रत्न  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ratn
ratn
vivaran ratn akarshak khanij ka ek tukada hota hai jo kataee aur paaulish karane ke bad gahane aur any alnkaran banane ke lie prayog kiya jata hai.
utpatti khanij ratn khanon se, jaivik ratn samudr se aur vanaspatik ratn parvaton se prapt hote hain.
prakar tin (khanij ratn, jaivik ratn aur vanaspatik ratn)
dharmik manyata 'agni puran' ke anusar - mahabali asuraraj vritrasur ne devalok par akraman kiya. tab bhagavan vishnu ki salah par indr ne maharshi dadhichi se vajr banane hetu unaki haddiyon ka dan manga. phir isi vajr se devataon ne vritrasur ka snhar kiya. astr (vajr) nirman ke samay dadhichi ki asthiyon ke, jo sookshm ansh prithvi par gire, unase tamam ratnon ki khanen ban geen.
navaratn gomed, nilam, panna, pukharaj, maniky, moonga, moti, lahasuniya aur hira
rasayanik tattv in ratnon men mukhyatah karban, beriyam, beriliyam, elyoominiyam, kailshiyam, jasta, tin, tanba, haidrojan, loha, phaausphoras, mainganiz, gndhak, potaishiyam, sodiyam, jinkoniyam adi tattv upasthit hote hain.
any janakari prachin granthon ke anusar uchch koti men 84 prakar ke ratn ate hain. inamen se bahut se ratn ab aprapy hain tatha bahut se ne-ne ratnon ka avishkar bhi hua hai. vartaman samay men prachin grnthon men varnit ratnon ki soochiyan pramanik nahin rah gee hai.

ratn (angrezi:Gemstone) akarshak khanij ka ek tukada hota hai jo kataee aur paaulish karane ke bad gahane aur any alnkaran banane ke lie prayog kiya jata hai. bahut se ratn thos khanij ke hote hain, lekin kuchh naram khanij ke bhi hote hain. ratn qimati patthar ko kaha jata hai. apani sundarata ki vajah se yah qimati hote hain. ratn apani chamak aur any bhautik gunon ke saundary ki vajah se gahane men upayog kiya jata hai. greding, katane aur paaulish se ratnon ko ek naya roop aur rng diya jata hai aur isi roop aur rng ki vajah se yah ratn gahanon ko aur bhi akarshak banate hain. ratn ka rng hi usaki sabase spasht aur akarshak visheshata hai. ratnon ko garm kar ke usake rng ki spashtata badhaee jati hai.

ratn koee bhi ho apane apamen prabhavashali hota hai. manushy anadikal se hi ratnon ki taraph akarshit raha hai, vartaman men bhi hai tatha bhavishy men bhi rahega. ratn sharir ki shobha abhooshanon ke roop men to badhate hi hain aur kuchh logon ka manana hai ki ratn apani daiviy shakti ke prabhav ke karan rogon ka nivaran bhi karate hain. in ratnon se jahan svayn ko sajane-snvarane ki spardha logon men paee jati hai vahin snpannata ke pratik ye anamol ratn apane akarshan tatha utkrishtata se sabako vashibhoot kar vishv vyapi se bakhane jate hain. ratn aur javaharat ke nam se jane hue ye khanij padarth vishv ki bahumooly rashi hain, jo yugon se aganit manon ko mohate hue apani mahatta banae hue hain.

ratn kya hain?

ratn kise kahate hain? yah ek buniyadi saval hai. isake bina ham ratn dvara ashubh nidan evn chikitsa ke bare men soch nahin sakate. isalie sabase pahale isase janana zaroori hai. yoon to ratn ek qism ke patthar hi hote hain, lekin sabhi patthar ratn nahin kahe jate. patthar aur ratn men kuchh farq hota hai. yadi is farq ko behatar dhng se samajh liya jae to ham ratn ko pattharon se chhantakar nikal sakate hain. unaki shinakht kar sakate hain aur phir apane dainik jivan men unaka behatar prayog kar sakate hain. yadi aisa n karake ham bina soche-samajhe ratnon ka istemal karate hain to ulta asar padata hai. aisi sthiti men hamen nuqasan bhi uthana pad sakata hai. isalie ratnon ka upayog janch-parakhakar tatha soch-vicharakar karana chahie. kuchh patthar ya padarthon ke gun, charitr evn visheshataen aisi hoti hain ki unhen dekhate hi ratn kah diya jata hai, jaise-hira, maniky, vaidoory, nilam, pukharaj, panna adi ko log ratn ke nam se pukarate hain. vaise vastav men ye sare patthar hi hain, lekin beshaqimati patthar. isalie angrezi men inhen prisiyas ston (bahumooly patthar) kahate hain. 'ratn' ka vishesh arth shreshthatv bhi hai. isi vajah se kisi khas vyakti ko usake mahattvapoorn kary ke lie 'ratn' shabd se vibhooshit kiya jata hai. prachinakal se hi ratn ka arth-bhoogarbh ya samudr tal se prapt hone vale hira, moti, maniky adi samajha jata raha hai. ratn bhagy-parivartan men shighratishighr apana prabhav dikhata hai. darasal, prithvi ke andar lakhon varshon tak pade rahane ke karan usamen prithvi ka chumbakatv tatha tezatv a jata hai. prithvi ke jis kshetr men jis grah ka asar adhik hota hai, us kshetr ke asapas us grah se sambandhit ratn adhik matra men pae jate hain. vastav men prithvi grahon ke snyog se apane andar ratnon ka nirman karati hai. at: ise 'ratnag' bhi kaha jata hai.

rasayanik tattv

ratn vastav men khanij padarth hain, jo prakriti ki god men bhinn-bhinn roopon men pae jate hain. darasal, ye bhinn-bhinn tatvon ke apas men milane arthath kriya-pratikriya ke phalasvaroop banate hain. in ratnon men mukhyatah karban, beriyam, beriliyam, elyoominiyam, kailshiyam, jasta, tin, tanba, haidrojan, loha, phaausphoras, mainganiz, gndhak, potaishiyam, sodiyam, jinkoniyam adi tattv upasthit hote hain.

itihas

  • ratnon ka itihas atynt hi prachin hai. bharat ki tarah any deshon men bhi inake janm sambndhi anaginat kathaen prachalit hain. hamare desh men is tarah ki jo kathaen vikhyat hain, ve puranon se li gee hain. puranon men ratnon ki utpatti se sambndhit anek kathaen hain. 'agnipuran' ke anusar - mahabali asuraraj vritrasur ne devalok par akraman kiya. tab bhagavan vishnu ki salah par indr ne maharshi dadhichi se vajr banane hetu unaki haddiyon ka dan manga. phir isi vajr se devataon ne vritrasur ka snhar kiya. astr (vajr) nirman ke samay dadhichi ki asthiyon ke, jo sookshm ansh prithvi par gire, unase tamam ratnon ki khanen ban geen.
  • isi tarah ek doosari katha hai. usake anusar - samudr mnthan ke samay jab amrit kalash prakat hua to asur us amrit ko lekar bhag ge. devataon ne unaka pichha kiya. apas men chhina-jhapati huee aur is prakriya men amrit ki kuchh boonden chhalak kar prithvi par ja girin. kalantar men amrit ki ye boonden anaginat ratnon men parivartit ho geen.
  • ek tisari katha raja bali ki hai. jab vaman roopi shri vishnu ne bali se sadhe tin pag prithvi mangi to usane ise dena svikar kar liya. tab bhagavan vishnu ne virat svaroop dharan kar tin pagon men tinon lokon ko nap liya aur adhe pag ke lie usake sharir ki mang ki thi. raja bali ne apana sampoorn sharir vaman ko samarpit kar diya. bhagavan vishnu ke charanasparsh se bali ratnamay aur vajravath ho gaya. isake bad indr ne use apane vajr se prithvi par mar giraya. prithvi par khnd- khnd hokar girate hi bali ke sharir ke sabhi angon se alag-alag rng, roop v gun ke ratn prakat hue. bhagavan shiv ne un ratnon ko apane char trishoolon par sthapit karake phir un par nau grahon evn bahar rashiyon ka prabhutv sthapit kiya. isake bad unhen prithvi par char dishaaaun men gira diya. phalasvaroop prithvi par vibhinn ratnon ki khanen utpann hueen.

in kathaon ko bare men ap jo kahen- kapol kalpana, mithak ya kuchh aur... lekin is bat se ap inkar nahin kar sakate ki prachinakal men logon ko in ratnon ke roop, gun v upayog ke bare men kamobesh gyan tha. keval itana hi nahin, ve in ratnon ka utpadan prakritik v kritrim taur par karane lage the. is sachchaee ko aj ke adhunik itihasakar bhi manate hain. shodh kary men lage vaigyanik bhi is bat se sahamat hain.

granthon ke anusar

prachin granthon ke anusar uchch koti men 84 prakar ke ratn ate hain. inamen se bahut se ratn ab aprapy hain tatha bahut se ne-ne ratnon ka avishkar bhi hua hai. ratnon men mukhyatah nau hi ratn zyada pahane jate hain. vartaman samay men prachin grnthon men varnit ratnon ki soochiyan pramanik nahin rah gee hai. ratnon ke namon ki soochi nimn prakar hai -

ratnon ki soochi
ajooba ratn ahava ratn abari ratn amaliya ratn alemani ratn upal ratn udaoo ratn ekvamerin ratn
karpishamani ratn kataila ratn kasauti ratn kansala ratn kurand ratn kraisoberil ratn gudadi ratn godanti ratn
gomed ratn gauri ratn chakamak ratn chandrakant ratn chitto ratn chumbak ratn jajemani ratn jabarajadd ratn
zahar mohara ratn jharana ratn tedhi ratn door ratn tiliyar ratn turamali ratn turasava ratn trinamani ratn
dantala ratn dane phirag ratn darachana ratn durrenajaf ratn dhunala ratn naram ratn nilam ratn nilopal ratn
panaghan ratn paras ratn pukharaj ratn panna ratn pairop ratn fate zahar ratn firoza ratn basaro ratn
bansi ratn berunj ratn makadi ratn maragaj ratn makshik ratn maniky ratn masar mani ratn moonga ratn
moovenajaph ratn moti ratn raktamani ratn raktashm ratn rataratua ratn lahasuniya ratn laladi ratn las ratn
loodhiya ratn shesh mani ratn shailamani ratn shobhamani ratn sngamaramar ratn sngamoosa ratn sngasitara ratn sngiya ratn
sngesimak ratn sngehadid ratn sindooriya ratn siphari ratn singali ratn sijari ratn sunahala ratn surama ratn
sooryakant ratn selakhadi ratn sonamakkhi ratn spainel ratn sphatik ratn hakik ratn hajarate ood ratn hajarate ber ratn
haritamani ratn haritopal ratn hira ratn

ratnon ki visheshata

pukharaj ke vibhinn rng

yadi snkshipt men ratn ki visheshata zahir karani hai to ham kah sakate hain ki jisamen adabhut saundary v lavany ho, vah ratn hai. lekin ratn ki yah paribhasha bhi adhoori hai, kyonki keval saundary v lavany hi kisi pamthar ko ratn ki sngya se vibhooshit nahin karata. ratn use hi kahenge, jisaka saundary v lavany atyadhik tikaoopan ke gun se bharapoor ho, arthath jisaka saundary v lavany lambe samay tak baraqarar rahe. sath hi sath sthir bhi rahe. in donon gunon ke mel se ratnon men ek divyata ati hai, usake prati ek svabhavik shraddha man men umadati hai. isake alava jin pattharon ko ratn kaha jata hai, unamen do gun aur hote hain. pahala gun hai, aise pattharon ka kam paya jana. isi vajah se inhen durlabh patthar bhi kaha jata hai. at: log inhen adar aur pramukhata dete hain. doosara gun hai, jis patthar ka adhik chalan ho, mang ho aur faishan ho, use bhi ratn ki sngya di jati hai.

udaharan svaroop, sanh 1920 se 1922 tak yoorop v kuchh any deshon men ambar athava trinamani ki khoob mang thi. vartaman men tare ki tarah chamakane vale hire athava barah kiranen chhodane vale nilam ki mang bahut hai. darasal, samay aur badalati abhiruchi ke anusar ratnon ki mang bhi parivartit hoti rahati hai. ratn ki angoothi ya laauket pahane se vyapar men unnati, naukari men padonnati, rajaniti men saphalata, kort-kachahari men saphalata, shatru nash, karz se mukti, vaivahik ‍talamel men badha ko door kar anukool banana, sntan kasht, vidya men rukavaten, videsh, arthik unnati adi men saphal‍ta milati hai. manaviy utthan-patan men inaki adbhut bhoomika ko ankana asan nahin hai; tabhi to bharatiy kohanoor hira apani damak evn prabhav se vishv star par shreshthata banae hue hai.

chamak

manushy jab koee vastu dekhata hai to sabase pahale usaki drishti us vastu ke bahy parat par padati hai. usake atirikt parat par yakayak drishti ka jana asvabhavik hai. ratnon ke bahari parat athava satah par ek vishesh tarah ki chamak vidyaman rahati hai, jise manushy pahali nazar men hi dekh leta hai. ratnon ki yah chamak athava jyoti mukhy roop se is bat par nirbhar karati hai ki us par padane vali prakash ki kiranon ko kitanon anshon v matra men vapas lautata hai. kahane ka matalab yah hai ki usase takarakar ya phir usake andar pravesh karake kitane pratishat prakash ki kiranen vapas lautati hain. ratnon se takarakar ya pravesh karake jo kiranen lautati hain, ve gun ke adhar par kee tarah ki hoti hain-

tutiya chamak-

yah chamak pray: pratyek ratnon ke bahari satah par hi dikhaee deti hai.

dhatvik chamak

yah chamak dhatvik hoti hai, arthath kisi dhatu par prakash ki kiranen padane ke bad usase nikalane vali kiranen hoti hain. pital, sona, ispat, tanba, chandi, pletinam adi dhatu par prakash padata hai, to usamen jaisi chamak hoti hai, thik usi tarah ki kiranen kisi ratn par prakash padane par nikalati hain. isilie ise dhatvik chamak kahate hain.

moti ki chamak

moti ki apani ek vishesh chamak hoti hai. isilie jauhari ise moti ki chamak ya mukta-jyoti kahate hain. ise prachy chamak bhi kaha jata hai.

ral chamak

yah chamak kuchh lalima lie hue hoti hai. vastut: yah ratn jaisi hi chamak hai. isilie ise ral chamak ya raj jyoti kahate hain.

reshami chamak

yah chamak resham-si chikani aur mulayam hoti hai. ratnon par jab prakash ki kiranen padati hain to usase nikalane vali chamak resham ki tarah mulayam-si dikhati hain. at: reshami ise chamak kahate hain. aisi chamak sabhi ratnon men nahin hoti hai. inake atirikt bhi kee prakar ki chamak hoti hain-jaise hirak jyoti, mnd jyoti aur kachar jyoti. ye bhi ratnon men paee jati hain. lekin ye sabhi ratnon men prakat nahin hoti hain.

kathorata

khanij vaigyanik bahumooly ratnon ki kathorata mapane ke lie pahale jin vibhinn tariqon ka istemal karate the, unamen kharonch takanik pramukh thi. isake anusar yadi do pattharon ki kathorata ki janch karani ho to unamen paraspar kharonch lagaee jati thi. jis patthar dvara doosare patthar par asani se kharonch a jati, use kam kathor aur jis par kharonch n pade, use sarvottam kathor ki sngya di jati thi. parantu aj ratnon ki kathorata ki janch kampyootar dvara ki jati hai. is prakriya se ratnon par kharonch padane ya unake avamoolyan ka bhay nahin rahata hai. ratnon ko tarashane aur katane ke dauran hi bina kisi nuqasan ke unaki kathorata janch li jati hai.

viyana ke ek bhookhanij vaigyanik fredarik mohas ne ratnon ki kathorata mapane ke lie kuchh manadnd aur kathorata ki matra ankane ke adhar-ank bhi nirdharit kie the, jo kharonch takanik par adharit the. mohas ne kathorata ke adhar par 10 vibhinn ratn chunakar unaki paraspar tulana ki. inamen pratyek ratn apane se nimn shreni ke patthar par kharonch dal sakata tha tatha apani uchch shreni vale ratn se khuracha ja sakata tha. do saman kathorata vale ratn ek-doosare par kharonch nahin dal sakate the. is prakar ki kathorata ki janch ke lie 1 se 10 ank tak ka mohas kathorata paimana nirdharit kiya gaya. in ankon ke bich ki apasi doori saman hona avashyak nahin hai.

mohas ke is siddhant ke anusar-pratyek ratn aur qimati uparatn ki kathorata ko mapa ja sakata hai. isamen sabase nazuk ratn ko 1 ve 2 nambar par rakha gaya hai. aise ratn apekshakrit kamazor hote hain. is siddhant ke anusar 3 se 6 tak ki shreni vale ratn madhyam kathor tatha 6 se oopar ki shreni ke ratn kathor mane jate hain. atyant kathor ratnon ki sima 8 se 10 mani gayi hai. durbhagyavash kathorata ka yah parimap sunaron aur abhooshan nirmataon ki kasauti par khara nahin utara, kyonki matr kathorata hi nahin balki kathorata ko sudridh banane vale any rasayanik tattv bhi ratn men hone chahie, jo unhen lambe samay tak ekaroopata evn kathorata pradan karate rahen.

is prakar kharonch pranali ka manadnd 7 ank se niche vale ratnon ki kathorata ke lie khara nahin utara. kyonki 7 ank se niche vale ratn dhool-mitti jamane se toot jate ya vikrit ho jate the. in ratnon men kanch ya sphatik ke kan mile hote the. aise ratnon se bane abhooshanon ke rakh-rakhav men yah nirdesh diya jata tha ki abhooshanon ko dhool se bachaya jae ya kisi bnd dibbe men rakha jae, taki kisi nukili chiz se unake tootane ka bhay n rahe. sath hi kharonch parikshan ke lie kisi ratn ke achchhe dharatal par tezadhar vale nukile auzar upayog kie jaen.

yadi ratn men rasayanik tattv kam ya zyada matra men hon ya ratn ki snrachana men kanch athava sphatik ke kan asaman matra men mishrit hon to bhi usaki kathorata men kami a jati hai. kuchh ratn alag-alag dishaon ya vibhinn bhagon men bhinn shreni ki apani kathorata vyakt karate hain.

mohas siddhant ke anusar agar kyanait namak ratn par lambaee vale dharatal par kharonch dali jae to usaki kathorata 4.5 aur chaudaee men 6 ya 7 nikalati hai. is prakar age-pichhe ke dharatalon par vibhinn kathorata vale ratn ko dohari pratirodhak shakti vala kahate hain. hire ki kathorata men bhi antar hota hai.

ratn ke vyapariyon ko yah achchhi tarah gyat hona chahie ki kating ya tarash ke dauran kis ratn ki kathorata vibhinn dharatalon par kya hai? matr kharonch ya ekadh vidhiyon se parikshan n karake tikhe aur nukile auzaron se bhi kathor se kathoratam ratn ki shreni anki ja sakati hai. mohas siddhant keval yahi batata hai ki kaun sa patthar doosare patthar par kharonch laga sakata hai. isase halki ya gahari kharonch ki koee charcha nahin hai. kathorata ki janch tabhi karani chahie, jab koee any sadhan upalabdh n ho, kyonki yah parikshan trutipoorn bhi ho sakata hai. kathorata kram men do ank ke madhy ki doori asaman bhi ho sakati hai.

ratn ki paribhasha

uparokt vishleshan se ab ham ratn ko paribhashit kar sakate hain. nichod ke roop men yah kaha ja sakata hai ki jis patthar se abhooshan ki shobha badhakar duguni ho tatha usaki lavanyata akarshan paida kare, ratn kaha jaega. is shreni men ham moti ko le sakate hain. lekin yah ratn durlabh nahin hai. isamen utana tikaoopan bhi nahin hai, kyonki moti mulayam hota hai. isake alava yah koee patthar bhi nahin hai. yah to samudr men paya jane vala ek padarth hai. phir bhi apane saundary v lavanyata ke karan ise ratnon ki shreni men rakha jata hai. in ratnon ki khoobasoorati yoon to kee baton par adharit hoti hai, lekin inaka saundary prakash ki kiranon ke chhalava se atyadhik badh jata hai. prakash ki kiranon ka yah chhalava ajibo-garib hota hai. jab ye kiranen kisi ratn par padati hain to kuchh ratnon se takarakar dekhane vale ki ankhon ki or laut ati hain. kuchh ghusakar par chali jati hain aur kuchh ghusakar phir vapas lautati hain. is tarah kiranon ke punjon ka ek manabhavan khel akarshak punjon ke roop men dikhaee padata hai, jo barabar man ko moh leta hai. prakash ki yah kiran punj hamen svachchh-dhaval dikhaee padati hai, lekin isaki safedi men sat rng hote hain. inhin sat rngon ka mishran hota hai yah safedi. darasal, jab koee prakash ki kiran kisi ratn ke bhitar jakar vapas lautati hai to vah sat rngon men bnt jati hai. aisi sthiti men lagata hai ki vah ratn satarngi kiranon se dhaki huee adabhut vastu hai. svabhavikat: yahi drishy manushy ko apani or akrisht kar leta hai. isi akarshan se manushy men ratn prapti ki ichchha janm leti hai. ratnon ke gun ko prakashiy gun kahate hain.

ratnon ki utpatti

prakriti men khanij ratnon ke alava jaivik v vanaspatik ratn bhi pae jate hain, jo inaki kriya-pratikriyaon ke phalasvaroop utpann hote hain. moti evn moonga jaivik ratn hain jabaki trinamani aur jed vanaspatik ratn. khanij ratn khanon se prapt hote hain, lekin jaivik ratn samudron men pae jate hain. vanaspatik ratn parvaton se prapt hota hain. doosari or kritrim ratnon ke nirman ka prachalan bhi prachinakal se hai, lekin aj is kshetr men bhari unnati huee hai. vartaman men kritrim ratnon ka utpadan vyapak paimane par ho raha hai. sach kahen to prakritik v shuddh ratnon ki apeksha kee guna adhik kritrim ratn ab bazar men pat ge hain, jinhen pahachanane ke mamale men bade-bade anubhavi jauhari v ratn visheshgy bhi dhokha kha jate hain.

ratn

ant men nishkarsh ke taur par yah kaha ja sakata hai ki prakriti ki god men pade ratnon ka astitv manav se pahale tha, jo ek lambi prakriya ke dauran samane ae. inhonne prakriti ki garbh men rahakar n jane kitane ghat-pratighat, uthal-puthal, kriya-pratikriya adi sahe aur khud ko aisa bana liya ki un par inaka koee asar hi n ho. phalatah ye manav ke lie atynt hi upayogi siddh hue. jyotish ke kshetr men inake upayog ka muqabala koee nahin kar sakata-aisa kahana asngat nahin lagata. kyonki inamen vibhinn prakar ki paristhitiyon ko sahane ki abhootapurv shakti nihit hoti hai.

ratnon ki pahachan

pratyek ratn men rngon ka 'phingar print' hota hai. ise shoshak spektram kahate hain. yah 'phingar print' pratyek ratn men bhinn-bhinn hota hai jo ratn ki pahachan sthapit karata hai. ise ankhon se yoon hi nahin dekha ja sakata. isalie ratnashastri ise 'spektroskop' yntr se dekhate hain. yah yntr ratn se nikalane vali roshani ko isake rngon ke spektram men vibhajit kar deta hai. yah pratyek ratn men alag-alag hota hai. isalie ratn ki pahachan asani se hoti hai. kuchh ratnon par kritrim prakash padane se usaka asali rng aur abha badal jati hai, jaise-pukharaj soory ki roshani men jitani achchhi prakritik abha dega, vaisi bijali ke laimp ke niche nahin de sakata. lekin maniky aur panne ki abha kritrim prakash men duguni ho jati hai. sabase vismayakari asar elekjendrait par hota hai, jo soory ki roshani men hara aur vidyut prakash men lal dikhaee deta hai. hire ke atirikt any sabhi ratnon men prakritik evn kritrim prakash ka ek anootha prabhav aur antar dekhane ko milata hai, jo prayogashalaon men parikshan ke dauran vishesh roop se parilakshit hota hai. alag-alag shreni ke ratnon men jo prakashiy chamak hoti hai, thik vaisi hi rng kagaz par darshana bahut mushkil hai. inake vastavik rng ke jitane bhi bhed aur antar dikhaee padate hain, ham utane rngon ka chitran nahin kar sakate. kisi bhi ratn men koee bhi rng ekasar saman matra men nahin hota. hazaron prakar ke ratnon ke rng bhi hazaron hain. rng vigyan aur ratnon ke vyapari in sabhi rngon ke samatuly prakritik rngon ki simit shreni se hi inaki shuddhata ki janch karate hain.

ratnon ke prakar evn bhed

ratn

ratnon ko tin shreniyon men banta gaya hai. isaka adhar inake prapti sthan v deshantar bhinnata ko banaya gaya hai-

  1. pashan ratn- chattanon, shilakhandon evn kuchh nadiyon se prapt ratn jaise- hira, maniky, nilam, akik, ityadi pashan ratn kahalate hain.
  2. pranij ratn- jaliy jivon v any praniyon se prapt ratn jaise- hathi dant, moti sip tatha nagamani adi is shreni men ate hain.
  3. vanaspati ratn- isamen kaharuva jaise- ashmihoot ratnon ki ganana ki jati hai.

ratnon men rngon ka prabhav

ratnon ke bahm roop ko abhamndit karane men rngon ka bahut bada yogadan hai. agar rng-roop men ratn dyutiman n hon to unaki koee kisam nahin rah jati. kee prakar ke ratn asali-moolyavan ratnon se milate-julate hain, parantu rng men zara-sa bhed hone se unaki asaliyat khul jati hai. ratnon men rng ka prabhav rngahani dalane par nazar ata hai. rngon ko sokh lene tatha use pratibimbit karane ki kshamata par hi ratn ka rng adharit hota hai. safed rng indradhanushi rngon se bana hai. jab yah ratn par padata hai to spektram ke kuchh rng ratn dvara sokh lie jate hain. jo rng ratn dvara nahin sokha jata, vah ya to ratn se nikal jata hai ya pratibimbit hota hai. pratibimit rng hi ratn ko rngin abha deta hai. kuchh ratn keval ek hi rng ke hote hain, jaise-mailakait sadaiv hara hota hai. yadi koee ratn lal nazar ata hai to usase keval lal rng hi pratibimbit hota hai, jabaki any sabhi rng ratn dvara atmasath kar lie jate hain.

ratnon ke snrachana tatha akar

adhikansh ratn khanij roop men pae jate hain. inaki rachana dharati ke garbh men kuchh vishesh bhautik tatha rasayanik parivartanon ke phalasvaroop hoti hai. ratnon ki utpatti ka karan tap tatha dab hota hai. kuchh khanij dharati ke garbh men kalantar men ae lave se tatha kuchh any dharati ke bhitar jata eedhan ya gaison se nirmit hote hain. kuchh aise bhi ratn hain jo paradarshi ya vartaman khanijon par padane vale dharati ke tapaman aur dabav ke karan apani alag snrachana bana lete hain. kuchh ratn chattanon se alag hokar jharanon tatha jalasroton adi ke sath bahakar nadiyon ki talahati men jama ho jate hain. jal men bahate rahane se inaki satah chikani ho jati hai. ye gol ya andakar ho jate hain. khanij ratnon ke alava jaivik prakriya se prapt hone vale ratn moti hain. ye sip dvara nirmit hote hain. sip ke bhitar rahane vale ghoghen ko apane andar (sip men) kisi vijatiy tattv ke pravesh kar jane se kasht hota hai. phalat: vah ek vishesh prakar ka dravy us tattv ke charon or lapet deta hai. aisi sthiti men yah dravy gol akar men moti ban jata hai. isi siddhant ke adhar par kritrim motiyon ka nirman hota hai. moonge ka nirman 'polips' namak samudri jiv ki asthiyon se hota hai. trinamani ya kaharuva ki utpatti pedon se nikale rejin ke jivashm ke roop men parivartit hone se hoti hai. yah ek vanaspatik utpatti hai.

ratn adhikatar chattanon men jade hue prapt hote hain. chattanon ki rachana anek prakar ke khanij tatvon ke mishran se hoti hai. chattanen tin prakar ki hoti hain-

roopantirit chattanen-

ye agnij tatha talachhati chattanon ka hi ek roop hai. ye bhoogarbh men garmi tatha dabav se parivartit hokar ne khanij tatvon ke sath nee chattanon ka nirman karati hain. aisi prakriya men unake bhitar ratnon ki rachana hoti hai. udaharanarth-garmi tatha dabav se laimaston se parivartit hokar sngamaramar men se maniky ratn mil sakata hai.

agnij chattanen-

ye pighali huee chattanon ka pun: thos roop le chuki chattanen hain. pighali huee chattanen dharati ke garbh se oopar ati hain. yah bhi mana jata hai ki aisi chattanen jvalamukhi ke dvara lave ke roop men nikalati hain. dhimi gati se thandi hone tatha thos roop lene vali chattanon ke manibh bade akar ke hote hain. unamen ratniy pattharon ka nirman saralatapoorvak hota hai.

talachhati chattanen-

ye chattanen mausam ke prabhav svaroop tukadon ke jama ho jane se nirmit hoti hain. bitate samay ke sath ye chattani tukade pun: kathor chattanon ka roop le lete hain. ye adhikatar paraton men nirmit hoti hain. astraliya men aisi adhikatar chattanon men opal namak ratn paya jata hai. firoja tatha kuchh any ratn bhi adhikatar aisi chattanon ki dararon men milate hain. ye chattanon men apana nishchith akar banakar manibh ke roop men chipake rahate hain. hailait tatha jipsam adi bhi aisi hi chattanon men milata hai.

kristalavigyan 'Crystallography' ke anusar manibh ke roop vale ratn chattanon ka bhag n hokar keval unase chipake rahate hain. inaka apana akar bhi hota hai. in manibhon ko chh: prakar ki paddhatiyon men vibhajit kiya gaya hai. manibhon ke roop men prapt hone vale ratn inhin paddhatiyon ke anusar samooche vishv men ek nishchith akar men prapt hote hain. ye paddhatiyan hain-ghan paddhati, chatushphalak paddhati, shadbhujiy paddhati, samachaturbhuj paddhati, ekapadi paddhati tatha tripadi paddhati.

ratnon par prakash tatha rngon ka prabhav

bahut se ratnon par tivr prakash ya rng ka prabhav aisa dikhaee deta hai ki jinaka sambandh n to unaki rasayanik banavat se hota hai aur n hi unamen upasthit ashuddhiyon se, jo rngiy abha yukt hoti hain. ye rng prabhav matr roshani ke vartanank men avarodh ke karan paida hote hain. ye nimn prakar ke hote hain-

indradhanushipan-

agar ratnon ke andar dararon aur bemel laharon men roshani dali jae to vah kee konon men phail jati hai. isake parinamasvaroop ratn ke prabhavamandal men indradhanush jaisi abha bikhar jati hai.

doodhiyapan-

is prakar ki chamak moonaston shreni ke un ratnon men nazar ati hai, jinako kaivikon kat men tarasha jata hai.

billauripan-

jab kisi ratn ko kaivikon kat men tarasha jata hai to ratn ke bhitar se paravartit hota prakash billi ki ankh jaisa pratit hota hai.

jhilamilapan-

isamen ratnon ki thos prishthabhoomi par jhilamilane vala bahurngi prakash nazar ane lagata hai.

jagamagahat-

jin ratnon men bhautik ya rasayanik prakriya ke phalasvaroop zara si roshani ke prabhav se dher sari jagamagahat paida ho jae, unako ujjval prakash ke vartanank shreni ka ratn mana gaya hai. parantu isamen jagamagahat tap utsarjan sammilit nahin hai. infra-red kiranen dalane par ratnon ko janchane-parakhane se jo parinam nikalate hain, ve siddhant roop se pratidipti kahalate hain. is prakriya se ratn ki roshani ya jagamagahat dekhi jati hai.

opal rngi-

amataur se nili sookshm tarngon ke paravartan ke karan samany opal ratnon men nili ya muktabh abha dikhaee deti hai.

bahurngi-

aise rngon ki chhata opal shreni ke ratnon se prasphutit hoti hai. patthar ko ghumane ya hilane-dulane se bahut sare rngon ki varn abha prabhavamandal men bikhar jati hai.

dogalapan-

dhatvik chamak khasataur se lebredorait aur spektrolait shreni ke ratnon men paee jati hai. in ratnon ki pradhan varn abha hare v nile rng men hoti hai. parantu usaka samoocha drishy-patal rng-birnga hona zaroori hai.

nav ratn

samany taur par grahon-nakshatron ke anusar jyotish men matr navaratnon ko hi liya jata hai. in ratnon ke upalabdh n hone par inake uparatn ya saman prabhavakari ratnon ka prayog kiya jata hai. bharatiy manyata ke anusar kul 84 ratn pae jate hain, jinamen maniky, hira, moti, nilam, panna, moonga, gomed, tatha vaidoory (lahasuniya) ko navaratn mana gaya hai. ye ratn hi samast sauramandal ke pratinidhi mane jate hain. yahin karan hai ki inhen dharan karane se shighr phal ki prapti hoti hai.

navagrah aur ratn grahon ke anusar ratnon ki anukoolata
grah snbndhit ratn upayukt dhatu
sury maniky svarn
chndr moti chandi
mngal moonga svarn
budh panna svarn,kansa
brihaspati pukharaj chandi
shukr hira chandi
shani nilam loha, sisa
rahu gomed chandi, sona, tanba, loha, kansa
ketu lahasuniya chandi, sona, tanba, loha, kansa
lagn sashi svami grah anukool
mesh mngal moonga
vrishabh shukr hira
mithun budh panna
kark chndr moti
sinh soory maniky
kanya budh panna
tula shukr hira
vrishchik mngal moonga
dhanu guru pukharaj
makar shani nilam
kunbh shani nilam
min guru pukharaj

maniky

maniky soory grah ka ratn hai. maniky ko angrezi men 'roobi' kahate hain. yah gulabi ki tarah gulabi surkh shyam varn ka ek bahumooly ratn hai aur yah kale rng ka bhi paya jata hai. ise soory-ratn ki sngya di gee hai. arabi men isako 'lal badakhshan' kahate hain. yah kurundam samooh ka ratn hai. gulabi rng ka maniky shreshth mana gaya hai.

panna

panna budh grah ka ratn hai. panna ko angrezi men 'emerald' kahate hain jo kee rngon men paya jata hai. yah hara rng lie safed lochadar ya nim ki patti jaise rng ka paradarshak hota hai. navaratn men panna bhi hota hai. hare rng ka panna sarvashreshth mana jata hai. panna atynt naram patthar hota hai tatha atynt moolyavan pattharon men se ek hai. rng, roop, chamak, vajan, paradarshita ke anusar isaka mooly nirdharit hota hai.[1]

hira

hira shukr grah ka ratn hai. angrezi men hira ko 'dayamnd' kahate hain. hira ek prakar ka bahumooly ratn hai jo bahut chamakadar aur bahut kathor hota hai. yah bhi kee rngon men paya jata hai, jaise- safed, pila, gulabi, nila, lal, kala adi. ise nau ratnon men sarvashreshth mana jata hai. hira ratn atyant mahnga v dikhane men sundar hota hai. safed hira sarvottam hai aur hira sabhi prakar ke ratnon men shreshth hai. hire ko hire ke kanon ke dvara paaulish karake khoobasoorat banaya jata hai.[2]

nilam

nilam shani grah ka ratn hai. nilam ka angrezi nam 'saiphayar' hai. nilam ratn gahare nile aur halke nile rng ka hota hai. yah bhi kee rngon men paya jata hai; masalan- mor ki gardan jaisa, halka nila, pila adi. mor ki gardan jaise rng vala nilam uttam shreni ka mana jata hai. nilam paradarshi, chamakadar aur lochadar ratn hai. navaratn men nilam bhi hota hai. shani ka ratn nilam elyoominiyam aur aauksijan ke mel se banata hai. ise kurundam samooh ka ratn mana jata hai.[3]

moti

moti chandr grah ka ratn hai. moti ko angrezi men 'parl' kahate hain. moti safed, kala, asamani, pila, lala adi kee rngon men paya jata hai. moti samudr se sipon se prapt kiya jata hai. moti ek bahumooly ratn jo samudr ki sipi men se nikalata hai aur chhoota, gol tatha safed hota hai. moti ko urdoo men maravarid aur snskrit men mukta kahate hain.

lahasuniya

lahasuniya ketu grah ka ratn hai. lahasuniya ratn men billi ki ankh ki tarah ka soot hota hai. isamen pilapanh, syahi ya safedi rng ki jhaeen bhi hoti hai. lahasuniya ratn ko vaidoory bhi kaha jata hai.

moonga

pukharaj ki angoothi

moonga mngal grah ka ratn hai. moonga ko angrezi men 'koral' kaha jata hai, jo amataur par sindoori lal rng ka hota hai. moonga lal, sindoor varn, gulabi, safed aur krishn varn men bhi prapy hai. moonga ka prapti sthan samudr hai. vastav men moonga ek kism ki samudri jad hai aur moonga samudri jivon ke kathor knkalon se nirmit ek prakar ka nikshep hai. moonga ka doosara nam praval bhi hai. ise snskrit men vidrum aur farasi men marajan kahate hain.

gomed

gomed rahu grah ka ratn hai. gomed ka angrezi nam 'jirakaaun' hai. samanyatah isaka rng lal dhuen ke saman hota hai. rakt-shyam aur pit abhayukt katthee rng ka gomed uttm mana jata hai. navaratn men gomed bhi hota hai. gomed ratn paradarshak hota hai. gomed ko snskrit men gomedak kahate hain.

pukharaj

pukharaj guru grah ka ratn hai. pukharaj ko angrezi men 'topaj' kah jata hain. pukharaj ek moolyavan ratn hai. pukharaj ratn sabhi ratnon ka raja hai. yah amoonan pila, safed, tatha nile rngon ka hota hai. vaise kahavat hai ki phoolon ke jitane rng hote hain, pukharaj bhi utane hi rng ke pae jate hain. pukharaj ratn elyuminiyam aur phlorin sahit siliket khanij hota hai. snskrit bhasha men pukharaj ko pushparag kaha jata hai. amalatas ke phoolon ki tarah pile rng ka pukharaj sarvashreshth mana jata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. labhakari hai panna dharan karana (hindi) vebaduniya. abhigaman tithi: 17 julaee, 2010.
  2. hira hai shukr ka ratn (hindi) navabharat taims. abhigaman tithi: 19 julaee, 2010.
  3. nilam hai shani ka ratn (hindi) navabharat taims. abhigaman tithi: 17 julaee, 2010.

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