कोहिनूर हीरा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kohinoor hira

kohinoor hira (angrezi:Koh-i-noor Diamond) duniya ke sabhi hiron ka raja hai, jise golakunda (bharat) ki ek khan se nikala gaya tha. kohinoor ko farasi men "kooh-e-noor" kaha jata hai, jisaka arth hai- "kudarat ki vishal abha ya roshani ka parvat". yah hira 105 kairet (lagabhag 21.600 gram) ka hai. yah abhi tak vishv ka sabase bada gyat aitihasik hira rah chuka hai. kee mugal badashahon aur farasi shasakon se hota hua, yah hira anatat: british shasan ke adhikar men chala gaya aur ab unake khazane men shamil hai. bharat men angrez shasan ke dauran ise british pradhanamntri benjamin dijaraeli ne maharani viktoriya ko tab bhent kiya, jab san 1877 men unhen bharat ki bhi samragyi ghoshit kiya gaya tha.

itihas

kohinoor ka udgam v arambhik itihas spasht nahin hai. isaki kahani bhi pari kathaon se kam romanchak nahin hai. isake khanan se judi dakshin bharat men hiron ki kee kahaniyan rahin hain, parntu kaun-si kohinoor se sambandhit hai, yah kahana kathin hai. 14vin shatabdi se poorv is hire ka itihas thik gyat nahin hai.

babar ka adhikar

dilli saltanat men khilaji vnsh ka ant 1320 men hone ke bad gayasuddin tugalaq ne gaddi snbhali. usane apane putr uloog khan ko 1323 men kakatiy vnsh ke raja prataparudradev ko yuddh men harane bheja tha. is hamale ko kadi takkar mili, parantu uloog khan ek badi sena ke sath phir yuddh karane lauta. isake lie anapekshit raja prataparudradev varngal ke yuddh men har gaya. tab varngal ki loot-pat, tod-phod v hatya-kand mahinon chala. muslimon ke hath sona-chandi v hathi-dant ki badi matra lagi, jo ki hathiyon, ghodon v oonton par ladakar dilli le jaee gee. kohinoor hira bhi is loot ka bhag tha. yahin se yah hira 'dilli saltanat' ke uttaradhikariyon ke hathon se mugal samrat babar ke hath 1526 men laga.

babaranama men ullekh

is hire ki pratham drishtaya pakki tippani yahin san 1526 se milati hai. babar ne apane snsmaran men agara ki vijay men ek brihath‌ uttam hira prapt karane ka ullekh kiya hai. snbhavat: vah kohinoor hi tha, kyonki us hire ka bhar ath miskal (320 ratti) bataya gaya hai. tarashe jane ke poorv kohinoor ka bhar itana hi tha. babar ne apane 'babaranama' men likha hai ki yah hira san 1294 men malava ke ek raja ka tha.[1] babar ne isaka mooly yah anka ki yah hira poore snsar ka do dinon tak pet bhar sakata hai. 'babaranama' men diya hai ki kis prakar malava ke raja ko jabardasti yah virasat alauddin khilazi ko dene par majaboor kiya gaya. usake bad yah 'dilli saltanat' ke uttaradhikariyon dvara age badhaya gaya, aur antatah 1526 men babar ki jit par use prapt hua. halanki 'babaranama' 1526 se 1530 men likha gaya tha, parantu isake srot gyat nahin hain. usane is hire ko sarvada isake vartaman nam se nahin pukara hai. balki ek vivad ke bad yah nishkarsh nikala ki babar ka hira hi bad men kohinoor kahalaya. babar evn humayoon, donon ne hi apani atmakathaon men babar ke hire ke udgam ke bare men likha hai. yah hira pahale gvaliyar ke kachhavaha shasakon ke pas tha, jinase yah tomar rajaon ke pas pahuncha.

auragazeb ke pas

kohinoor hira

antim tomar shasak vikramadity ko sikandar lodi ne haraya aur apane adhin kiya. usane use apane sath dilli men hi bndi bana kar rakha. lodi ki mugalon se har ke bad, muzalon ne usaki snpatti looti, kintu humayoon ne n keval madhyasthata karake usaki snpatti vapas dilava di, balki use chhudava kar mevad, chittaud men panah lene di. humayoon ki is bhalaee ke badale vikramadity ne apana ek bahumooly hira, jo shayad kohinoor hi tha, humayoon ko sabhar de diya. parantu humayoon ka jivan ati durbhagyapoorn raha. vah sherashah soori se har gaya. soori bhi ek top ke gole se jalakar mar gaya. usaka putr v uttaradhikari jalal khan apane sale dvara hatya ko prapt hua. us sale ko bhi usake ek mntri ne takhtapalat kar hata diya. vah mntri bhi ek yuddh ko jitate-jitate ankh men chot lag jane ke karan har gaya aur saltanat kho baitha. humayoon ke putr akabar ne yah ratn kabhi apane pas nahin rakha, jo ki bad men sidhe shahajahan ke khazane men hi pahuncha. shahajahan bhi apane bete aurngazeb dvara takhtapalat kar bndi banaya gaya, jisane apane any tin bhaiyon ki hatya bhi ki thi. nishchit roop se gyat hai ki kohinoor aurngajeb ke pas tha aur vah use bade yatn se rakhata tha.

nadirashah ka svamitv

kohinoor ki bhinn konon se taivarniyar ki abhikalpana ke anusar, mugal samrat shahajahan ne kohinoor ko apane prasiddh 'mayoor sinhasan' ('takht-e-taus') men jadavaya. usake putr aurngazeb ne apane pita ko kaid karake agara ke qile men rakha. yah bhi katha hai ki usane kohinoor ko khidaki ke pas is tarah rakha ki usake andar shahajahan ko 'tajamahal' ka pratibimb dikhaee de. kohinoor mugalon ke pas 1739 men hue eerani shasak nadirashah ke akraman tak hi raha. usane agara v dilli men bhaynkar lootapat ki. tab mugal badashahon ki bahumooly vastuon ke sath vah dilli ke mugal shasak shahamohammad se 'mayoor sinhasan' sahit kohinoor v agadh sampatti faras (eeran) loot kar le gaya aur kohinoor nadirashah ke svamitv men a gaya. is hire ko prapt karane par hi nadirashah ke mukh se achanak nikal pada vah! koh-i-noor !! jisase isako apana vartaman nam mila. 1739 se poorv is nam ka koee bhi sandarbh gyat nahin hai.
nadirashah ki patni ka kathan

kohinoor ka asali moolyankan nadirashah ki ek katha se milata hai. usaki rani ne kaha tha ki "yadi koee shaktishali manav, panch pattharon ko charon dishaon v oopar ki or, poori shakti sahit phenke, to unake bich ka khali sthan yadi suvarn v ratnon matr se hi bhara jae, unake barabar isaki kimat hogi."

maharaja ranajit sinh ko bhent

san 1747 men nadirashah ki hatya ke bad kohinoor afaganistan ke ahamadashah abdali (kabul ke amir) ke hathon men pahuncha. 1830 men shoojashah, afaganistan ka tatkalin padachyut shasak kisi, tarah kohinoor ke sath bach nikala v pnjab pahuncha. vahan ke maharaja ranajit sinh ko yah hira bhent kiya. isake badale men ranajit sinh ne eest indiya knpani ko apani tukadiyan afaganistan bhej kar, afagan gaddi jit kar shahashooja ko vapas dilane ke liye taiyar kar liya.

pauranik manyataen

pauranik kathaon ke anusar manyata hai ki- kohinoor ka pahala ulh‍lekh 3000/5000 varsh pahale mila tha aur yah prachin snskrit itihas men 'syamntak mani' nam se prasiddh raha tha. isaka nata shrikrishn kal se bataya jata hai. pauranik manyata ke anusar syamntak mani hi bad men kohinoor kahalayi. hindoo kathaon ke anusar, bhagavan shrikrishn ne svayn yah mani yuddh ke bad jamavant se li thi, jisaki putri jambavati ne bad men shrikrishn se vivah bhi kiya tha. bhagavan shrikrishn ne yah mani jambavnt rishi se lobh men le li tha. jab jamvnt so rahe the, tab shrikrishn ne yah mani chura li. ek any katha ke anusar- ye mani soory se karn ko phir arjun aur yudhishthir ko mili. isake bad ashok, harsh aur chanh‍draguph‍t ke hath yah mani lagi. kahate hai vaidik yug men dev-danav yuddh men asuron ne indr ke sinhasan se ukhad kar ise dakshin bharat men kisi jagal men gad diya tha. ek any katha anusar- yah hira nadi ki tali men ek machhuare ko mila tha, jisane sthaniy sahookar ko lagabhag 20 rupaye ke barabar dhanarashi men ise bech diya tha. yah sari kahaniyan lagabhag 3200 ee.poo. ki hain.

any kee prasiddh javaharaton ki bhanti kohinoor ki bhi apani kathaen rahi hain. isase judi manyata ke anusar, yah purush svamiyon ke durbhagy aur mrityu ka karan bana v stri svaminiyon ke lie saubhagy lekar aya. ek any manyata ke anusar, kohinoor ka svami snsar par rajy karane vala bana. lekin jab se isane apani pahachan banaee, yah bharat men tabahi aur asthirata lane vala hi raha aur muslim shasakon ke lie bhi yah barbadi ka soochak bana. kinvadnti hai ki kohinoor ek ashubh ratn hai aur apane svami par isaka prabhav anishtakari hota hai.

kohinoor bharat ke bahar nikala

maharaja ranajit sinh ne svayn ko pnjab ka maharaja ghoshit kiya. lekin 1839 men apani mrityu shayya par unhonne apani vasiyat men kohinoor ko puri (udisa) prasiddh shri jagannath mndir ko dan dene ko likha tha. kintu unake antim shabdon ke bare men vivad utha aur antatah vah poore na ho sake. 29 march, 1849 ko lahaur ke qile par british dhvaj phaharaya. is tarah pnjab british bharat ka bhag ghoshit hua. 'lahaur ki sandhi' ka ek mahattvapoorn ang yah bhi tha ki- "koh-i-noor namak ratn, jo shah-shooja-ul-mulk se maharaja ranajit sinh dvara liya gaya tha, lahaur ke maharaja dvara inglaind ki maharani ko saunpa jayega." sndhi ka prabhari gavarnar-janaral laaurd dalahauzi tha, jisaki kohinoor ko arjit karane ki chahat is sndhi ke mukhy karanon men se ek thi. isake bharat men kary sada hi vivadagrast rahe v kohinoor arjan ka krity bahut se british tikakaron dvara alochit kiya gaya hai. halanki, kuchh ne yah bhi prastav diya ki hire ko maharani ko sidhe hi bhent kiya jana chahie tha, bajay chhine jane ke. kintu dalahauzi ne ise yuddh ka munapha samajha v usi prakar saheja.

tarashana

bad ke samay men dalahauzi ne 1851 men kohinoor ko maharaja ranajit sinh ke uttaradhikari dalip sinh dvara maharani viktoriya ko bhent kiye jane ke prabndh kie. terah varshiy dalip sinh ne inglaind ki yatra ki aur maharani ko kohinoor bhent kiya. yah bhent kisi ratn ko yuddh ke mal ke roop men sthanantaran kie jane ka antim drishtant tha. ek mahanh pradarshani 1851 men lndan ke haid park men rakhi gee thi, jahan kohinoor ko british janata ke samaksh laya gaya. ne ratnatarashon ki salah par kohinoor ki pratiratn ke katav men kuchh badalav hue, jinase vah aur sundar pratit hone laga. 1852 men maharani viktoriya ke pati prins albart ki upasthiti men hire ko punah tarasha gaya, jisase vah 186.16 kairet/186.06 kairet (37.2 gram) se ghat kar 105.602 kairet/106.6 kairet (21.6 gram) ka ho gaya, kintu isaki abha men kee guna badhottari huee. albart ne buddhimata ka parichay dete hue achchhi salahon ke sath is kary men apana ativ prayas lagaya. sath hi tatkalin 8000 paund bhi ise tarashane men kharch kiye, jisase is ratn ka bhar 81 kairat ghat gaya, parantu albart phir bhi asantusht the. hire ko mukut men any do hazar hiron sahit jada gaya. san 1911 men kohinoor maharani mairi ke sarataj men jada gaya aur aj bhi usi taj men hai. bad men ise maharaja ki patni ke kirit men mukhy ratn jada gaya. maharani alekjendriya ise prayog karane vali pratham maharani thin. inake bad maharani mairi thin. 1936 men ise maharani elijabeth ke kirit ki shobha banaya gaya. san 2002 men ise unake taboot ke oopar sajaya gaya.

durlabh aur beshakimati

prachalit itihas ke anusar duniya ke sabase durlabh aur beshakimati hire kohinoor ki briten ki maharani ke mukut tak pahunchane ki dastan 'mahabharat' ke kurukshetr se lekar golakunda ke garib mazadoor ki kutiya tak phaili huee hai. briten ki maharani ke taj men jada aur duniya ke anek badashahon ke dilon ko lalachane ki kshamata rakhane vala anokha kohinoor duniya men akhir kahan se aya, is bare men aitihasik ghatanaon ke alava bahut-si kathaen bhi prachalit hain. yah hira anek yuddhon, sajishon, lalach, raktapat aur jay-parajayon ka sakshi raha hai. kohinoor ko rakhane vale akhiri hindustani pnjab ke maharaja ranajit sinh the.

prapti sthan

kohinoor ke janm ki pramanit janakari nahin hai par 'jh‍velh‍s aauf bitren' ka manana hai ki san 1655 ke as-pas kohinoor ka janh‍m hinh‍dush‍tan ke golakunh‍da zile ki kohinoor khan se hua, jo andhr pradesh men vishv ki sabase prachin khanon men se ek hain. san 1730 tak yah vishv ka ekamatr gyat hira utpadak kshetr tha. isake bad brajil men hiron ki khoj huee. shabd golakunda hira, atyadhik shvet varn, spashtata v uchch koti ki paradarshita ke liye prayog ki jati rahi hai. yah atyadhik durlabh hain, atah kimati hote hain. tab hire ka vajan tha 787 kairet. ise bataur tohapha khan malikon ne shahajahan ko diya. san 1739 tak hira shahajahan ke pas r‍ha. is hire ke bare men dakshin bharatiy katha kuchh pukhta lagati hai. yah snbhav hai ki hira andhr pradesh ki kolar khan, jo vartaman men guntoor zila men hai, vahan nikala tha.

vartaman men

kohinoor hira san 2007 tak 'lndan taauvar' men numaish ke liye rakha gaya tha. 'lndan taauvar' briten ki rajadhani lndan ke kendr men tems nadi ke kinare bana ek bhavy qila hai, jise san 1078 men viliyam d kaaunkarar ne banavaya tha. isake lie patthar frans se mngae ge the. is parisar men aur bhi kee imaraten hain. yah shahi mahal to tha hi, sath hi yahan rajasi bndiyon ke lie karagar bhi tha aur kee ko yahan mrityu dnd bhi diya gaya. henari ashtam ne apani rani ain bolin ka 1536 men yahin sar qalam karaya tha. rajaparivar is qile men nahin rahata hai, lekin shahi javaharat isamen surakshit hain, jinamen kohinoor hira bhi shamil hai.

kohinoor par dava

is hire ki labi katha ke bad kee desh is par apana dava jatate rahe hain. 1976 men pakistan ke pradhan mntri julphikar ali bhutto ne british pradhan mntri jim kaileghan ko pakistan ko vapas karane ka anurodh kiya, jise unhonne ek namr nahin kathor lahaje men uttar diya. ek any dava bharat ne kiya tha. isake alava afaganistan ke taliban shasak aur phir eeran ne bhi is par apana dava pesh kiya.

bharat vapasi ka prayas

philahal kohinoor hire ko bharat vapas lane ko koshishen jari hain. ajadi ke phauran bad bharat ne kee bar kohinoor par apana malikana hak jataya hai. maharaja dalip sinh ki beti kaitharin ki san 1942 me mrityu ho gee thi, jo kohinoor ke bharatiy dave ke snbadh men thos dalilen de sakati thin. bharat ki golakunda ki khanon se kohinoor ke alava aur bhi duniya ke kee aitihasik beshakimati hire nikale, jaise-

  1. gret mugal
  2. oralov
  3. agara dayamnd
  4. ahamadabad dayamnd,
  5. broliti aauf indiya

ye sabhi hire kohinoor jitane hi beshakimati hain. kohinoor jitana to koee bhi hira beshakimati nahin ho sakata, ise ham dave ke sath kah sakate hain. aur kohinoor ki jo kahaniyan hain, use padhane ke bad to yah anuman nahin lagaya ja sakata ki kaun si kahani sahi hai? vartaman samay men is hire ki kimat hindustan ki adhi shahari jayadad ke barabar hai.

kohinoor ke sambandh men

  • vajan - 105-60 kairet (21 - 600 gram)
  • vartaman kimat - lagabhag 150 hajar karod rupaye
  • varn - mahanh shvet
  • udgam khan - golakunda
  • mool svami - bharat
  • vartaman svami - elijabeth dvitiy gret briten


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sanh1306 men yah hira sabase pahale malava ke maharaja ramadev ke pas dekha gaya tha.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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