जाटों का इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mugal saltanat ke akhari samay men jo shaktiyan ubhari; jinhonne brajamndal ke itihas men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee, un jat saradaron ke nam itihas men bahut mashahoor hain . jaton ka itihas purana hai . jat mukhyatah kheti karane vali jati hai; lekin aurngajeb ke atyacharon aur nirnkush pravritti ne unhen ek badi sainy shakti ka roop de diya . mugaliya saltanat ke ant se angrezon ke shasan tak braj mndal men jaton ka prabhutv raha . inhonne braj ke rajanitik aur samajik jivan ko bahut prabhavit kiya . yah samay braj ke itihas men 'jat kal' ke nam se jana jata hai . is kal ka vishesh mahattv hai .

rajaniti men jaton ka prabhav

braj ki samakalin rajaniti men jat shaktishali ban kar ubhare . jat netaon ne is samay men braj men anek jagahon par, jaise sinasini, dig, bharatapur, murasan aur hatharas jaise kee rajyon ko sthapit kiya . in rajaon men dig−bharatapur ke raja mahattvapoorn hain . in rajaon ne braj ka gaurav badhaya, inhen 'brajendr' athava 'brajaraj' bhi kaha gaya . braj ke itihas men krishn ( alaberooni ne krishn ko jat hi bataya hai)[1] ke pashchath jin kuchh hindoo rajaon ne shasan kiya , unamen dig aur bharatapur ke raja vishesh the . in rajaon ne lagabhag sau salon tak brajamndal ke ek bade bhag par rajy kiya . in jat shasakon men maharaja soorajamal (shasanakal sanh 1755 se sanh 1763 tak )aur unake putr javahar sinh (shasan kal sanh 1763 se sanh 1768 tak )braj ke itihas men bahut prasiddh hain .

jaton ke kriyakalap

in jat rajaon ne braj men hindoo shasan ko sthapit kiya . inaki rajadhani pahale dig thi, phir bharatapur banayi gayi . maharaja soorajamal aur unake bete javahar sinh ke samay men jat rajy bahut phaila, lekin dhire dhire vah ghatata gaya . bharatapur, mathura aur usake asapas angrezon ke shasan se pahale jat bahut prabhavashali the aur apane rajy ke sampann svami the . ve kar aur lagan vasoolate the aur apane sikke chalate the . unaki takasal dig, bharatapur, mathura aur vrindavan ke atirikt agara aur itava men bhi thin . jat rajaon ke sikke angrezon ke shasan kal men bhi bharatapur rajy ke alava mathura mndal men prachalit the .

aurngazeb aur soorajamal ke poorvaj

kuchh vidvanh jaton ko videshi vnsh-parampara ka manate hain, to kuchh daivi vnsh-parampara ka . kuchh apana janm kisi pauranik vnshaj se hua batate hain.

  • sar jadunath sarakar ne jaton ka varnan karate hue unhen "us vistrit vistrit bhoo-bhag ka, jo sindhu nadi ke tat se lekar pnjab, rajapootana ke uttari rajyon aur oopari yamuna ghati men hota hua chambal nadi ke par gvaliyar tak phaila hai, sabase mahattvapoorn jatiy tattv bataya hai[2]
  • sabhi vidvanh ekamat hain ki jat ary-vnshi hain . jat apane sath kuchh snsthaen lekar ae, jinamen sabase mahattvapoorn hai - 'pnchayat' - 'panch shreshth vyaktiyon ki gram-sabha, jo nyayadhishon aur gyani purushon ke roop men kary karate the .'
  • har jat ganv sam gotriy vnsh ke logon ka chhota-sa ganarajy hota tha, jo ek-doosare ke bilkul saman lekin any jatiyon ke logon se svayn ko ooncha manate the . jat ganv ka rajy ke sath sambandh nirdharit rajasv rashi dene vali ek ardh-svayatt ikaee ke roop men hota tha . koee rajakiy satta un par apana adhikar jatane ka prayas nahin karati thi, jo koshish karati thin, unhen shidhr hi gyan ho jata tha, ki qile roopi ganvon ke viruddh sashastr sena bhejana labhaprad nahin hai .
  • svatantrata tatha samanata ki jat-bhavana ne brahman-pradhan hindoo dharm ke samane jhukana svikar nahin kiya, is bhavana ke karan unhen gnga ke maidani bhagon ke visheshadhikar prapt brahmanon ki avamanana aur apaman jhelana pada . jaton ne 'brahmanon' ( jise vah jyotishi ya bhikshuk manata tha) aur 'kshatriy' ( jo eemanadari se jivika kamana pasnd nahin karata tha aur kiraye ka sainik banana pasnd karata tha ) ke lie ek dayavan snrakshak ban gaye . jat janmajat shramik aur yoddha the . ve kamar men talavar bandhakar kheton men hal chalate the aur apane parivar ki raksha ke lie ve kshatriyon se adhik yuddh karate the, kyonki akramanakariyon dvara akraman karane par jat apane ganv ko chhodakar nahin bhagate the . agar koee vijeta jaton ke sath durvyavahar karata, ya usaki striyon se chhedachhad ki jati thi, to vah akramanakari ke kafilon ko lootakar usaka badala leta tha . usaki apani khas dhng ki desh-bhakti videshiyon ke prati shatrutapoorn aur sath hi apane un deshavasiyon ke prati dayapoorn, yahan tak ki tiraskarapoorn thi jinaka bhagy bahut-kuchh usake sahas aur dhairy par avalambit tha .[3]
  • profesar qanoon gon ne jaton ki sahaj lokatantriy pravritti ka ullekh kiya hai . 'aitihasik kal men jat-samaj un logon ke lie mahanh sharanasthal bana raha hai, jo hinduon ke samajik atyachar ke shikar hote the; yah dalit tatha achhoot logon ko apekshakrit adhik sammanapoorn sthiti tak uthata aur sharan men ane vale logon ko ek sajatiy ary dhanchen men dhalata raha hai. sharirik lakshanon, bhasha, charitr, bhavanaon, shasan tatha samajik snstha-vishayak vicharon ki drishti se aj ka jat nirvivad roop se hinduon ke any varnon ke kisi bhi sadasy ki apeksha prachin vaidik aryon ka adhik achchha pratinidhi hai .'[4]
  • aurngazeb ke shasak banane ke kuchh hi samay ke andar jat ankh ka kanta ban ge . unaka nivas mukhyatah shahi paragana tha, jo 'mote taur par ek chaukor pradesh tha, jo uttar se dakshin ki or lagabhag 250 mil lamba aur 100 mil chauda tha .'[5] yamuna nadi isaki vibhajak rekha thi, dilli aur agara isake do mukhy nagar the . isamen vrindavan, gokul, govardhan aur mathura men hinduon ke dharmik tirthasthan tatha mandir bhi the . poorv men yah gnga ki or phaila tha aur dakshin men chambal tak, ambala ke uttar men pahadon aur pashchim men maroosthal tak . " inake rajy ki koee vastavik simaen nahin thin . yah ilaqa kahane ko samrat ke sidhe shasan ke adhin tha, parantu vyavahar men yah kuchh saradaron men bnta hua tha . yah zaminen unhen, unake sainikon ke bharan-poshan ke lie di gee hain . jat-log 'dabng' dehati the, jo sadharanataya shant hone par bhi, usase adhik rajasv dene vale nahin the, jitana ki unase jabaradasti aintha ja sakata tha; aur unhonne mitti ki divaren banakar apane ganvon ko aise qilon ka roop de diya tha, jinhen keval topakhane dvara jita ja sakata tha ."[6]

itihas men jat

itihasakaron ne jaton ke vishay men nahin likha .

  • javaharalal neharoo, ke.em panikkar ne jaton ke mukhy nayak soorajamal ke nam ka ullekh bhi nahin kiya .
  • taaud ne aspasht likha hai . jaton men itihas–buddhi lagabhag nahin hai . jat itihas men kuchh deri se ate hain aur javaharasinh ki mrityu (san 1768) ke bad se sanh 1805 men bharatapur ko jitane men laaurd lek ki har tak unaka vaibhav kam hota jata hai .
  • muslim itihasakaron ne jaton ki prashnsa nahin ki . brahman aur kayasth lekhak bhi likhane se katarate rahe . dosh jaton ka hi hai . unaka itihas atulaniy hai, par jaton ka koee itihasakar nahin hua . deshabhakti, sahas aur virata men unaka sthan kisi se kam nahin hai .
  • fadar vaindel likhate hain, - 'jaton ne bharat men kuchh varshon se itana tahalaka machaya hua hai aur unake rajy-kshetr ka vistar itana adhik hai tatha unaka vaibhav itane thode samay men badh gaya hai ki mugal samrajy ki vartaman sthiti ko samajhane ke lie in logon ke vishay men jan lena avashyak hai, jinhonne itani khyati prapt kar li hai . yadi koee un viplavon par vichar kare jinhonne is shatabdi men samrajy ko itane prachnd roop se jhakajhor diya hai, to vah avashy hi is nishkarsh par pahunchega ki jat, yadi ve inake ekamatr karan n bhi hon, to bhi kam-se-kam sabase mahattvapoorn karan avashy hain .'[7]
  • agara aur dilli men jab tak shaktishali shasan raha, jat shantipoorvak rahe . ve apani zamin jotate, malaguzari dete aur sena men sainik ke roop men apane adamiyon ko bhejate. isi udasinata ke karan itihasakar bhi unako upekshit karate rahe .
  • dakshin kshetr men yuddh men hone ke karan aurngazeb sanh 1681-1707 tak dilli na a saka . aurngazeb ke putr, varishth senanayak aur salahakar aurngazeb ke sath hi ge the . dvitiy shreni ke nayakon ko dilli ka shasan kary karane ke lie dilli men rakha gaya tha . tatkalin shasan door se kiya jata raha . dakshin ke yuddh se rajakosh khali ho gaya . samrat ke sainik malagujari ke lie kisanon ko tng karate the, jo kisan malaguzari nahin dete the, unase malagujari vasool karane ki shakti shasan men nahin thi . aurngazeb ki aisi paristhati se shahi paragane men jaton ko vidroh panapa . kahavat kahi jati hai ki " jat aur ghav, bndha hua hi bhala ."[8]
  • adhikari svechchhachari ho ge the . mathura aur agara janapad ke jat atyachar aur avyavastha ko jhelate rahe . sthaniy faujadar, murshidakulikhan turkaman nich, aur vyabhichari tha . usake shasanakal men koee sundar mahila surakshit nahin thi . krishn janmashtami par govardhan men bahut bada mela lagata tha . murshidakulikhan hinduon ka vesh dharan karake ,mathe par tilak lagakar mele men bhid men mil jata tha aur jaise hi koee sundar stri dikhaee deti thi use vah "bhedo ke revad par bhediye ki tarah jhapatakar le bhagata aur use nav men, jise usake adami nadi ke kinare taiyar rakhate the, dalakar tezi se agare ki or chal padata . hindoo bechara (sharm ke mare) kisi ko n batata ki usaki beti ka kya hua ."[9]is prakar ke vyabhichar se janata men shasan ke prati akrosh ubalane laga .
  • aurngazeb ko jab is ka pata chala to usane ek dharmanishth muslim abdunnabi khan ko mathura zile ka faujadar banaya jisase shanti sthapit ho sake . abdunnabi khan ko adesh diya gaya ki vah moorti-pooja ko band kar de . vah sanh 1660 se 1669 tak, lagabhag das varsh is pad par bana raha . abdunnabikhan hinduon ke lie bahut hi kathor tha, usane mathura ke madhy men keshavadev mandir ke jirn bhag par masjid banavane ka nirnay kiya . atyachar lagatar hote rahe .


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 'vasudev jati ka jat tha', 'bharat' al-berooni
  2. sar jadunath sarakar, ' faaul aauf d mugal aimpayar,' khnd do prishth. 300
  3. khushavant sinh, histri af d sikkhas, khnd pratham, pri 15-16
  4. ke.ar.qanoon go, 'histri af d jats,' pri.23
  5. ti.ji.pi spiyar, 'tvilait aph mugals,' pri.5
  6. ti.ji.pi spiyar, 'tvilait aph mugals,'
  7. vaindel, 'aurm ki pandulipi'
  8. jadunath sarakar, 'histri aauf aurngazeb,' khnd panch, pri. 225
  9. jadunath sarakar, 'histri aauf aurngazeb,' khnd tin, pri.195

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