चौंसठ कलाएँ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

inhen bhi dekhen: chaunsath kalaen jayamngal ke matanusar

  • prachin kal men bharatiy shiksha-kram ka kshetr bahut vyapak tha. shiksha men kalaon ki shiksha bhi apana mahattvapoorn sthan rakhati thin kalaon ke sambandh men ramayan, mahabharat, puran, kavy adi granthon men janane yogy, samagri bhari padi hai; parntu inaka thode men, par sundar dhng se vivaran shukrachary ke 'nitisar' namak granth ke chauthe adhyay ke tisare prakaran men milata hai. unake kathananusar kalaen anant hain, un sabake nam bhi nahin ginaye ja sakate; parntu unamen 64 kalaen mukhy hain.
  • kala ka lakshan batalate hue achary likhate hain ki jisako ek mook (goonga) vyakti bhi, jo varnochcharan bhi nahin kar sakata, kar sake, vah 'kala' hai.[1]
  • keladi shribasavarajendravirachit 'shivatattvaratnakar' men mukhy-mukhy 64 kalaon ka namanirdesh is prakar kiya he-
  1. itihas
  2. agam
  3. kavy
  4. alnkar
  5. natak
  6. gayakatv
  7. kavitv
  8. kamashastr
  9. durodar (dyoot)
  10. deshabhashalipigyan
  11. lipikarp
  12. vachan
  13. ganak
  14. vyavahar
  15. svarashastr
  16. shakun
  17. samudrik
  18. ratnashastr
  19. gaj-ashv-rathakaushal
  20. mallashastr
  21. soopakarm (rasoee pakana)
  22. bhooroohadohad (bagavani)
  23. gandhavad
  24. dhatuvad
  25. rasasambandhi khanivad
  26. bilavad
  27. agnisnstambh
  28. jalasnstambh
  29. vach:stambhan
  30. vay:stambhan
  31. vashikaran
  32. akarshan
  33. mohan
  34. vidveshan
  35. uchchatan
  36. maran
  37. kalavnchan
  38. svarnakar
  39. parakayapravesh
  40. paduka siddhi
  41. vakasiddhi
  42. gutikasiddhi
  43. aindrajalik
  44. anjan
  45. paradrishtivnchan
  46. svaravnchan
  47. mani-mantr aushadhadiki siddhi
  48. chorakarm
  49. chitrakriya
  50. lohakriya
  51. ashmakriya
  52. mritkriya
  53. darookriya
  54. venukriya
  55. charmakriya
  56. ambarakriya
  57. adrishyakaran
  58. dantikaran
  59. mrigayavidhi
  60. vanijy
  61. pashupaly
  62. krishi
  63. asavakarm
  64. lavakukkut meshadiyuddhakarak kaushal
  • vatsyayan pranit 'kamasootr' ke tikakar jayamngal ne do prakar ki kalaon ka ullekh kiya hai-
  1. 'kam shastrangabhoota'
  2. 'tantravapaupayiki'.
  • in donon men se pratyek men 64 kalaen hain. inamen kee kalaen saman hi hain aur baki prithak. pahale prakar men 24 karmashraya, 20 dyootashraya, 16 shayanopacharika aur 4 uttar kalaen,- is tarah 64 mool kalaen hai; inaki bhi avantar aur kalaen hain, jo sab milakar 518 hoti hain.

karmashraya 24 kalaon ke nam is prakar hain-

  1. git
  2. nrity
  3. vady
  4. kaushal-lipigyan
  5. udaravachan
  6. chitravidhi
  7. pustakarm
  8. patrachchhedy
  9. malyavidhi
  10. gandhayutsyasvadyavidhan
  11. ratnapariksha
  12. sivan
  13. rngaparigyan
  14. upakaranakriya
  15. manavidhi
  16. ajivgyan
  17. tiryagyonichikitsit
  18. mayakritapashandaparigyan
  19. kridakaushal
  20. lokgyan
  21. vaichakshany
  22. snvahan
  23. sharirasnskar
  24. vishesh kaushal

dyootashraya 20 kalaon men 15 nirjiv aur 5 sajiv hain. nirjiv kalaen ye hain-

  1. ayu:prapti
  2. akshavidhan
  3. roop-snkhya
  4. kriyamargan
  5. bijagrahan
  6. naygyan
  7. karanadan
  8. chitrachitravidhi
  9. goodharashi
  10. tulyabhihar
  11. kshipragrahan
  12. anupraptilekhasmriti
  13. agnikram
  14. chhalavyamohan
  15. grahadan

sajiv 5 kalaen ye hain-

  1. upasthanavidhi
  2. yuddh
  3. root
  4. gat
  5. nritt

shayanopacharika 16 kalaen ye hain-

  1. purush ka bhavagrahan
  2. svaragaprakashan
  3. pratyngadan
  4. nakh-dantavichar
  5. nivistrnsan
  6. guhyangaka snsparshananulomy
  7. paramarth kaushal
  8. harshan
  9. samanarthatakritarthata
  10. anuprotsahan
  11. mridukrodhapravartan
  12. samyakkrodhanivartan
  13. kruddhaprasadan
  14. suptaparityag
  15. charamasvapavidhi
  16. guhyagoohan

4 uttarakalaen ye hain-

  1. sashrupat raman ko shapadan,
  2. svashapathakriya,
  3. prasthitanugaman aur
  4. pun:punarnirikshan. is prakar doosare prakar ki bhi sarvasadharan ke liye upayogini 64 kalaen hain.
  • shrimadbhagavat ke tikakar shridharasvami ne bhi 'bhagavat' ke dasham skandh ke 45ven adhyay ke 64ven shlok ki tika men pray: doosare prakar ki kalaon ka namanirdesh kiya hai; kintu shukrachary ne apane 'nitisar' men jin kalaon ka vivaran diya hai, unamen kuchh to uparyukt kalaon se milati hain, par baki sabhi bhinn hain. yahan par jayamngalatikokt doosare prakar ki kalaon ka keval nam hi pathakon ki janakari ke liye dekar usake bad 'shukranitisar' ke kramanusar kalaon ka digdarshan karaya jayaga.
  • jayamngal ke matanusar 64 kalaen ye hain-
  1. git kala
  2. vady kala
  3. nrity kala
  4. alekhy kala
  5. visheshakachchhedy kala (mastak par tilak lagane ke liye kagaz, patti adi katakar akar ya sanche banana)
  6. tandul-kusumabalivikar kala (dev-poojanadi ke avasar par tarah-tarah ke rnge hue chaval, jau adi vastuo tatha rngavirnge phoolon ko vividh prakar se sajana)
  7. pushpastaran kala
  8. dashanavasanangarag kala (dant, vastr tatha sharir ke avayavon ko rngana)
  9. manibhoomika-karm kala (ghar ke pharsh ke kuchh bhagon ko moti, mani adi ratnon se jadana)
  10. shayanarachan kala (palng lagana)
  11. udakavady kala (jalatarng)
  12. udakaghat kala (doosaron par hathon ya pichakari se jal ki chot marana)
  13. chitrashch yoga kala (jadi-bootiyon ke yog se vividh vastuen aisi taiyar karana ya aisi aushadhen taiyar karana athava aise mantron ka prayog karana jinase shatru nirbal ho ya usaki hani ho),
  14. malyagrnthanavikalp kala (mala goonthana)
  15. shekharakapidayojan kala (striyon ki choti par pahanane ke vividh alnkaron ke roop men pushpon ko goonthana)
  16. nepathyaprayog kala(sharir ko vastr, abhooshan, pushp adi se susajjit karana)
  17. karnapatrabhng kala (shnkkh, hathidant adi ke anek tarah ke kan ke abhooshan banana)
  18. gandhayukti kala (sugandhit dhoop banana)
  19. bhooshanayojan kala
  20. aindrajal kala (jadoo ke khel)
  21. kauchumarayog kala (bal-viry badhane vali aushadhiyan banana)
  22. hastalaghav kala (hathon ki kam karane men phurti aur safaee)
  23. vichitrashakayooshabhakshyavikar-kriya kala(tarah-tarah ke shak, kadhi, ras, mithaee adi banane ki kriya)
  24. panakaras-ragasav-yojan kala (vividh prakar ke sharbat, asav adi banana)
  25. soochivan karm kala (suee ka kam, jaise sina, raphoo karana, kasida kadhana, moje-gnji bunana)
  26. sootrakrida kala (tage ya doriyon se khelana, jaise kathaputali ka khel)
  27. vinadamarookavady kala
  28. prahelika kala (paheliyan boojhana)
  29. pratimala kala (shlok adi kavita padhane ki manornjak riti)
  30. durvachakayog kala (aise shlok adi padhana, jinaka arth aur uchcharan donon kathin hon)
  31. pustak-vachan kala
  32. natakakhyayika-darshan kala
  33. kavy samasyapooran kala
  34. pattikavetravanavikalp kala (pidha, asan, kursi, palng, modhe adi chizen bent bagere vastuon se banana)
  35. takshakarm kala (lakadi, dhatu adi ko abhashti vibhinn akaron men katana)
  36. takshan kala (badhee ka kam)
  37. vastuvidya kala
  38. roopyaratnapariksha kala (sikke, ratn adi ki pariksha karana)
  39. dhatuvad kala (pital adi dhatuon ko milana, shuddh karana adi)
  40. maniragakar gyan kala (mani adi ka rngana, khan adi ke vishay ka gyan)
  41. vrikshayurvedayog kala
  42. meshakukkutalavakayuddhavidhi kala (mendhe, murge, titar adi ko ladana)
  43. shukasarika pralapan kala (tota-maina adi ko boli sikhana)
  44. utsadan-snvahan keshamardanakaushal kala (hath-pairon se sharir dabana, keshon ka malana, unaka mail door karana adi)
  45. aksharamushti ka kathan (aksharon ko aisi yukti se kahana ki us snket ka janane vala hi unaka arth samajhe, doosara nahin; mushtisakent dvara vatachit karana, jaise dalal adi kar lete hain),
  46. mlechchhit vikalp kala (aise snket se likhana, jise us snket ko janane vala hi samajhe)
  47. deshabhasha-vigyan kala
  48. pushpashakatika kala
  49. nimittgyan kala (shakun janana)
  50. yantr matrika kala (vividh prakar ke mashin, kal, purje adi banana)
  51. dharanamatrika kala (suni huee baton ka smaran rakhana)
  52. snpathy kala
  53. manasi kavy-kriya kala (kisi shlok men chhode hue pad ko man se poora karana)
  54. abhidhanakosh kala
  55. chhandogyan kala
  56. kriyakalp kala (kavyalnkaron ka gyan)
  57. chhalitak yog kala (roop aur boli chhipana)
  58. vastragopan kala (sharir ke angon ko chhote ya bade vastron se yathayogy dhnkana)
  59. dyootavishesh kala
  60. akarsh-krida kala (pason se khelana)
  61. balakridanak kala
  62. vainayiki gyan kala (apane aur paraye se vinayapoorvak shishtachar karana)
  63. vaijayiki-gyan kala (vijay prapt karane ki vidya arthath shastravidya)
  64. vyayamavidya kala inaka vishesh vivaran jayamngal ne kamasootr ki vyakhya men kiya hai.
kandariya mandir, khajuraho
  • shukrachary ka kahana hai ki kalaon ke bhinn-bhinn nam nahin hain, apitu keval unake lakshan hi kahe ja sakate hain; kyonki kriya ke parthaky se hi kalaon men bhed hota hai. jo vyakti jis kala ka avalamban karata hai, usaki jati usi kala ke nam se kahi jati hai.
  • pahali kala hai nrity (nachana). hav-bhav adi ke sath gati nrity kaha jata hai. nrity men karan, angahar, vibhav, bhav, anubhav aur rason ki abhivyakti ki jati hai. nrity ke do prakar hain- ek naty, doosara anaty. svarg-narak ya prithvi ke nivasiyon ki kritika anukaran 'natay' kaha jata hai aur anukaran-virahit nrity 'anatay'. yah kala ati prachin kal se yahan badi unnat dasha men thi. shrishnkar ka tandavanrity prasiddh hai. aj to is kala ka pesha karane vali ek jati hi 'katthak' nam se prasiddh hai. varsharitu men ghanagarjana se anandit mor ka nrity bahuton ne dekha hoga. nrity ek svabhavik vastu hai, jo hriday men prasannata ka udrek hote hi bahar vyakt ho uthati hai. kuchh kalavid purushon ne isi svabhavik nrity ko anyany abhinay-veshashon se rngakar kala ka roop de diya hai. jngali-se-jngali aur sabhy-se-sabhy samaj men nrity ka astitv kisi-n-kisi roop men dekha hi jata hai. adhunik pashchattyon men nrityakala ek pradhan samajik vastu ho gayi hai. prachin kal men is kala ki shiksha rajakumaron tak ke liye avashyak samajhi jati thin. arjun dvara agyatavasakal men raja virat ki kanya uttara ko brihannala roop men is kala ki shiksha dene ki bat 'mahabharat' men prasiddh hai. dakshin-bharat men yah kala ab bhi thodi-bahut vidyaman hai. 'kathakali' men usaki jhalak milati hai. shri udayashnkar adi kuchh kala premi is prachin kala ko phir jagrat karane ke prayatn men lage hue hain.
  • anek prakar ke vadyon ka nirman karane aur unake bajane ka gyan 'kala' hai. vadyon ke mukhyataya char bhed hain-
  1. tat-tar athava tant ka jisamen upayog hota hai, ve vady 'tat' kahe jate hain- jaise vina, tamboora, sarngi, bela, sarod adi.
  2. sushir- jisaka bhitari bhag sachchhidr (pola) ho aur jisamen vayu ka upayog hota ho, usako 'sushir' kahate hain- jaise bansuri, alagoja, shahanaee, baind, haramoniyam, shnkh adi.
  3. anaddh -chamade se madha hua vady 'anaddh' kaha jata hai- jaise dhol, nagada, tabala, mridng, daph, khnjadi adi.
  4. ghan- paraspar aghat se bajane yogy vady 'ghan' kahalata hai- jaise jhanjh, mnjhira, karatal adi. yah kala gane se sambandh rakhati hain bina vady ke gan men madhurata nahin ati. prachin kal men bharat ke vadyon men vina mukhy thi. isaka ullekh prachin snskrit granthon men bhi upalabdh hota hai. sarasvati aur narad ka vina vadan, shrikrishn ki vnshi, mahadev ka damaroo to prasiddh hi hai. vady adi vishayon ke snskrit men anek granth hain. unamen anek vadyon ke pariman, unake banane aur marammat karane ki vidhiyan milati hain. rajyabhishek, yatra, utsav, vivah, upanayan adi mangalik karyon ke avasaron par bhinn-bhinn vadyon ka upayog hota tha. yuddh men sainikon ke utsah, shaury ko badhane ke liye anek tarah ke vady bajaye jate the.
  • stri aur purushon ko vastr evn alnkar sucharoo roop se pahanana 'kala' hai.
  • anek prakar ke roopon ka avirbhav karane ka gyan 'kala' hai. isi kala ka upayog hanuman ji ne shriramachandraji ke sath pahali bar milane ke samay brahman-vesh dharan karane men kiya tha.
  • shaiyya aur astaran (bichhauna) sundar riti se bichhana aur pushpon ko anek prakar se goonthana 'kala' hai.
  • dyoot (jooa) adi anek kridaon se logon ka manornjan karana 'kala' hai. prachin kal men dyoot ke anek prakaron ke prachalit hone ka pata lagata hai. un sabamen akshakrida (chaupada) vishesh prasiddh thi. nal, yudhishthir, shakuni adi is kala men nipun the.
  • anek prakar ke asanon dvara surat krida ka gyan 'kala' hai. in sat kalaon ka ullekh 'gandharvaved' men kiya gaya hai.
  • vividh prakar ke makarandon (pushparas) se asav, mady adi ki kriti 'kala' hai.
  • shaly (padadi ang men chubhe kante) ki pida ko alp kar dena ya shaly ko ang men se nikal dalana, shira (nadi) aur phode adi ki chir-phad karana 'kala' hai. hakimon ki jarrahi aur daktaron ki sarjari isi kala ke udaharan hain.
  • hing adi ras (masale) se yukt anek prakar ke annon ka pakana 'kala' hai. maharaj nal aur bhimasen jaise purush bhi is kala men nipun the.
  • vriksh, gulm, lata adi ko lagane, unase vividh prakar ke phal, pushpon ko utpann karane evn un vrikshadi ka anek upadravon se snrakshan karane ki kriti 'kala' hai. prachin snskrit granthon men suramy udyan, upavan adi ka bahut ullekh prapt hota hai. vishnudharmottarapuran, agni puran tatha shukranitinsar men is vishay par bahut prakash dala gaya hai. isase maloom hota hai ki bahut prachin kal men bhi yah kala unnat dasha men thi.
  • patthar, sone-chandi adi dhatuon ko (khan men se) khodana, un dhatuon ki bhasm banana 'kala' hai.
  • sabhi prakar ke ikshu (eekh) se banaye ja sakanevale padarth- jaise rav, gud, khand, chini, mishri, kand adi banane ka gyan 'kala' hai.
  • suvarn adi anek dhatu aur anek aushadhiyon ko paraspar mishrit karane ka gyan (sinathesis) 'kala' hai.
  • mishrit dhatuon ko us mishran se alag-alag kar dena (analisis) 'kala' hai.
  • dhatu adi ke mishran ka apoorv (pratham) vigyan 'kala' hai.
  • lavan (namak) adi ko samudr se ya mitti adi padarthon se nikalane ka vigyan 'kala' hai. in das kalaon ka ayurved se sambandh hai, isaliye ye kalaen ayurved ke antarbhoot hain. inamen adhunik bantani, gardaning, maining, metalarji, kemistri adi a jate hain.
  • pair adi angon ke vishisht snchalanapoorvak (paitara badalate hue) shastron ka lakshy sthir karana aur unaka chalana 'kala' hai.
  • sharir ki sandhiyon (jodon) par aghat karate hue ya bhinn-bhinn angon ko khinchate hue do malon (pahalavanon) ka yuddh (kushti) 'kala' hai. is kala men bhi bharat prachin kal se ab tak sarvashreshth raha hai. shrikrishn ne kns ki sabha ke chanoor, mushtik adi prasiddh pahalavanon ko is kala men pachhada tha. bhimasen aur jarasandh ki kushti kee dinon tak chalane ka ullekh 'mahabharat' men aya hai. aj bhi gama adi ke nam jagadvijayi mallon men hain. pnjab, mathura adi ke mall abhi bhi is kala men achchhi nipunata rakhate hain. is yuddh ka ek bhed 'bahuyuddh' hai. isamen mallalog kisi shastr ka upayog n kar keval mushti se yuddh karate hain. ise 'mukki', 'kukkabazi' (bakasing) kahate hain. kashi ke durga ghat par kartik men hone vali mukki suprasiddh hai. bahuyuddh men ladakar marane vale ki shukrachary ne ninda ki hai. ve likhate hain— 'bahuyuddh men maranevale ko n to is lok men yash milata hai, n paralok men svarg-sukh. kintu marane vale ka yash avashy hota hai; kyonki shatru ke bal aur darp (ghamand) ka ant karana hi yuddh ka lakshy hota hai. isaliye pranant (shatru ke mar jane tak) bahuyuddh karana chahiye.[2]

aise yuddh ka udaharan madhu-kaitabh ke sath vishnu ka yuddh hai, jo samudr men panch hazar varshon tak hota raha tha—

madhukaitabhau duratmanavativiryaparakramau॥

krodharaktekshanavattun brahmann janitodyamau.
samutthay tatastabhyan yuyudhe bhagavan hari:॥

pnchavarshasahastrani bahupraharano vibhu:. (saptashati 1. 92-94)
  • krit aur pratikrit adi anek tarah ke ati bhaynkar bahu (mushti) praharon se akasmat shatrupar jhapat kar kiye gaye aghaton se evn shatru ko asavadhan pakar aisi dasha men usako pakadakar ragad dene adi prakaron se jo yuddh kiya jata hai, use 'nipidan' kahate hain aur shatru dvara kiye gaye aise 'nipidan' se apane ko bacha lene ka nam 'pratikriya' hai arthath apana bachav karate hue shatru par keval bahuon se bhaynkar aghat karate hue yuddh karana 'kala' hai.
  • abhilakshit desh (nishane) par vividh yantron se astron ko phenkana aur kisi (bigul, turahi adi) vady ke snket se vyooh rachana (kisi khas tariqe se sainy ko khada karane ki kriya) karana 'kala' hai. isase pata chalata hai ki mantron se phenke jane vale astr- aj kal ke bandook, top, mashinagan, tarapidon adi ki tarah-prachin kal men bhi upayog men laye jate rahe honge. kintu unase hone vali bhari kshati ko dekhakar unaka upayog kam kar diya gaya hoga. manu ne bhi mahayantr-nirman ka nishedh kiya hai.
  • hathi, ghode aur rathon ki vishisht gatiyon se yuddh ka ayojan karana 'kala' hai. 18 se 22 tak ki panch kalaen 'dhanurved' se sambandh rakhati hain.
  • vividh prakar ke asan (baithane ka prakar) evn mudra (donon hathon ki anguliyon se bananevali ankush, padm, dhenu adi ki akritiyon) se devataon ko prasann karana 'kala' hain is kala par adhunikon ka vishvas nahin hai, to bhi kahi-kahin isake janane vale vyakti paye jate hain. isaka prachin samay men khoob prachar tha. snskrit men tantr evn agam ke anek granthon men mudra adi ka varnan dekhane men ata hai. hipnotijm janane valon men kuchh mudraon ka prayog dekha jata hai. ve mudra dvara apani shakti ka snkraman apane prayojy- vidhey men karate hain.
  • rath hankane ka kam (kochavani) evn hathi, ghodo ko anek tarah ki gatiyon (chalon) ki shiksha dena 'kala' hai. isaki shiksha kisi samay men sabhi rajakumaron ke liye avashyak samajhi jati thi. yadi virat putr uttar is kala men nipun n hote to jab duryodhan adi virat ki gauon ka apaharan karane ke liye aye, us samay arjun ka sarathy ve kaise kar sakate the. bharat-yuddh men shri krishn arjun ka rath kaise hank sakate ya karn ka sarathy shaly kaise kar sakate the. aj bhi shauqin log sarathi (draivar) ko pichhe baithakar svayn motar adi hankate hue dekhe jate hain.
  • mitti, lakadi, patthar aur pital adi dhatuon se bartanon ka banana 'kala' hain yah kala bhi is desh men bahut purane samay se achchhi dasha men dekhane men ati hai. isaka anuman zamin ki khudaee se nikale hue prachin bartanon ko 'vastu-sngrahalay' (myoojiyam) men dekhane se ho sakata hai.
  • chitron ka alekhan 'kala' hai. prachin chitron ko dekhane se pramanit hota hai ki yah kala bharat men kis uchchakoti tak pahunchi huee thi. prachin mandir aur bauddh viharon ki moortiyon aur ajanta adi gufaon ke chitron ko dekhakar ashchary hota hai. aj kee shatabdiyon ke vyatit ho jane par bhi ve jyon-ke-jyon dikhalayi padate hain. unake rng aise dikhalayi padate hain ki jaise abhi karigar ne unaka nirmanakary samapt kiya ho. pratyek varsh hazaron videshi yatri unhen dekhane ke liye door-door se ate rahate hain. prayatn karane par bhi vaise rngon ka avishkar ab tak nahin ho saka hai. yah kala itani vyapak thi ki desh ke har ek kone men ghar-ghar men isaka prachar tha. ab bhi gharon ke dvar par ganesh ji adi ke chitr banane ki chal pray: sarvatr dekhi jati hain kee samajik utsavon ke avasaron par striyan dival aur zamin par chitr likhati hain. prachin kal men bharat ki striyan is kala men bahut nipun hoti thin. banasur ki kanya usha ki sakhi chitralekha is kala men badi siddhahast thi. vah ek bar dekhe hue vyakti ka bad men hoobahoo chitr bana sakati thi. chitrakala ke 6 ang hain-
kandariya mandir, khajuraho
  1. roopabhed (rngon ki milavat)
  2. praman (chitr men doori, gaharaee adi ka dikhalana aur chitragat vastu ke angon ka anupat)
  3. bhav aur lavany ki yojana
  4. sadrishy
  5. varnika (rngon ka samnjasy)
  6. bhng (rachana-kaushal). 'samaragnnasootradhar' adi prachin shilpagranthon men is kala ka vishadaroop se vivaran upalabdh hota hai.
  • talab, bavali, koop, prasad (mahal aur dev mandir) adi ka banana aur bhoomi (oonchi-nichi) ka sam (barabar) karana 'kala' hai. 'sivil injiniyaring' ka isamen bhi samavesh kiya ja sakata hai.
  • ghati (ghadi) adi samay ka nirdesh karane vale yantron ka nirman karana 'kala' hai. prachin kal men samay ka map karane ke liye jalayantr, valukayantr, dhoop-ghadi adi sadhan then ab ghadi ke ban jane se yadyapi unaka vyavahar kam ho gaya hai, tathapi kee prachin shaili ke jyotishi log ab bhi vivah adi ke avasar par jalayantr dvara hi sooryoday se isht kal ka sadhan karate hain. evn kee prachin rajaon ki dyodhi par ab bhi jalayantr valukayantr ya dhoop-ghadi ke anusar samay-nirdeshak ghanta bajane ki pratha dekhane men ati hai. ashchary hai ki inhin yantron ki sahayata se prachin jyotishi log sookshmatisookshm samay ke vibhag ka gyan spashtataya prapt kar liya karate the. aur usi ke adhar par bani janmapatrika se jivan ki ghatanaon ka thik-thik pata laga liya jata tha.
  • anek vadyon ka nirman karana 'kala' hai.
  • katipay rngon ke alp, adhik ya sam snyog (milavat) se bane vibhinn rngon se vastr adi vastuon ka rngana- yah bhi 'kala' hai. pahale yah kala ghar-ghar men thi; kintu isaka bhar, ab maloom hota hai, rngarejon ke oopar hi chhod diya gaya hai. yahan ke rng bade sundar aur tikaoo hote the. yahan ke rngon se rnge vastron ka bahar ke deshon men bada adar tha. ab bhi rajapootane ke kee nagaron men aise-aise kushal rngarej hain ki jo mahin-se-mahin malamal ko donon or se do vibhinn rngon men rng dete hain. jodhapur men kapade ko sthan-sthan par bandhakar is tarah se rng dete hain ki usamen anek rng aur bel-boote baith jate hain.
  • jal, vayu aur agni ke snyog se utpann vashp (bhap) ke nirodh (rokane) se anek kriyaon ka sampadan karana 'kala' hai—[3] bhojadev (vi. sn. 1066-98) krit 'samarangan sootradhar' ke 31ven adhyay ka nam hi 'yantravidhan' hai. us adhyay men 223.5 shlok hain, jinamen vilakshan prakar ke vividh yantron ke nirman ki snkshipt prakriya ka digdarshan karaya gaya hai. isase to yah bat spasht riti se jani ja rahi hai ki prachin bharat ke logon ko bhap ke yantron ka gyan tha aur ve un yantron se apane vyavaharik karyon men aj ki tarah sahayata liya karate the.
  • nauka, rath adi jal-sthal ke avagaman ke sadhanon ka nirman karana 'kala' hai. pahale ke log sthal aur yatayat ke sadhanon ka- achchhe-se-achchhe upakaranon se sampann ashv, rath, gau (bailon) ke rath adi ka banana to janate hi the; sath hi achchhe-se-achchhe sudridh sundar, upayogi, sarvasadhanon se sampann bade-bade jahajon ka banana bhi janate the. jahajon ke upayog ka varnan vedon men bhi milata hai. jahajon par door-door ke deshon ke sath achchha vyapar hota tha. jalayanon se ane-jane vale mal par kar adi ki vyavastha thin pashchatyon ki tarah yahan ke mallah bhi bade sahasi aur yatra men nidar hote the; kintu pashchaty shasakon ki kripa se anyany kalaon ki tarah bharat men yah kala bhi bahut kshin ho gayi hai.
  • sootr, san adi tantuon se rassi ka banana 'kala' hai.
  • anek tantuon se patabandh (vastr ki rachana) 'kala' hai. yah kala bhi bahut prachin samay se bharat men badi unnat dasha men thi. bharat men 'eest indiya kampani' ke shasan ke pahale yahan aise sundar, mazaboot, barik vastr banaye jate the, jinaki barabari ajatak koee doosara desh nahin kar saka hai. 'eest indiya kampani' ke samay men yahan ke vastr-nirman evn vastr-niryat ke vyavasay ko pashchaty svarthi vyapariyon ne kee upayon se nasht kar diya.
  • ratnon ki pahachan aur unamen vedh (chhidr) karane ki kriya ka gyan 'kala' hai. prachin samay se hi achchhe bure ratnon ki pahachan tatha unake dharan se hone vale shubhashubh phal ka gyan yahan ke logon ko tha. grahon ke anisht phalon ko rokane ke liye vibhinn ratnon ko dharan karane ka shastron ne upadesh kiya hai. usake anusar ratnon ko dharan karane ka phal aj bhi pratyaksh dikhalayi deta hai. par aj to bharatavarsh ki yah sthiti hai ki adhikansh logon ko un ratnon ka dharan karana to door raha, darshan bhi durlabh hai.
  • suvarn, rajat adi ke yathatmy (asalipan) ka janana 'kala' hai.
  • nakali sone-chandi aur hire-moti adi ratnon ko nirman karane ka vigyan 'kala' hai. purane karigaron ki baten sunane men ati hain. ve kee vastuon ke yog se thik asali-jaisa sona chandi adi bana sakate the. ab to keval unaki baten hi sunane men ati hain. ratn bhi prachin kal men nakali banaye jate the. mishri se aisa hira banate the ki achchhe jauhari bhi usako jaldi nahin pahachan sakate the. isase maloom hota hai ki 'imiteshan' hira adi ratn tatha 'kalachar' motiyon ka avishkar pashchatyon ne kuchh naya nikala ho- yah bat nahin hai. kintu yah bhi manana hi padega ki us samay in nakali vastuon ka vyavasay ajakal ki tarah adhik vistrit nahin tha. desh ke sampann hone ke karan unhen nakali vastuon se apani shobha badhane ki avashyakata hi kya thi. par aj ki sthiti kuchh aur hai, isi se in padarthon ka vyavahar adhik badh gaya hai.
  • sone-chandi ke abhooshan banana evn lep (mulamma) adi (minakari) karana 'kala' hai.[4]
  • chamade ko mulayam karana aur usase avashyak upayogi saman taiyar karana aur
  • pashuon ke sharir par se chamada nikalakar alag karana 'kala' hai.[5] aj to yah kala bharat ke logon ke hath se nikalakar videshiyon ke hath men chali gayi hain yahan keval charmakaron ke gharon men kuchh avashisht rahi hai; kintu chamadon ko kamakar videshiyon ke muqabale men unhen mulayam karana nahin janate.
  • gau, bhains adi ko duhane se lekar dahi zamana, mathana, makkhan nikalana tatha usase ghi banane tak ki sab kriyaon ka janana 'kala' hai. ise padhakar hriday men du:kh ki ek tis uth jati hai. vah bharat ka saubhagy kal kahan, jab ghar-ghar men anek gauon ka nivas tha, pratyek manushy is kala se abhigy hota tha, doodh dahi ki mano nadiyan bahati thin, doodh ke pausare baithaye jate the- jahan log pani ki tarah muft men doodh pi sakate then aur kahan aj ka hatabhagy samay! ghi-makkhan ka to darshan door raha, bachchon ko doodhi milana kathin hai. kahan vah shrikrishn ke samay ka vraj vrindavan ka drishy, aur kahan aj bade-bade shaharon ke pas bane boochadakhanon men pratidin hazaron ki snkhya mn vadh kiye janevali gau mata aur unake bachchon ka karun krandan.
  • kurta adi kapadon ko sina 'kala' hai- sivane kanchukadinan vigyann tu kalatmakamh.
  • jal men hath, pair adi angon se vividh prakar se tairana 'kala' hai. tairane ke sath-sath doobate hue ko kaise bachana chahiye, thaka ya doobata hua vyakti yadi usako bachane ke liye aye vyakti ko pakad le, to vaisi sthiti men kis tarah usase apane ko chhudakar aur use lekar kinare par pahunchana chahiye-ityadi baton ka janana bhi bahut avashyak hai.
  • ghar ke bartanon ko manjane ka gyan 'kala' hai. pahale yah kam ghar ki striyan hi karati thin, aj bhi kee gharon men yahi chal hai; parntu ab bade gharanon ki striyan isamen apana apaman samajhati hain.
  • vastron ka snmarjan (achchhi tarah dhokar saf karana) 'kala' hai.
  • kshurakarm (hajamat banana) 'kala' hai. ajakal yah badi unnati par hai. gnga-yamuna ke ghaton, bazaron men chale jaiye, apako is kala ka udaharan pratyaksh dekhane ko mil jayaga. koee padha-likha adhunik sabhy purush pray: aisa n milega, jisake ahnik men apana 'kshurakarm' sammilit n ho!-vastrasammarjannchaiv kshurakarm hyubhe kale.
  • til, tisi, rendi adi tilahan padarth aur manson men se tel nikalane ki kriti 'kala' hai.
  • hal chalana janana aur 49-pedon par chadhana janana bhi 'kala' hai. hal chalana to krishi ka pradhan ang hi hai. pedon par chadhana bhi ek kala hi hai. sabhi keval chahane matr se hi pedon par chadh nahin sakate. khoojar, tad, nariyal, supari adi ke pedon par chadhana kitana kathin hai- ise dekhane vala hi jan sakata hai. isamen jara-si bhi asavadhani hone par mrityu yadi n ho to bhi ang bhng hona mamooli bat hai.
  • manoanukool (doosare ki ichchha ke anusar usaki) seva karane ka gyan 'kala' hai. rajasevak, naukar, shishy adi ke liye is kala ka janana paramavashyak hai. is kala ko n jananevala kisi ko prasann nahin kar sakata.
  • bans, tad, khajoor, san adi se patr (tokari, jhanpi adi) banana 'kala' hai.
  • kanch ke baratan adi saman banana 'kala' hai. maloom hota hai ki yah kala bharat men prachin samay se hi thi, kintu madhyakal men yahan se videshiyon ke hath men chali gayi. striyon ka saubhagy chihn choodiyan tak videshon se ane lagin !
  • jalon se snsechan (achchhi tarah kheton ko sinchana) aur
  • snharan (adhik jalavali ya daladalavali bhoomi men se jal ko bahar nikal dalana athava door se jal ko avashyak sthan par le ana) 'kala' hai.
  • lohe ke astr-shastr banane ka gyan 'kala' hai. 56-hathi, ghode, bail aur oonton ki pith-savari ke upayukt palyan (jin, kathi) banana 'kala' hai.
  • shishuon ka snrakshan (palan) aur 58-dharan (poshan) karana evn
  • bachchon ke khelane ke liye tarah-tarah khilaune banana 'kala' hai— shisho: snrakshane gyann dharane kridane kala.
  • aparadhiyon ko unake aparadh ke anusar tadan (dand dene) ka gyan 'kala' hai.
  • bhinn-bhinn deshon ki lipi ko sundarata se likhana 'kala' hai. bharat is kala men bahut unnat tha. aise sundar akshar likhe jate the ki unhen dekhakar ashchary hota hai. likhane ke liye syahi bhi aisi sundar banati thi ki saikadon varshon ki likhi huee pustaken aj bhi nayi-si maloom hoti hain. chhapane ke pres, taiparaitar adi sadhanon ka upayog hota ja raha hai, jisase logon ke akshar bigadate ja rahe hain. sthiti yahan tak pahunchi hai ki kabhi-kabhi apana hi likha hua apane se nahin padha jata. pahale yah kala itani unnat thi ki 'mahabharat-jaisa sava lakh shlokon ka bada potha adi se ant tak ek hi sanche ke aksharon men likha hua dekhane men ata hai. kahin ek akshar bhi chhota-bada nahin ho paya hai; syahi bhi ek-jaisi hi hai- n kahin gahari n kahin patali. vishesh ashchary to yah hai ki sari pustak men n to ek akshar galat likhakar kahin kata hua hai n kahin koee dhabba hi hai.
  • pan ki raksha karana— aisa upay karana ki jisase pan bahut dinon tak n sookhane paye, n gale-sade, 'kala' hai. aj bhi bahut se aise tamoli hain, jo magahi pan ko mahinon tak jyon-ka-tyon rakhate hain. is tarah ye 62 kalaen alag-alag hai; kintu do kalaen aisi hain, jinhen sab kalaon ka pran kaha ja sakata hai. yahi sab kalaon ke gun bhi kahi ja sakati hain in do men pahali hai
  • adan aur doosari
  • pratidann kisi kam ko karane men ashukaritv (jaldi-phurti se karana) 'adan' kaha jata hai aur us kam ko chirakal (bahut samay) tak hakarate rahana 'pratidan' hai. bina in do gunon ke koee bhi kala adhik upayukt nahin ho sakati. is tarah 64 kalaon ka yah snkshipt vivaran hain.

nishkarsh

yah pathayakram kitana vyapak hai! isamen pray: sabhi vishayon ka samavesh ho jata hai. isi ank men anyatr prakashit 'hindoo-snskritika adhar' shirshak lekh men jin 32 vidyaon ka snkshipt varnan kiya gaya hai, unaka bhi isi pathayakram men samavesh hai. shiksha ka yah uddeshy mana jata hai ki usase gyan ki vriddhi ho, sadachar men pravritti ho aur jivikoparjan men sahayata mile. is kram men in tinon ka dhyan rakha gaya hai. itana hi nahin, paralaukik kalyan bhi nahin chhoda gaya hai. snkshep men dharm, arth, kam, moksh- in charon purushartho ko dhyan men rakhakar hi shiksha ka yah kram nishchit kiya gaya hai. isase pata lagata hai ki us samay-ki shiksha ka adarsh kitana uchch tatha vyavaharik tha. shrikrishnachandr ko in sabhi vishayon ki poori shiksha di gayi thi aur ve pray: sabhi men pravin then. arjun nrityakala aur nal, bhim adi pakavidya men nipun then parashuram, dronachary-sarikhe brahman dhanurved men daksh the. isase jan padata hai ki gurukulon men brahman, kshatriy, vaishyon ke balakon ko pray: in sabhi vishayon ki thodi-bahut shiksha di jati rahi hogi. parntu is shiksha se aisa n ho ki jo kam jisake ji men aya karane laga, jaisa ki ajakal hota hai- isaka bhi dhyan rakha gaya tha. kyonki aisa hone se sari samaj vyavastha hi bigad jati, shreni-sngharsh aur bekari ki utpatti hoti, jaisa ki ajakal dekhane men a raha hai. sab manushyon ka svabhav ek-sa nahin hota, kisi ki pravritti kisi or to kisi ki kisi or hoti hai. jisaki jis or pravritti hai, usi men abhyas karane se kushalata prapt hoti hai. isiliye shukrachary ne likha hai—

yan yan kalan samashrity nipuno yo hi manav:.
naipunyakarane samyakh tan tan kuryath s ev hi॥

vnshagat kala

vnshagat kala ke sikhane men kitani sugamata hoti hai, yah pratyaksh hai. ek badhee ka ladaka badheegiri jitani shighrata aur sugamata ke sath sikhakar usamen nipun ho sakata hai, utana doosara nahin, kyonki vnsh-parampara aur balakapan se hi usake us kala ke yogy snskar ban jane hain. in manovaigyanik siddhanton ke adhar par prachin shiksha kram ki rachana huee thi. usamen ajakal ki si dhandhali n thi, jisaka dushparinam aj sarvatr dikhaee pad raha hai. pray: sabhi vishayon men chanchupravesh aur kisi ek vishay ki, jisamen pravritti ho, yogyata prapt karane se hi poorv shiksha aur yathochit gyan ki prapti ho sakati hai. aj pashchaty vidvanh bhi prachalit shiksha-paddhati ki anek trutiyon ka anubhav kar rahe hain; parntu ham us dooshit paddhati ki nakal karane ki hi dhun men lage hue hain. vartaman shiksha se logon ko apane vnshagat karyon se ghrina tatha aruchi hoti chali ja rahi hai aur ve apane bap-dada ke vyavasayon ko badi teji se chhodate chale ja rahe hain. shikshit yuvak aauphis men chhoti-chhoti naukariyon ke liye dar-dar daudate hain, apaman sahate hain, doosaron ki thokar khate hain aur jivan se nirash hokar kee to atmaghat kar baithate hain. yadi yahi kram jari raha to poora vinash samane hai. kya hi achchha hota, yadi hamare shiksha-ayojakon ka dhyan ek bar hamari prachin shiksha-paddhati ki or bhi jata.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  • lekhak— pn. shridurgadattaji tripathi
  1. shakto mookoapi yath kartun kalasngyn tu tath smritamh.
  2. 'mritasy tasy n svargo yasho nehapi vidyate. baladarpavinashantn niyuddhn yash se ripo:. n kasyasiddhi kuryadvai pranantn bahuyuddhakamh॥
  3. jalavathvagnisnyoganirodhaishch kriya kala.
  4. svarnadyalnkarakriti: kalalepadisatkriti:.
  5. mardavadikriyagyann charmanan tu kala smrita. pashucharmanganirharakriyagyann kala smrita ॥

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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