नृत्य कला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

birajoo maharaj
Birju Maharaj

jayamngal ke matanusar chaunsath kalaon men se yah ek kala hai. yah kala nrity (nachana) kala hai. hav-bhav adi ke sath ki gayi gati ko nrity kaha jata hai. nrity men karan, angahar, vibhav, bhav, anubhav aur rason ki abhivyakti ki jati hai. nrity ke do prakar hain-

  • ek naty.
  • doosara anaty.

svarg-narak ya prithvi ke nivasiyon ki kritika anukaran ko 'naty' kaha jata hai aur anukaran-virahit nrity ko 'anaty' kaha jata hai. khule sthan men sharir ki gati ya snchalan, nrity ya talabaddh gati, prachinatam abhivyaktiyon men se ek hai. sabhi snskritiyon men kisi n kisi roop men nrity vidyaman hai. pragaitihasik gufa chitron se lekar adhunik chitrakaron aur shilpakaron tak sabhi ne is gatij kshan ko pattharon ya chitron men bandhane ka prayas kiya hai, nrity svaroopon aur shailiyon men vividhata hai. yah sadharan anukaran, nakal se lekar pashchimi baile ki sugadh shaili tak ho sakata hai. nrity ek sashakt aveg (manoveg) hai. lekin nrity kala ek aisa aveg hai, jise kushal kalakaron ke dvara kisi madhyam se aisi kriya men badal diya jata hai, jo gahan roop se abhivyaktipoorn hoti hai aur darshakon ko, jo svayn nrity karane ki ichchha nahin rakhate, anandit karati hai.

avadharanaen

nrity kala ki ye do avadharanaen-

  • ek sashakt aveg ke taur par nrity aur
  • kushalatapoorvak nrity snyojan.

jise adhikatar kuchh peshevar logon ke dvara kiya jata hai. is vishay se jude do sarvadhik mahattvapoorn snyojak vichar hain, nrity men in do avadharanaon ke bich ka sambandh any kalaon ke muqabale adhik mazaboot hai aur ek-doosare ke bina donon ka hi astitv nahin ho sakata. yadyapi is vyapak paribhasha men kala ke sabhi svaroop a jate hain. darshanikon aur alochakon ne samooche itihas men nrity ki vibhinn paribhashaen di hain. lekin ve nrity ki us shaili ka vistrit vivaran matr hai, jisase ve suparichit the. atah poyatiks men arastu ka vaktavy hai ki nrity layatmak gati hai, jisaka uddeshy manushyon ke gunon ke sath-sath unake karyon v kashton ka pratinidhitv karana hai. yoonani shastriy rngamnch men nrity ki kendriy bhoomika ki or ingit karata hai. jahan gayak dal giti prahasan ke dauran apani bhav bhngimaon dvara natak ki kathavastu ko prastut karata tha.

jaaun vivar ke lekh men

angrezi baile ke pnndit jaaun vivar ne 1721 men likhe ek lekh men yah tark diya ki 'nrity' ek parishkrit, niyamit gati hai, jo sundar mudraon se samanvayatmak dhng se rachit (suvyavasthit) hai aur jisamen sharir v angon ki saumy mudraen evn unake ansh bhi hain. vivar ka vivaran spashtatah tatkalin baile ke pratishthit v shalin svaroop ka pratibimb hai, jo atyadhik aupacharik tha aur jisamen sashakt bhavana ki kami thi, 19vin shatabdi ke nrity itihasakar gaston vili ne bhi lality, samanvay aur saundary jaisi visheshataon par zor diya aur vastavik nrity ko arambhik manushy ki aparishkrit v svatah gatiyon se alag kiya.

nrity snyojan kala

sambhavatah manavata ke arambhik kal men aparichit thi. vanon men ghoomate, apane shikar kie ge mans ka svad lete asabhy manushy ko un layatmak bhngimaon ka zara bhi gyan nahin tha. jo usake mizaj se bilkul alag madhur v premapoorn snvedanaon ka pratibimb thin. vah adhik se adhik apane asabhy jivan ki khushiyon v dukhon ko uchhal-koodakar, asngat mudraon se vyakt karata raha hoga.

20vin shatabdi ke nrity alochak jan martin ne antarik bhav ki sharirik abhivyakti ke taur par nrity ki bhoomika par zor dete samay usake aupacharik ayam ki lagabhag upeksha ki. aisa karake, unhonne adhunik ameriki nrity ki abhivyaktivadi shaili ke prati apani sahanubhooti ko hi jhuthalaya. nrity ki in vividh abhivyaktiyon ke mool men...gati ka sahara lene ka samany aveg hai, jisase un avasthaon ko moort roop diya ja sakata hai jo tarkik sadhanon se sambhav nahin hai. yahi maulik nrity hai. atah nrity ki vastavik sarvabhaumik paribhasha ko adharabhoot siddhant ki or lautana hoga ki nrity ek kala shaili ya gatividhi hai, jo sharir v sharir ki yathasambhav vibhinn gatividhiyon ka upayog karati hai. nrity gatiyan kary, yatra ya jivit rahane se pratyaksh taur par sambaddh ya asambaddh ho sakati hai. nrity in gatividhiyon se judi gatiyon se bana ho sakata hai. jaise ki kee snskritiyon men kriyatmak nrity am hai aur aisi gatividhiyon ke sath kie ja sakate hain, yahan tak ki sarvadhik vyavaharik nrity ki ghatak gatiyan bhi sidhe shram ke star tak nahin pahunch jati, balki unamen atmabhivyakti saundaryatmak anand aur manornjan jaisi atirikt visheshataen shamil hoti hain.

bharatiy nrity

bharatanatyam nrity
Bharatanatyam Dance

bharat men nrity ko tin shreniyon men banta ja sakata hai—

  • shastriy
  • lok
  • adhunik ya samasamayik nrity.

shastriy nrity

shastriy nrity shailiyan sarvadhik snrakshit v 20vin shatabdi men prachalit prachinatam shailiyon men se hain. mandir, rajasi darabar aur guru-shishy parampara ne is kala ko jivit v aparivartit rakha hai.

lok nrity

lokanrity gramin kshetron men maujood hai aur gramin samudayon ke dainik kam kaj v riti-rivajon ki abhivyakti hai.

adhunik ya samasamayik nrity

adhunik bharatiy nrity 20 shatabdi ki den hai aur pahali bharat ki nee vishay-vastuon v avegon ko vyakt karati hai.

bharatiy film

vartaman samay men bharat men nrity ki lokapriyata is tathy se anki ja sakati hai ki shayad hi koee aisi bharatiy film hogi, jisamen adhe darjan nrity n hon. ek am-si prem kahani men nayak v nayika kahin bhi, kisi bhi jagah par nach sakate hain. ek film kahani men koee patakatha lekhak bhale n ho, lekin usamen ek nrity nirdeshak zaroor hota hai. nrity ke bahut se avasar upalabdh karane ke lie kaviyon, darabari v mandir men nrity karane vale nartakon par v pauranik vishay-vastu par filmen banaee jati hain. isake lie visheshgy nartakon ki sevaen li jati hain.

20vin shatabdi men shastriy nrity mandiron v rajasi darabaron se bahar nikala aur ab bade shaharon men mnch par niyamit taur par prastut kiya jata hain. dhani udyami, antarrashtriy hotal v uchch varg ke dhani parivar nrity ke pramukh snrakshak hain. vyaparik ratri bhoj par kisi klab ke varshik samaroh men kisi bade kalakar ke dvara shastriy nrity prastut kiya jana asamany bat nahin hai. kuchh vishvavidyalayon ke pathyakramon men nrity ek niyamit vishay hai. shaharon ke samasamayik sanskritik karyakramon men lokanrity bhi ab am hote ja rahe hain. adhikansh mahavidyalayon ki apani lokanrity mndaliyan hain. yahan tak ki pnjab pulis men bhangada karane ke lie lokanrity samooh hai. gramin prishthabhoomi se kat chuke lokanrity apani mool oorja v saundary kho chuke hain. lekin ye rajyon ke bich ho rahe kshetriy snskriti ke kalatmak adan-pradan ka aparihary ang hain.

vividh nrity kala

nataraj birajoo maharaj bihoo nrity, asam odisi nrity, udisa kathakali nrity, keral ghumar nrity, rajasthan manipuri nrity, manipur bhangada nrity, pnjab garaba nrity, gujarat kuchi pudi nrity, andhr pradesh rasalila charakula nrity

bharatiy shastriy nrity

nrity-natika

kathakali nrity, keral
Kathakali Dance, Kerala

bharat men shastriy aur lok paramparaon ke zariye ek prakar ki nrity-natika ka uday hua hai. jo poornatah ek naty svaroop hai. isame abhineta jatil bhngimapoorn bhasha ke zariye ek katha ko nrity ke madhyam se prastut karata hai aur yah svaroop apane sarvabhaumik prabhav men upamahadvip ki bhashaee simaon se oopar uth chuka hai. kuchh shastriy nrity-natikaon (jaise-kathakali, kuchipudi aur bhagavat mela) men lokapriy hindoo pauranik kathaon ka abhinay hota hai. 20vin shatabdi ke nartak udayashnkar aur shanti barddhan ne in paramparik nrity-natikaon se prerit baile ka srijan kiya. samakalin bharatiy nirdeshak aur lekhak paramparik nrity shailiyon ko phir se parakh rahe hain aur adhik manovaigyanik punaravedan tatha gahare kalatmak prabhav ke lie apani rachanaon men inaka upayog kar rahe hain. bharat ke ganvon men rahane vale karodon log ab bhi lok virasat ki gady natakon ki lokapriyata ke bavajood gramin bharat men nrity-natikaon ke madhyam se apana manornjan karate hain. shahari darshakon men sidhe gady natakon ki lokapriyata ke bavajood gramin bharat men nrity-natika nishchit roop se adhik gahara prabhav chhodati hai aur zyada sntushti pradan karati hai. kyonki graminon ka saundary bodh ab bhi paramparaon se juda hua hai.

shastriy nrity ki takanik aur isake prakar

natyashastr ke anusar, nartak abhineta natak ke arth ko char prakar ke abhinayon ke zariye prastut karata haiah angik ya sharir ke vibhinn angon ke shailipoorn snchalan ke madhyam se bhavana ki prastuti; vachik ya boli, git, svar ki tarata aur svarashaili; ahary ya veshabhoosha aur shrringar; aur satvik ki kisi any pustak men sampoorn manovaigyanik snsadhanon ki prastuti hai.

kalakar ke pas shailikrit bhngimaon ka jatil bhndar hota hai. sharir ke pratyek ang, jinamen se ankhen v hath sarvadhik mahattvapoorn hain, ke lie paramparik taur par mudraen nirdharit hain. sir ke lie 13, bhaunhon ke lie 7, nak ke lie 6, galon ke lie 6, thodi ke lie 7, gardan ke lie 9, vaksh ke lie 5 v ankhon ke lie 36, pairon v nimn angon ke lie 32, jinamen se 16 bhoomi par v 16 hava ke lie nirdharit hain. panv ki vibhinn gatiyan (jaise-ithalana, thumakana, tirachhe chalana, tal) savadhani se ki jati hain.

ek hath ki 24 mudraen (asnyukt hast) aur donon hathon ki 13 mudraen (snyukt hast), ek hast mudra ke ek-doosare se bilkul bhinn 30 arth ho sakate hain. udaharanarth, ek hath ki pataka mudra, jisamen sabhi anguliyon ko age badhakar, mude hue angoothe ke sath milakar, garmi, varsha, bhid, ratri, van, ghoda ya pakshiyon ki udane ko dikhaya ja sakata hai. pataka mudra men hi tisari anguli modane ka (tripataka) arth mukut, vriksh vivah, agni dvar ya raja bhi ho sakata hai. karkat (kenkada) men donon hathon ka upayog kar, anguliyon ko jodakar madhumakkhi ka chhatta, jamhaee ya shnkh dikhaya ja sakata hai. in alag-alag arthon ke lie hath ki sthiti ya kriya bhinn hogi.

mohani attam nrity
Mohini Attam Dance

kisi ekal nrity natika men abhinay karate hue ek purush ya ek mahila chehare ke bhav, mudraen v mizaj badalate hue kramashah do ya tin pramukh charitron ki abhinay karati hai. udaharan ke lie, bhagavan krishn, unaki eershyalu patni satyabhama v unaki saumy patni rukmini ko ek hi vyakti abhinit kar sakata hai. hindoo nrity v rngamnch ka sondaryatmak anand is bat par nirbhar karata hai ki koee kalakar kisi vishisht bhav ko vyakt karane v ras jagane men kitana saphal hai. shabdik roop men ras ka arth 'svad' ya 'mahak' hai aur yah anandatirek ya manodasha hai, jisaka anubhav darshak kisi nrity (abhinay) pradarshan ko dekhakar karata hai. hindoo natak ke alochak kathavastu ya kisi kavita v natak ki takaniki poornata ki or adhik dhyan dekar ras par adhik dhyan dete hain. nrity men nau ras hain—

  • shrringar ras
  • hasy ras
  • karun ras
  • krodh ras
  • bhay ras
  • vir ras
  • jugutsa ras
  • vismay ras
  • shant ras

in rason ke sngat bhav bhi hain—prem, hasy, dukh, krodh, oorja, bhay, nirasha, ashchary evn shanti. ab tak maujood shastriy nrity ki char pramukh shailiyan hain. bharatanatyam, kathakali, kathak aur manipuri. inamen do prakar ke bhav hain. ek tandav, jo shiv ke raudr paurush, doosara lasy, jo shiv ki patni parvati ke layatmak lavany ka pratinidhitv karata hai, bharatamuni ke natyashastr se janme bharatanatyam men lasy ki pradhanata hai aur isaka uday dakshini bharat ke tamilanadu rajy men hua hai. kathakali keral men janmi tandav bhav ki mookabhinay nrity-natika hai. jisamen uchch shirovastr v chehare ka vistrit shrringar kiya jata hai. kathak lasy v tandav ka mishran hai. klisht padatal v layatmak rachanaon ki ganitiy parishuddhata isaki visheshata hai aur yah nrity uttar men phala-phoola, apani jhoomati v visarpit mudraon se yukt manipuri men lasy ki visheshataen hain aur yah manipur ka nrity hai. 1958 men nee dilli sthit sngit natak akadami ne do nrity shailiyon, andhr pradesh ki kuchipudi v udisa ki odisi shaili ko shastriy nrity ka darja diya. svaroop aur prakriti men, kuchipudi ki kuchh visheshataen bharatanatyam se milati-julati hain, odisi apane ap men ek alag shaili hai. isaka nrity vyakaran moolatah tribhng se vikasit hua hai. yah udisa ki shaili hai.

shastriy nrity ki shailiyan

bharat men nrity ki jaden prachin parnparaon men hai. is vishal upamahadvip men nrityon ki vibhinn vidhaon ne janm- liya hai. pratye‍k vidha ne vishisht samay v vatavaran ke prabhav se akar liya hai. pratyek vidha kisi vishisht kshetr athava vyaktiyon ke samooh ke lokachar ka pratinidhitv karati hai.

nrity kala

shastriy nrity ke any svaroop

any shastriy ya arddhashastriy panramparik nrity shailiyon men bhagavat mela, mohini attam v kuravnchi shamil hain. tamilanadu ke melatur ganv ke prasiddh varshik narasinh jaynti parv men pradarshit bhagavat mela men samriddh karnatak sngit se poorn shastriy bhngimaon ka prayog kiya jata hai. isake vyakaran ko sngitakar-kavi venkatarama shastri (1759-1847) ne samriddh kiya. jinhonne telugu bhasha men ullekhaniy nrity-natikaen taiyar ki hain. mohiniattam hindoo pauranik kathaon men varnit shiv ko mohane vali mohini ki kinvadnti par adharit hai. yah bharatanatyam v kathakali ke tathyon par adharit hai aur isamen karnatak sngit ke sath malayalam giton ka upayog kiya jata hai. kuravnchi tamilanadu men prachalit giti saundary se yukt nrity-natika hai. ise char se ath mahilaon ke dvara kiya jata hai. jinake sath ek yayavar (bhavishyavakta) hota hai, jo apane premi ke lie lalayit ek stri ki katha ka prarambh karata hai. aupacharik taur par yah bharatiy lokanrity evn shastriy nrity shaili ka mishran hai.

lokanrity

bharatiy lokanrityon ke antargat annt prakar ke svaroop aur tal hain. inamen dharm, vyavasay aur jati ke adhar par antar paya jata hai. madhy aur poorvi bharat ki janajatiyan (muriya, bhil, gond, juang aur snthal) sabhi avasaron par nrity karati hain. jivan chakr aur rituon ke varshik chakr ke lie alag-alag nrity hain. nrity, dainik jivan aur dharmik anushthanon ka ang hai. badalati jivan shailiyon ke karan nrityon ki prasngikata vishisht avasaron se bhi age pahunch gee hai. nrityon ne kalatmak-nrity ka darja prapt kar liya hai. pratyek utsav ya sarvajanik ayojan men in nrityon ka dikhaee dena samany bat hai. prativarsh 26 janavari, bharatiy ganatntr divas ek aisa mahattvapoorn avasar hai, jab neshanal stediyam ke vishal kshetr aur pared ke 8 kilomitar lambe marg par nrity karane ke lie desh ke sabhi bhagon se nartak dilli ate hain.

bihoo nrity, asam
Bihu Dance, Assam

bharatiy lokanrityon ka vargikaran karana kathin hai, lekin samany taur par inhen char vargon men rakha ja sakata hai.

  • vrittimoolak (jaise jutaee, buaee, machhali pakadana aur shikar)
  • dharmik
  • anushthanik (tantrik anushthan dvara prasann kar devi ya danav-pretatma ke kop se mukti ke lie)
  • samajik (aisa prakar jo uparokt sabhi vargon men shamil hai)

prasiddh samajik lokanrityon men kolayacha (koliyon ka nrity) shamil hai. pashchimi bharat ke konkan tat ke machhuaron ke mool nrity kolayacha men naukayan ki bhavabhngima dikhaee jati hai. mahilaen apane purush sathiyon ki or rumal laharati hain aur purush thirakati chal ke sath age badhate hain. vivah ke avasar par yuva koli (machhuare) navadnmpati ke svagam men ghareloo bartan hath men pakadakar galiyon men nrity karate hain aur nrity ke charam par pahunchate hi navadnmpati bhi nachane lagate hain.

lok nrity ki takanik aur isake prakar

ghoomar nrity rajasthan ka samajik lokanrity hai. mahilaen lambe ghaghare aur rngin chunari pahanakar nrity karati hain. is kshetr ke kachchi ghodi nartak vishesh taur par darshaniy hai. dhal aur lambi talavaron se lais nartakon ka oopari bhag doolhe ki paramparik veshabhoosha men rahata hai aur nichale bhag ko bans ke dhanche par kagaz ki lugadi se bane ghode se dhaka jata hai. nartak, shadiyon aur utsavon par barechhebazi ka muqabala karate hain. bavari log lokanrity ki is shaili ke kushal kalakar hain. pnjab kshetr men sabase adhik joshila lokanrity fasal kataee ke avasar par bhangada hai, jo bharat-pakistan sima ke donon or kiya jata hai aur lokapriy bhi hai. is nrity ke sath-sath git gaya jata hai. pratyek pnkti ki samapti par dhol goonjata hai aur antim pnkti sabhi nartak milakar gate hain. bhangada ke harshonmad ka nrity hai, jisamen har ayu ke purush nachate hain. ve masti men chillate aur golaee men ghoomate hue nrity karate hain aur unake kndhe aur koolhe dhol ki lay par thirakate hain.

kuchi pudi nrity, andhr pradesh
Kuchipudi Dance, Andhra Pradesh

andhr pradesh ka nrity

andhr pradesh ki lnbadi janajati ki khanabadosh mahilaen shishon se jade shirovastr aur ghaghare pahanati hain aur apani bajoo chaude safed haddiyon ke bane knganon se dhakati hain. ve dhire-dhire jhoomate hue nrity karati hain. jabaki purush dhol bajane aur gane ka kam karate hain. unaka samajikenrity avegapoorn shobha aur gitimayata se otaprot hota hai aur yah vishv ke any bhagon ke bnjaron ke nrity se apekshakrit kam prachnd hota hai.

madhy pradesh ka nrity

madhy pradesh men muriya janajati ka gaval-sing (pahadi bhainsa) nrity purushon aur mahilaon, donon ke dvara kiya jata hai. jo paramparik taur par barabari ka jivan vyatit karate hain. purush sing se jade shirovastr guchchhedar pnkh ke sath pahanate hain aur unake cheharon par kaudi ki jhalar latakati hai. unake gale men lakadi ke latth jaisa dhol latakata hai. mahilaon ke sir chaudi thos pital ki mala se aur sina bhari dhatu ke gahanon se dhake hote hain aur unake hathon men dhol jaise mnjire hote hain. 50 se 100 ki snkhya men stri v purush milakar nrity karate hain. gaval (baisan) ke vesh men purush ek-doosare par hamala karate v ladate hain aur singon se patton ko udate hue ve prakriti ke milan ke mausam ki gatishil abhivyakti karate hue nrityanganaon ka pichha karate hain. udisa men juang janajati sashakt paurushapoorn phurti ke sath pakshiyon aur pashuon ka nrity bade sajiv abhinay ke sath karati hain, dharmik lokanrityon ke kuchh pramukh udaharan haiah maharashtr ke dindi aur kala nrity, jo dharmik ullas ki abhivyakti hai. nartak gol chakkar men ghoomate hain aur chhoti lathiyan (dindi) zamin par marate hue samoohagan ke mukhy gayak bichon bich khade dhol vadak ka sath dete hain. lay men tezi ate hi nartak do paktiyan bana lete hain aur dany panv ko jhukakar bane panv ke sath age badhate hain aur is prakar jyamiti ke akar banate hain. kala nrity men ek bartan men dahi hona zaroori hai, jo urvarata ka pratik hai. nartakon ka samooh do vritt banata hai. jisamen ek nartak ke oopar doosara nartak hota hai. ek purush in donon vritton ke oopar chadhakar oopar lataki dahi ki mataki phodata hai. jisamen dahi nartakon ke sharir par phail jata hai. is anushthanik shuruat ke bad nartak jabaradast ran nrity ki mudra men apani lathiyan aur talavaren ghumate hain.

gujarat ka nrity

garaba nrity, gujarat
Garba Dance., Gujarat

garaba, jo vastav men ek dharmik hndiya ko kahate hain, gujarat ka suprasiddh dharmik nrity hai. yah navaratri ke nau din ke varshik utsav ke dauran 50 se 100 mahilaon ke samooh dvara devi anba ke samman men kiya jata hai. jinhen bharat ke any bhagon men durga ya kali ke nam se jana jata hai. mahilaen gol chakkar men ghoomate hue jhukati, mudati, hathon se taliyan aur kabhi-kabhi anguliyon se chutaki bajati hain. is nrity ke sath devi ki stuti men git bhi gae jate hain.

tamilanadu rajy ka nrity

dharmik anushthan se jude lokanrityon ki annt shailiyon men kee ka chamatkarik mahattv hai aur ye puratan upasana se judi hain. tamilanadu rajy ka karakam nrity mukhyatah mariyammee (mahamari ki devi) ki pratima ke samaksh varshik utsav par devi se mahamari ka prakop n phailane ki prarthana ke sath kiya jata hai. nartak ke sir par lambe bans ke dhanche se dhake kachche chaval ka bartan rakha jata hai. jise nartak ko nrity ki uchhal-kood ke dauran bina chhue sambhale rakhana hota hai. log ise devi ki kripa manate hain aur kahate hain ki nartak ke sharir men devi pravesh karati hai. jisake karan yah chamatkar hota hai. keral men hinduon ke poojy devon tatha danavon ko prasann karane ke lie therayattam utsav ayojit kiya jata hai. vismayakari veshabhoosha aur mukhauton se lais nartak ganv ke pooja sthal ke samane anokha anushthan karate hain. ek shrriddhalu murge ki bhent chadhata hai. jise nartak jhapat leta hai aur ek hi jhatake men usaka sir alag kar deta hai v ashirvad dete hue use shrriddhalu ka lauta deta hai. is samaroh ke sath lamba aur mnthar nrity chalata rahata hai.

manipuri nrity, manipur
Manipuri Dance, Manipur

arunachal pradesh ka nrity

arunachal pradesh (bhootapoorv poorvottar phrntiyar ejensi 'nepha') men sabase zyada mukhauta nrity kie jate hain. yahan tibbat ki nrity shailiyon ka prabhav dikhaee deta hai. yak nrity kashmir ke laddakh kshetr aur asam ke nikat himalay ke dakshini simavarti kshetron men kiya jata hai. yak ka roop dharan kie nartak apani pith par chadhe adami ko sath lie nrity karata hai. mukhauton ke sath kie jane vale lokanrity sada topotsen men purush nartak bhadakile zaridar resham ke lambe kurate pahanate hain. jinaki chaudi jhoolati bahen hoti hain. ve ajibo garib muskan vale lakadi ke mukhaute pahanate hain. jin par khopadiyon ka mukut hota hai. jo paralok ki atmaon ka pratinidhitv karati hai. nartak bich-bich men koodate hue takatavar lekin dhimi chakkaradar mudraen banate hain. mukhauta nrity ki ek anoothi shaili chhoo ko jharakhnd (bhootapoorv bihar) ke poorv—sarayakela riyasat ke ek shahi parivar ne snrakshit rakha hai. nartak bhagavan, pashu, pakshi, shikari, indradhanush, rat ya phool ka roop dharan karata hai. vah ek chhote prasng ka abhinay karata hai aur aprail men varshik chaitr utsav men kee bhavachitron ki ek ladi prastut karata hai. chhoo mukhaute adhikanshatah manaviy lakshanon se yukt hote hain. jinhen vividh bhav dikhane ke lie thoda-bahut paravartit kiya jata hai. sadharan sapat rngon men chitrit mukhauton ki shant abhivyakti kathakali ke vyapak roop shrringar ya kandayan mukhauton ki zaroorat se zyada pishachiy akriti aur japan ke 'no drama' se bahut alag dikhati hai. choonki chhoo nartak ka chehara bhavahin hota hai, isalie usaka sharir hi patr ke sampoorn bhavanatmak aur manovaigyanik tanavon ko vyakt karata hai. usake panv bhngima-bhasha ka prayog karate hain. usake pnje pashu ke pnjon ki tarah phurtile, sakriy aur bhavabodhak hote hain. nrity ke dauran gayan nahin hota, sirf vady sngit hota hai. udisa ke mayoorabhnj zile men kie jane vale chhoo nrity ki ek any shaili men nartak mukhaute nahin pahanate, parantu jan-boojhakar sakht aur achal chehare banakar mukhaute ka bhram dete hain. unaka nrity shram aur karatab se bhara hota hai.

lok nrity ki shailiyan

bharat ki prachin snskriti ne, lok nrityon ke vibhinn svaroopon ko janm diya hai. snskriti v parnparaon ki vividhata lok nrityon men saf jhalakati hai. vibhinn rajyon ke in nrityon men jivan ka pratibinb hai aur nrityn ki lagabhag har mudra ka vishisht arth hota hai.

bhangada, pnjab
Bhangra., Punjab

adhunik bharatiy nrity

odisi nrity, udisa
Odissi Dance, Orissa

halanki pashchim men uchcharit shabdon, sngit aur nrityon ke rngamnchiy tatvon ka svatntr roop se drama, opera aur nrity-natika 'baile' ke taur par vikas hua, lekin bharat men mnchiy parampara tinon svaroopon ko ek hi sath apane natakon men sammilit karati rahi. bharatiy filmon men ab tak isi niyam ko mana jata hai. nayika, achanak apane nayak ke lie gana gane ya nrity karane lagati hai. aisi parampara pashchim ke logon ke lie bahut kautoohalapoorn hai. lekin vastav men film nirmata apani shastriy aur lok parampara ka palan kar rahe hain. hal men pashchim arth men jatil koriyografi-nrityakala ke sath baile nrity-natika ke svaroop men nrity ne alag pahachan banaee hai.

adhunik bharatiy baile nrity-natika ki jaden uday shnkar ke kary men hai, jo moortikala ke adhyayan ke lie inglaind ge aur radha tatha krishn nrity-natika ke sathi kalakar ke roop men roos ki baile kalakar anna pavlova dvara chune ge. poore utsah se bhare yuva uday shnkar bharat laute. shastriy nrity ki char pramukh shailiyon ke avashyak tatvon ka adhyayan karane ke bad unhonne jatil nrityakala aur sngit tatha lakadi aur dhatu ke mnjiron tatha paramparik vadyayntron ki dhvani ke mishran se nee nrity-natikaen taiyar kin. unhonne shastriy aur lok tal ka tatha pashchimi mnch ki takanikon ka upayog kiya. unhonne apani nrity-natikaen aisi kushalata tatha susnskrit dhng se prastut kin, jinase bharatiy darshak pahale anabhigy the. in nrity-natikaon men shiv-parvati aur lnka-dahan shamil the. jinase unhonne lnka ke lakadi ke mukhauton ka prayog kiya. ridm aph laiph (1938) aur lebar end mashinari (1939) men unhonne samakalin rajanitik, samajik vishay chune.

unhonne 1939 men almoda mn sanskritik kendr ki sthapana ki. jahan char varsh men unhonne adhunik nartakon ki nee pidhi taiyar ki. uday shnkar ke kanishth sathi shanti barddhan ne adhunik yug ki sarvadhik kalpanashil nrity-natikaen taiyar kin. bnbee (vartaman munbee) men 1952 men lits baile ki tarah troop ki sthapana karane ke bad unhonne ramayan ko prastut kiya. jisamen kalakar kathaputaliyon ki tarah nachate aur chalate the. unake maranonparant unaki nrity-natika pnchatntr char mitron (chooha, kachhua, hiran aur kaua) ki kahani par adharit hai aur isamen pashuon aur pakshiyon ke mukhauton aur bhav-bhngimaon ka istemal kiya gaya hai. uday shnkar ke donon shishyon, narendr sharma aur sachin shnkar ne apane guru ki parampara jari rakhi hai. adhunik bharatiy nrity ko akar dene vale any mahattvapoorn vyaktiyon men menaka, ram gopal aur mrinalini sarabhaee hain. jinhonne bharatanatyam aur kathakali shailiyon ke madhyam se adhunik vishayon ko vyakt karane ka prayog kiya hai.

nrity prashikshan kendr

chhoti akadamiyon aur sthaniy kala-kendron men nrity prashikshan samooche samakalin bharat men diya jata hai. guru ab bhi shishyon ko vishisht prashikshan dete hain. ye shishy ganvon men guru ke sath rahakar kee varsh tak prashikshan prapt karate hain. vishvavidyalay pathyakram men nrity n keval svikrit vishay hai, apitu 20vin shatabdi men sthapit sarakari ya sarvajanik-vittaposhit prashikshan kendron men bhi vishv bhar k chhatr sikhane ate hain. inamen se pramukh hain—kerala kalamndalam (keral kala snsthan), nikat shoranoor, kala kshetr, adyar, tamilanadu, kathak kendr, bharatiy kala kendr ki nrity shakha aur triveni kala sngam (sngit, nrity aur chitrakala ka kendr) nee dilli, darpan akadami, ahamadabad, gujarat, vishvabharati (ravindranath taigor ke dvara sthapit) shanti niketan, pashchim bngal aur javaharalal neharoo manipur nrity akadami inmphal.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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