man) tha. beli bhoomi map ki ikaee thi. sone ke sikke ko kashu kaha jata tha. chol abhilekhon men bhoomi kar ke atirikt anek prakar ke kar lagae jate the, jaise- maramajjadi (upayogi vrikshakar), kadamai (supadi ke bagan par kar), manaiirai (grihakar), kadhaiirai (vyaparik pratishthan kar), pevir (telaghani kar), padikaval (gram suraksha kar), maganyai (svarnakar, lauhakar, kumbhakar, badhee adi ke peshon par lagaya jane vala kar).

sainy sngathan

cholon ki sthayi sena men paidal, gajarohi, ashvarohi adi sainik shamil hote the. inake pas ek badi nausena thi, jo rajaraj pratham evn rajendr pratham ke samay men charamotkarsh par thi. bngal ki khadi cholon ki nausena ke karan hi 'cholon ki jhil' ban gee. 'badaperr kaikakolas' raja ki vyaktigat suraksha men tainat paidal dal ko kahate the, jabaki 'kunjir-mallar' gajarohi dal ko, 'kudiraichchaivagar' ashvarohi dal ko, 'billigal' dhanurdhari dal ko, 'kaikakolas' paidal sena men sarvadhik shaktishali ko, 'saigundar' bhala se prahar karane men nipun sainikon ko evn 'velaikkar' raja ki ativishvasaniy angarakshak ko kahate the. sena gulmon v chhavaniyon (kadagam) men rahati thi. chol kal men sena ki tukadi ka netritv karane vale ko nayak tatha senadhyaksh ko mahadandanayak kaha jata tha. sena men anek senapati brahman the, jinhen brahmadhiraj kaha jata tha.

nyay vyavastha

raja sarvochch nyayadhish hota tha. chol abhilekhon men raja ke dharmasan ka antim nyay prapt karane ke roop men ullekh hai, jahan par raja dharmasanabhatt (smritishastr gyata, brahman evn vidvan) ki sahayata se nyay karata tha. chhote vivadon par sthaniy nigam nirnay dete the. cholon ki dand vyavastha men arthik dand evn samajik apaman ka dand diya jata tha. prayah arthik dand kashu (mudra) men diya jata tha.

cholakalin samaj

cholon ke samay jati vyavastha ke antargat brahman evn 'vellal' (shoodr varg ke bade bhoosvami) ka sthan sarvochch tha. brahmanon ko di gayi kar mukt bhoomi ko 'chaturvedi mngalamh' kahate the. isake atirikt kuchh vishesh adhikar prapt vargo men 'balngai' ke pas vishesh adhikar hote the. chol kal men kshatriy evn vaishy varg ka astitv nahin tha. chol samaj men kuchh vargon ko achhoot (paraiya) mana jata tha. vellal shoodr krishak the. chol kal men uchch varg ke purushon tatha nimn varg ki mahilaon se ratharaj namak ek naye varg ka uday hua. chol kal men striyon ki sthiti poorvakal ki tulana men behatar thi. uchch kul ki striyan prashasan se snbaddh thin, kintu sati pratha evn devadasi pratha jaisi kuritiyan bhi vidyaman thin. das pratha ka bhi prachalan tha.

dharmik sthiti

cholon ke samay men vaishnav dharm evn shaiv dharm vyapak prachar hua. dakshin men inake maton ke prachar men shaiv-nayanaron evn vaishnav-alavaron ne mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee. adhikatar chol shasak kattar shaiv the. unhonne shaiv dharm ke prachar-prasar men gahari ruchi li. chol naresh adity (chol vnsh) ne shiv pooja ke lie kaveri nadi ke kinare shiv mndir ka nirman aur isake putr parantak pratham ne inhin ki aradhana men 'dabhrasabha' ka nirman karavaya. chol samrat rajaraj pratham ke kal men to shaiv dharm apane charamotkarsh par pahunch gaya. rajaraj ne tnjaur men'‘rarajeshvar' athava 'brihadishvar' mndir ka nirman karavaya, sath hi 'shivapadashekhar' ki upadhi bhi dharan ki. rajaraj ke samay shaiv sant 'nambiandaranambi' ne shaiv mntron ko dharmagrnth men sngrahit kiya. chol kal men vaishnav mat ke prasiddh achary ramanujachary the. unhonne vishishtadvait mat ka pratipadan kiya. unhonne kulottung dvitiy dvara chidambaramh mndir se govindaraj vishnu ki moorti ko samudr men phenk dene ke bad use timpati ke vishal vaishnav mndir men sthapit karavaya.

sahity

chol rajaon ke samay men tamil bhasha evn sahity ka vikas hua. tamil kaviyon men prasiddh 'jayangondar' kulottung pratham ka rajakavi tha. usane 'kaliguttipuran' nam ke grnth ki rachana kin kulottung tritiy ke darabar men rahane vale kavi knban ka kal tamil sahity ka svarn kal mana jata hai. is kal ki any rachanayen shekkillar dvara virachit 'periy puranamh', pulagendi ki nalabemba tatha tirooktadevar ki 'jivak chintamani' hai. kulottung dvitiy (1130-50) ke shasanakal men shekkilar ne tirutondar puranamh yo pariyapuranamh likha hai. yah tamil shaiv sahity men ek bahut mahattvapoorn grnth hai. priyapoornam ya shekhar ki 'tirootondapoornamh' ko panchava ved kaha jata hai. mamoolanar pramukh prachin tamil kavi the, jinhonne apani rachana men nand vnsh evn maury vnsh ka ullekh kiya hai. is kal ke any dharmik granthon men nandi ka 'tiruvilaeeyadal poornamh' nambi, andaranambi ka 'tirumulaee-kandapoornamh' tatha amudanar ka 'ramanuj nuradadi' hain. tamil kavy men agam varg ki kavitaen bhagavan shiv ki prashnsa men likhi gayi hain.

sanskritik jivan

chol samrajy ke vistar aur usake vaibhav se usake shasakon ke lie tnjaur, gngeekondacholapuram, kanchi jaise bade nagaron ka nirman sambhav ho saka. shasakon ne apane lie bade-bade mahal, jo baganon se susajjit the, banavae. chol shasakon ne panch aur sat mnzili imaraten banavayin aur unake saradaron ke pas tin se panch mnzile mahal the. durbhagyavash us kal ki ek bhi imarat aisi nahin bachi hai. cholon ki rajadhani gngeekondacholapuram ab tnjaur ke nikat ek chhota sa ganv matr hai. lekin is yug ke sahity se hamen chol shasakon aur unake mntriyon tatha bade vyapariyon ke vishal mahalon aur unake vaibhav ke bare men pata chalata hai.

mandir sthapaty kala

chol samraton ke yug men dakshin bharat men mandir sthapaty apane shikhar par tha. inake samay mandir sthapaty men ek nayi shaili ka vikas hua. is shaili ko 'dravid' kahate hain. kyonki yah adhikansh dakshin bharat men simit thi. isaki pramukh visheshata yah thi ki, garbhagrih, arthath pratima kaksh ke oopar ek ke bad ek kar panch se sat mnzilon tak ka nirman hota tha. har mnzil ek vishesh shaili men nirmit hoti thi jise 'viman' kahate the. pratima kaksh ke samane khambon vala aur sapat chhat ka ek vishal haul tha, jise 'mndap' ke nam se jana jata tha. isake khambon par barik khudaee hoti thi. mndap men vishesh avasaron par sabhaen hoti thin aur 'devadasiyon' ka nrity hota tha. devadasiyan aisi striyon ko kahate the, jinhen devataon ki seva ke lie arpit kar diya jata tha. kabhi-kabhi pratima kaksh ke charon or ek galiyara hota tha. taki bhakt log pratima ki parikrama kar saken. is galiyare men bhi kee devi-devataon ki moortiyan hoti thin. mndap tatha pratima kaksh ek oonchi divaron vale bahut bade prangan se ghira rahata tha, jisamen pravesh ke lie bade-bade daravaze the jo 'gopuramh' ke nam se jane jate the. samay ke sath vimanon ko aur ooncha karane ka rivaj badhata gaya, pranganon ki snkhya do ya tin tak badha di gee tatha gopuramh aur adhik bhavy hote ge. is prakar mandiron ne chhote-mote mahal athava shaharon ka roop dharan kar liya. jisamen purohit tatha mandir se sambandhit any log rahate the. mandiron ko kharche ke lie kar-mukt bhoomi ka anudan diya jata tha. isake alava dhani vyapari bhi inhen dan dete the. kuchh mandiron ke pas to itani sampatti ho gee ki, ve bhi vyapar aur rin dene ka kam karane lage.

dravid shaili ke arambh ke kal ke mandir sthapaty ka udaharan hamen kanchi men kailashanathar mndir men milata hai. isaka utkrisht udaharan hamen tnjavur men rajaraj pratham dvara nirmit 'brihadishvar mandir' men milata hai. ise rajaraj mandir kah kar pukara jata hai. kyonki chol samrat mandiron men devi-devataon ki pratimaon ke alava apani tatha raniyon ki moortiyan bhi pratishthapit karate the. gngaeekondacholapuramh ke mandir men bhi, yadyapi yah tooti-phooti sthiti men hai, hamen chol samraton ke kal ke mandir sthapaty shaili ka achchha udaharan dekhane ko milata hai. dakshin bharat ke any jagahon men bhi badi snkhya men mandiron ka nirman karaya gaya. lekin chol samraton ne aise karyon ko padosi rajyon ki janata ko lootakar kiya.

cholon ke patan ke bad chalukyon aur hoyasalon ne mandir nirman ka kam jari rakha. dharavar zile tatha hoyasalon ki rajadhani 'helebid' men kee mandir hain. inamen sabase bhavy 'hoyasaleshvar mandir' hai. chaluky shaili ka yah sabase achchha udaharan hai. mandir men devi-devataon aur unake paricharakon, yaksh aur yakshini ki moortiyon ke alava aise chitrapatt hain jin par jivan ke vibhinn pahaluon, jaise nrity kala, sngit, yuddh aur pranay ke drishy tarashe hue hain. isase yah pramanit hota hai ki jivan aur dharm men bahut gahara sambandh tha. am adami ke lie mandir matr pooja ka sthan nahin, balki samajik aur sanskritik jivan ka bhi kendr tha.

is yug men dakshin bharat men vastu kala bhi badi vikasit thi. isaka ek udaharan hamen shravan belagola men 'gomateshvar' ki vishal pratima men milata hai. is yug men pratima gadhane ki kala bhi apane shikhar par thi, jaisa ki ham nrity ki mudra men shiv, nataraj, ki pratima men dekhate hain. is kal ki nataraj ki pratimaen, visheshakar jo kansy men gadhi gee hain, is kal ki utkrisht udaharan hain. ye moortiyan bharatiy tatha videshi sngrahalayon ki shobha hain.

chol samrajy ka patan

chol samrajy ke antim shasak kulottung dvitiy ke uttaradhikari nirbal the. ve apane rajy ko akshunn bana rakhane men asaphal rahe. sudoor dakshin men pandy, keral aur sinhal (shrilnka) rajyon men vidroh ki pravritti bahut badh gee thi aur ve cholon ki adhinata se mukt ho ge. samudr par ke jin dvipon v pradeshon par rajendr pratham dvara adhipaty sthapit kiya gaya tha, unhonne bhi ab svatntrata prapt kar li. dvarasamudr ke hoyasal aur isi prakar ke any rajavnshon ke utkarsh ke karan chol rajy ab sarvatha kshin ho gaya. cholon ke anek samant is samay nirantar vidroh ke lie tatpar rahate the, aur chol rajavnsh ke antahpur v rajadarabar bhi shadayatron ke adde bane hue the. is sthiti men chol rajaon ki sthiti sarvatha nagany ho gee thi.


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adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

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