अहमदशाह अब्दाली  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ahamadashah abdali

ahamadashah abdali athava 'ahamadashah durrani' san 1748 men nadirashah ki maut ke bad afaganistan ka shasak bana tha. usane bharat par san 1748 se san 1758 tak kee bar chadhaee ki aur lootapat karata raha. usane apana sabase bada hamala san 1757 men janavari ke mah men dilli par kiya. us samay dilli ka shasak alamagir dvitiy tha. vah bahut hi kamazor aur darapok shasak tha. usane abdali se apamanajanak sndhi ki, jisamen ek shart dilli ko lootane ki anumati dena bhi tha. ahamadashah ek mah tak dilli men thaharakar lootamar karata raha. vahan ki loot men use karodon ki snpada hath lagi thi.

abdali dvara braj ki bhishan loot

dilli lootane ke bad abdali ka lalach badh gaya. usane dilli se sati jaton ki riyasaton ko bhi lootane ka man banaya. braj par adhikar karane ke lie usane jaton aur marathon ke vivad ki sthiti ka poori tarah se fayada uthaya. ahamadashah abdali pathanon ki sena ke sath dilli se agara ki or chala. abdali ki sena ki pahali muthabhed jaton ke sath ballabhagadh men huee. vahan jat saradar baloosinh aur soorajamal ke jyeshth putr javahar sinh ne sena ki ek chhoti tukadi lekar abdali ki vishal sena ko rokane ki koshish ki. unhonne badi virata se yuddh kiya, lekin is yuddh men unhen shatru sena se parajit hona pada.

akramanakariyon ki loot

akramanakariyon ne ballabhagadh aur usake as-pas loota aur vyapak jan−snhar kiya. usake bad ahamadashah ne apane do saradaron ke netritv men 20 hazar pathan sainikon ko mathura lootane ke lie bhej diya. usane unhen adesh diya− 'mathura nagar hinduon ka pavitr sthan hai.' use poori tarah nestanabood kar do. agara tak ek bhi imarat khadi n dikhaee pade. jahan-kahin pahuncho, qatle am karo aur looto. loot men jisako jo milega, vah usi ka hoga. sipahi log kaphiron ke sir kat kar layen aur pradhan saradar ke kheme ke samane dalate jayen. sarakari khazane se pratyek sir ke lie panch rupaya inam diya jayaga.'[1]

sena ka mathura ki or kooch

abdali ka adesh lekar sena mathura ki taraph chal di. mathura se lagabhag 8 mil pahale chaumuhan par jaton ki chhoti si sena ke sath unaki ladaee huee. jaton ne bahut bahaduri se yuddh kiya lekin dushmanon ki snkhya adhik thi, jisase unaki har huee. usake bad jit ke unmad men pathanon ne mathura men pravesh kiya. mathura men pathan bharatapur daravaza aur maholi ki paur ke raston se aye aur mar−kat aur loot−pat karane lage.

  • us samay phalgun ka mahina tha. holi ka tyohar ane vala tha. purush log galiyon men, sadak par dhol−dhap ke sath nach rahe the. auraten chhat par baith kar nach gane ko dekhakar khush ho rahi thin. sabhi log mauj-masti men the, achanak abdali ki sena ne mar-kat aur loot-pat shuroo kar di. lagatar tin din tak nar vadh chalata raha. charon taraph vibhatsata aur atyachar tha. sainik din men loot-pat karate aur rat men gharon ko jalate. charon taraph gali sadak chaurahon par, makanon ke oopar niche nar−mundo ke dher lag gaye the, rng ki holi ki jagah par khoon ki holi manaee gee.[2]
  • 'bharatapur daravaze ke samip shitala ghati ki ek gali men mathura devi ke mndir ke andar ek gufa thi. pas ka janasamooh us gufa ko surakshit samajhakar usi men ja ghusa. sainikon ko usaka bhi pata lag gaya. sab log vahin bhasmi-bhoot karake golok patha diye gaye. us janasnhar men buddhua (bauddh matavalnbi chaube) aur jane-mane mathuron ka bahut vadh hua tha. unake vnshaj ab tak phalgun shukla 11,12,13 ko unaki smriti men shraddh karate hain.'[3]
  • mathura ke chhatta bazar ki nagar gali ke sire par bade chaubon ke purane makan men anek nar−nari aur bal−bachche ekatr the. yavanon ne un sabako mar dala aur makan ko todakar usamen ag laga di. us nasht bhavan ke avashesh lal patthar ke kalatmak burj ke roop men aj bhi hai, jo abdali ke sainikon ki barbarata ki kahani batata hain. abdali ke sainikon ne mathura men khoon ki holi khel shahar ke bade bhag ko holi ki tarah jala diya tha. ek pratyakshadarshi muslim ne likha hai− "sadakon aur bazaron men sarvatr halal kiye hue logon ke dhad pade hue the aur sara shahar jal raha tha. kitani hi imaraten dharashayi kar di gee thin. yamuna nadi ka pani nar−snhar ke bad sat dinon tak lagatar lal rng ka bahata raha. nadi ke kinare par bairagiyon aur sannyasiyon ki bahut-si jhopadiyan thin. unamen se har jhonpadi men sadhu ke sir ke munh se laga kar rakha hua gay ka kata sir dikhaee padata tha."[4] sainik lagatar tin din mathura men mar-kat aur loot-pat karate rahe. unhonne mndiron ko nashtakar moortiyon ko toda, pnde - pujariyon ka qatl kar diya. sainik nivasiyon ko gadha hua dhan dene ke lie majaboor karate the. striyon ki ijjat lootate the. sainikon ke atyacharon se bachane ke lie nariyan kuon men ya yamuna nadi men doob kar mar geen. jo bachin, zyadatar ko sainik pakad kar apane sath le gaye. mathura men loot ke bad abdali ke sainik vrindavan pahunche. unhonne vahan bhi mar−kat ki aur mndiron, gharon ko loota, toda. ek pratyakshadarshi musalaman ne likha hai,− 'vrindavan men jidhar nazar jati, murdon ke dher ke dher dikhaee padate the. sadakon se nikalana tak mushkil ho gaya tha. lashon se aisi durgndh ati thi ki sans lena bhi doobhar ho gaya tha.'[5]
ahamadashah abdali
  • jis samay vrindavan par abdali ke sainikon ne akraman kiya, braj ke bhakt−kavi chacha vrindavanadas jan bachakar vrindavan se bharatapur pahunch gaye. unhonne jat raja soorajamal ke naye durg men hi ek kavy rachana 'hari kala beli' ki rachana ki. isamen unhonne vrindavan par yavanon ke akraman aur usamen huee mar-kat ka marmasparshi varnan kiya hai. unhonne likha hai−

"atharah sau terah baras, hari aisi kari.
jaman vigoyau des, vipatti, gadhi pari."

is rachana ke tin khnd hain. pratham khnd men aurngajeb ke samay men kie gaye hamale ka varnan kiya hai, jisamen radhavallabh ji ka mandir ke sath-sath jo prasiddh mndir−devalay tode gaye the, unaka varnan hai. doosare khnd men abdali dvara kie gaye hamale ka chitran hai. usamen vrindavan ke jo vaishnav bhakt mare gaye, unaka chitran hai.

sashastr naga sadhu

sainikon ke mathura−vrindavan men loot aur mar-kat karane ke bad abdali bhi apani sena ke sath mathura a pahuncha. braj kshetr ke tisare pramukh kendr gokul par usaki nazar thi. vah gokul ko loot-kar agara jana chahata tha. usane mathura se yamuna nadi par kar mahavan ko loota aur phir vah gokul ki or gaya. vahan par sashastr naga sadhuon ke ek bade dal ne yavan sena ka jam kar samana kiya. usi samay abdali ki fauj men haija phail gaya, jisase afagan sainik badi snkhya men marane lage. is vajah se abdali vapis laut gaya. is prakar nagaon ki virata aur daivi madad se gokul loot-mar se bach gaya. gokul−mahavan se vapasi men abdali ne phir se vrindavan men loot ki. mathura−vrindavan ki loot men hi abdali ko 'lagabhag 12 karod rupaye ki dhanarashi prapt huee, jise vah tis hazar ghodo, khachcharon aur ooton par lad kar le gaya. kitani hi striyon ko bhi vahan se afaganistan le gaya tha.'[6]

agara men loot

abdali ki sena braj men tod-phod, loot-pat aur mar-kat karati agara pahunchi. usake sainikon ne agara men loot-pat aur mar−kat ki. yahan usaki sena men dobara haiza phail gaya aur vah jaldi hi laut gaya aur loot ki dhan−daulat apane desh afaganistan le gaya. musalaman lekhakon ne likha hai− 'abdali dvara aisa bhari vidhvns kiya gaya tha ki agara−dilli sadak par jhopadi bhi aisi nahin bachi thi, jisamen ek adami bhi jivit raha ho. abdali ki sena ke avagaman ke marg men sabhi sthan aise barbad hue ki vahan do ser ann tak milana kathin ho gaya tha.'[7]

marathon ka prabhutv

mugal samrajy ki avanati ke pashchath mathura par marathon ka prabhutv sthapit hua aur is nagari ne sadiyon ke pashchath chain ki sans li. 1803 ee. men laaurd lek ne sindhiya ko harakar mathura-agara pradesh ko apane adhikar men kar liya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. braj ka itihas (pratham bhag), prishth 187 tatha histri aauph di jats, prishth 99
  2. mathura mahima , prishth 92 -95
  3. mathura mahima , prishth 92 -95
  4. braj ka itihas (pratham bhag), prishth 188
  5. braj ka itihas (pratham bhag), prishth 188
  6. braj ka itihas (pratham bhag), prishth 184
  7. phaaul aauph di mugal empayar-4, (yadunath sarakar) prishth 120-124

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