सूरजमल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

raja soorajamal
Raja Surajmal

raja soorajamal (san 1755−1763)

raja soorajamal suyogy shasak tha. usane braj men ek svatntr hindoo rajy ko bana itihas men gaurav prapt kiya. usake shasan ka samay sanh 1755 se sanh 1763 hai. vah sanh 1755 se kee sal pahale se apane pita badanasinh ke shasan ke samay se hi vah rajakary sambhalata tha. bharat ke itihas men soorajamal ko 'jaton ka pleto' kahakar bhi sambodhit kiya gaya hai. raja soorajamal ke darabari kavi 'soodan' ne raja ki tariph men 'sujanacharitr' namak grnth likha. is grnth men soodan ne raja soorajamal dvara ladi ladaeeyon ka ankhon dekha varnan kiya hai. is granth men sanh 1745 se sanh 1753 tak ke samay men ladi gayi ladaeeyon (7 yuddhon )ka varnan hai. in ladaeeyon men soodan ne bhi bhag liya tha, isalie usaka varnan vishvasaniy kaha ja sakata hai. is grnth men amer ke raja jayasinh ke nidhan ke bad usake bade bete eeshvarisinh ka marathon ke khilaf lada gaya sanh 1747 ka yuddh, agara aur ajamer ke soobedar salavat khan se lada gaya sanh 1748 ka yuddh aur sanh 1753 ki dilli ki loot ka varnan ullekhaniy hai. is grnth men soorajamal ki sanh 1753 ke bad ki ghatanaon ka varnan nahin hai. rajakavi soodan ka nidhan sambhavatah sanh 1753 ke lagabhag hi ho gaya hoga. sambhavatah isi se bad men ladi ladaeeyon ka vivaran nahin milata hai. is pustak men dilli ki loot ka vivaran mahattvapoorn hai.

dilli ki loot

saltanat kal se mugalakal tak lagabhag chhah sau salon men braj par ayin musibaton ka karan dilli ke muslim shasak the, is karan braj men in shasakon ke lie badale, krodh aur hinsa ki bhavana thi jisaka kie gaye vidrohon se pata chalata hai. dilli prashasan ke sainik adhikari apani dharmandhata ki vajah se lootamar the.

maharaja soorajamal ke samay men paristhitiyan badal geen thi. yahan ke vir v sahasi purush kisi hamalavar se svasuraksha men hi nahin, balki us par hamala karane men khud ko kabil samajhane lage. soorajamal dvara ki gee 'dilli ki loot' ka vivaran unake rajakavi soodan dvara rachit 'sujan charitr' men milata hai. soodan ne likha hai ki maharaja soorajamal ne apane vir evn sahasi sainikon ke sath sanh 1753 ke baisakh mah men dilli kooch kiya. mugal samrat ki sena ke sath raja soorajamal ka sngharsh kee mah tak hota raha aur kartik ke mahine men raja soorajamal dilli men dakhil hua. dilli us samay mugalon ki rajadhani thi. dilli ki loot men use athah sampatti mili, isi ghatana ka vivaran kavy ke roop men 'sujan−charitr' men is prakar kiya hai [1]
maharaja soorajamal ka yah yuddh jaton ka hi nahin varanh braj ke viron ki milijuli koshish ka parinam tha. is yuddh men brahman, kshatriy, vaishy ke alava gurjar, maina aur ahiron ne bhi bahut ullas ke sath bhag liya. soodan ne likha hai.[2] is yuddh men gosaeen rajendr giri aur umarav giri bhi apane naga sainikon ke sath shamil the. maharaja soorajamal ko dilli ki loot men jo apar dhan mila tha, use janahit karyon aur nirman karyon men prayog kiya gaya. dilli vijay ke bad maharaja soorajamal ne govardhan jakar shri giriraj ji ki pooja thi; aur manasi gnga par dipotsav manaya.

marathon ki gatividhiyan

kusum sarovar , govardhan
Kusum Sarovar, Govardhan

jab braj aur usake as pas maharaja soorajamal ka samrajy tha, usi samay maratha peshavaon ki sainik gatividhiyan bhi tez ho gayin. peshavaon ki shakti ka vistar dakshin se dilli tak ho gaya tha aur mugal shasak bhi bhayabhit tha. aise samay men soorajamal ko mugalon ke sath sath marathon se bhi apane rajy ki raksha aur adhikar ke lie ladana pada. usaki shakti dhire dhire kshin ho rahi thi.

abdali ke akraman

isi samay ahamadashah abdali ne desh par hamala kar diya, marathon ne udhar dhyan nahin diya ve jaton aur rajapooton se ladakar kamazor hote rahe. marathon ne jahan khud ko kamazor kiya vahin rajapooton ko bhi kamazor kiya aur ahamadashah abdali ko akraman karane ka mauqa de diya .

loot ke bad ka braj

abdali ki lootamar sanh 1756−57 men huee thi. kisi ne bhi luteron ka virodh nahin kiya. lutere aye aur dilli se agara tak ke hi samriddhishali rajy ko loot kar chale gaye. aurngajeb ke atyacharon se sahama brajamndal lambe samay tak snbhal nahin paya. aisi paristhiti men maratha saradar chuppi laga gaye aur soorajamal apane qile men chhipa raha. isake bad abdali ne kee hamale kiye, jinamen vah hamesha kamayab raha.

panipat ki ladaee

san 1761 men panipat ka aitihasik yuddh hua, jisamen rajapoot−jat−maratha jaise shaktishali aur vir sainikon ke hote hue bhi desh ko har ka samana karana pada. mukhy karan hindoo shasakon ka apas men mel n hona tha. ahamadashah abdali ke akramanon se sabaq lekar marathon aur jaton ne sndhi ki; lekin ve rajapooton se gathajod karane men kamayab nahin hue. ve apane hi balaboote par abdali ko khatm karane ke lie pratigyabadhd the. is ladaee men maratha saradar sadashivarav bhaoo aur soorajamal nitigat matabhed ho gaye. bhaoo ne soorajamal ke sath apaman poorn varta ki thi . soorajamal naraz hokar apani sena ke sath vapis chala gaya. maratha saradar ko apani taqat par bahut bharosa tha, usane jaton ki bilkul paravah nahin ki.


yuddh men afagan sainik aur bharat ke musalaman roohele the, jo lagabhag 62 hazar the, doosari taraph akele maratha sainik the, jinaki snkhya 45 hazar thin. donon senaon men bhishan yuddh hua. usamen marathaon ne bahut virata dikhalaee; kintu snkhya ki kami aur prabndhakiy shithilata hone ke karan maratha har gaye. us yuddh men sainik bahut snkhya men mare gaye. bharatapur ke 'mathuresh' kavi ne is sthiti par du:kh jatate hue kaha hai −

"nanch uthi bharat ki bhavi sadashiv shish, ondhi huee buddhi us janaral mahanh ki .

hoti n hin dasha hindi−hind−hinduon ki, manata jo bhaoo, kahin sammati sujan ki.."

panipat ke yuddh men parajit aur ghayal sainikon ke khan−pan aur seva−shushrusha aur dava−daroo ki vyavastha soorajamal ki or se ki gee thi.

jaton ka vistar

panipat men afagani pathanon aur roohelon ki jit zaroor huee ; lekin hani marathaon se kam nahin huee. ahamadashah abdali afaganistan laut gaya. roohele bhi thake hone se prabhavashali qadam uthane men asamarth the. parajay se marathon ki to jaise kamar hi toot gee thi . halanki ve shighr hi phir se balashahi ho gaye the, nijam dakshini shaktiyon ka daman karane ke karan uttar ki or dekhane ki sthiti men nahin the. yah paristhitiyan soorajamal ko apani shakti vistrit karane ke lie anukool lagi. panipat se bina lade vapis ane se usaki shakti surakshit thi. soorajamal ne mugalon ki rajadhani agara ko loota aur adhikar kar apane rajy men mila liya. isake bad hariyana ke baloochi shasak musabbikhan par hamala kar use haraya aur kaid kar bharatapur bhej diya. usaki rajadhani pharrookhanagar ko usane apane bade putr javahar sinh ko saunpa aur use mevati kshetr ka svami bana diya. agara se lekar dilli ke pas tak soorajamal ki tooti bolane lagi. use apane adhikrit kshetr ki prabhu−satta ko dilli ke mugal samrath se svikrit karana tha. us samay shaktihin mugal samrat ka snrakshak usaka shaktishali roohela vazir najibuddhola tha, jise ahamadashah abdali ka bhi samarthan prapt tha. vah jaton ka kattar bairi tha. usane mugal samrat ki or se jat raja ki is mang ko thukara diya. soorajamal ne apane adhikar ko svikrit karane ke uddeshy se apani sena ko dilli chalane ka adesh kiya. roohela vazir bhi jaton ka samana karane ki taiyari karane laga. usane ahamadashah abdali aur any roohele saradaron ke pas sndesh bhejakar sahayatarth dilli ane ka nimantran bheja. phir usane charon or ke phatak bnd kara kar usaki samuchit raksha ke lie shahi sena ko tainat kar diya. jat sena ne dilli pahunch kar use charon or se gher liya.

soorajamal ki mrityu

roohela vazir abdali ki sena ane tak yuddh ko talana chahata tha; kintu soorajamal isake lie taiyar n tha. jaton ki sena dilli ke nikat yamuna aur hindan nadiyon ke doab men ekatr thi aur shahi sena dilli nagar ki charadivari ke andar thi. soorajamal ki sena ki ek tukadi ne dilli par golabari arnbh kar di. javab dene ke lie shahi sena ko bhi bahar akar morcha zamana pada; kintu unhen jaton ki mar ke karan pichhe hatana pada. usi samay soorajamal ne keval 30 ghudasavaron ke sath shatru ki sena men ghusane ki dussahasapoorn moorkhata kar dali aur vyarth men hi apani jan gnvani padi. soorajamal ki mrityu achanak aur apratyashit dhng se huee. ek vivaran ke anusar soorajamal apane kuchh ghudasavaron ke sath yuddh sthal ka nirikshan kar raha tha ki achanak hi vah shatru sena se ghir gaya. usane apane mutthi bhar sainikon se ek badi sena ka samana kiya aur virata poorvak yuddh karata hua mara gaya.[3] usaki mrityu sn. 1820 (ta. 25 disnbar sanh 1763 ravivar) men huee thi. us samay usaki ayu 55 varsh ki thi.

soorajamal ka moolyankan

braj ke jat rajaon men soorajamal sabase prasiddh shasak, kushal senani, sahasi yoddha aur saphal rajanitigy tha. usane jaton men sab se pahale raja ki padavi dharan ki thi; aur ek shaktishali hindoo rajy ka snchalan kiya tha. usaka rajy vistrit tha, jisamen dig−bharatapur ke atirikt mathura, agara, dhaulapur, hatharas, aligadh, eta mainapuri, gudaganv, rohatak, revadi, pharrookhanagar aur merath ke zile the. ek or yamuna se gnga tak aur doosari or chnbal tak ka sara pradesh usake rajy men sammilit tha. soorajamal ki sena vishal thi. usamen 60 hathi, 500 ghode, 1500 ashvarohi, 25000 paidal aur 300 topen thin. apani mrityu ke samay usane lagabhag 10 karod rupaya rajakosh men chhoda tha .[4]


shikar khelate hue
During Hunting

soorajamal brajabhasha sahity ka premi aur kaviyon ka ashrayadata tha. usake darabar men anek kavi the, jinamen soodan kavi ka nam prasiddh tha. soorajamal ki kee raniyan thi; jinamen kishori aur hnsa pramukh thin. usake 5 putr the, jinake nam ninnankit hain −

  1. javahar sinh
  2. ratan sinh
  3. naval sinh
  4. ranajit sinh aur
  5. nahar sinh.

soorajamal ke bad javahar sinh jaton ka raja hua. jaton ki arnbhik rajadhani dig thi; kintu soorajamal ne bharatapur ke kachche qile ko pakka banakar vahan apani rajadhani banaee thi.

soorajamal ke nirmanakary

dilli aur agara ke shreshth mistari, jhund banakar badanasinh aur soorajamal ke darabaron men rozagar dhoondhane ate the. in donon ne hi apane vipul evn nav-arjit dhan ka upayog kalakritiyon ke srijan ke lie kiya. bharatapur rajy men suvyavastha aur jivan tatha sampatti ki suraksha thi, jo anyatr durlabh thin, aur jisake lie log tarasate the. isake viparit, dilli aur agara men ashanti aur avyavastha thi. is samay badanasinh ke pas jan, dhan aur sadhan-sabhi kuchh tha. apane bhavan-nirman-karyakram ke lie usane jivanaram banachari ko apana nirman-mantri niyukt kiya. banachari bahut yogy aur suruchi sampann vyakti tha. apane lie usane ek bada lal patthar ka makan banavaya tha, jo ajakal sthaniy chikitsa adhikariyon ke qabze men hai.

vistar se padhen-


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. des des taji lachchhami, dilli kiyau nivas.
    ati adharm lakhi loot mis, chali karan braj−vas ..
    athava−kali k adi kroor maghava ne braj par kop janayau hai.
    vahi akas dhari shri brajesh−sut, indrapurahi lutavayau hai..".
  2. goojar garoor gadhe garaji maina malook madamatt dhir. bepir vir chale ahir..
  3. histri aauph di jats, prishth 155
  4. brajabharati varsh 13 ank 2

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