औरंगज़ेब  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

aurngazeb
aurngazeb
poora nam abdul muzaffar muhiuddin muhammad aurngazeb bahadur alamagir padashah gazi
any nam aurngazeb alamagir
janm 4 navambar, sanh 1618 ee.
janm bhoomi dohad (gujarat)
mrityu tithi 3 march, sanh 1707 ee.
mrityu sthan ahamadanagar ke pas
pita/mata shahajahan, mumataz mahal
pati/patni rabiya durrani
sntan putri- jebunnisa, putr- sultan muhammad, shahajada muajzam, shahajada azam, shahajada akabar, kamabakhsh
upadhi aurngazeb alamagir
rajy sima uttar aur madhy bharat
shasan kal 31 julaee, sanh 1658 se 3 march, sanh 1707 tak
sha. avadhi 49 varsh
rajyabhishek 15 joon, sanh 1659 ee. men lal qila, dilli
nirman lahaur ki badashahi masjid 1674 ee. men, bibi ka maqabara, aurngabad[1], moti masjid [2]
poorvadhikari shahajahan
uttaradhikari bahadur shah pratham
rajagharana mugal
maqabara khuldabad
snbndhit lekh mugal kal
bhasha gyan arabi, farasi, turki

muhiuddin muhammad aurngazeb (angrezi: Muhi-ud-Din Aurangzeb, janm- 4 navambar, 1618, gujarat; mrityu- 3 march, 1707, ahamadanagar) chhatha mugal badashah tha, jisane bharat par shasan kiya. usane 1658 se 1707 ee. (apani mrityu tak) mugal samrajy par shasan kiya. aurngazeb ne bharatiy upamahadvip par adhi sadi se bhi jyada samay tak rajy kiya. vah akabar ke bad sabase jyada samay tak shasan karane vala mugal shasak tha. apane jivan kal men usane dakshin bharat men mugal samrajy ka vistar karane ka bharasak prayas kiya, par usaki mrityu ke pashchat mugal samrajy sikudane laga. aurngazeb ke shasan men mugal samrajy apane vistar ke charamotkarsh par tha. vah apane samay ka shayad sabase dhani aur shatishali vyakti tha, jisane apane jivan kal men dakshin bharat men prapt vijayon ke jariye mugal samrajy ko sadhe barah lakh varg mil men phailaya aur 15 karod logon par shasan kiya, jo ki duniya ki abadi ka 1/4 tha. gair musalaman janata par shariyat lagoo karane vala vah pahala musalaman shasak tha.

parichay

aurngazeb ka janm 4 navambar, 1618 ee. men gujarat ke ‘dohad’ namak sthan par mumataz ke garbh se hua tha. aurngazeb ke bachapan ka adhikansh samay noorajahan ke pas bita tha. 1643 ee. men aurngazeb ko 10,000 jat evn 4000 savar ka manasab prapt hua. ‘orachha’ ke joojhar sinh ke viruddh aurngazeb ko pratham yuddh ka anubhav prapt hua tha. 18 mee, 1637 ee. ko faras ke rajagharane ki 'dilaras bano begam' ke sath aurngazeb ka nikah hua. 1636 ee. se 1644 ee. evn 1652 ee. se 1657 ee. tak aurngazeb gujarat (1645 ee.), multan (1640 ee.) evn sindh ka bhi garvanar raha. agara par qabza kar jaldabazi men aurngazeb ne apana rajyabhishak "abul mujaphphar muhiuddin mujaphphar aurngazeb bahadur alamagir" ki upadhi se 31 julaee, 1658 ee. ko dilli men karavaya. ‘khajuva’ evn ‘devaraee’ ke yuddh men saphal hone ke bad 15 mee, 1659 ee. ko aurngazeb ne dilli men pravesh kiya, jahan shahajahan ke shanadar mahal men joon, 1659 ee. ko aurngazeb ka doosari bar rajyabhishek hua. aurngazeb ke sinhasanaroodh hone par faras ke shah ne maitri svaroop budag beg ke netritv men ek doot mandal bheja tha.

vyaktitv

aurngajeb pavitr jivan vyatit karata tha. apane vyaktigat jivan men vah ek adarsh vyakti tha. vah un sab durgunon se sarvatr mukt tha, jo eshiya ke rajaon men samanyatah the. vah yati ke jaisa jivan jita tha. khane-pine, vesh-bhoosha aur jivan ki any sabhi-suvidhaon men vah behad snyam baratata tha. prashasan ke karyon men vyast rahate hue bhi vah apani zarooraton ko poora karane ke lie dharmik pustak quran ki nakal karake aur topiyan sikar kuchh paisa kamane ka samay nikal leta tha.[3]

samrajy vistar

apane samrajy vistar ke antargat aurngazeb ne sarvapratham asam ko apane adhikar men karana chaha. usane mir jumala ko bngal ka soobedar niyukt kiya aur use asam ko jitane ki zimmedari saunpi. 1 navambar, 1661 ee. ko mir jumala ne koochabihar ki rajadhani ko apane adhikar men kar liya. asam par us samay ahom jati ke log shasan kar rahe the. mir jumala ne ahomon ko parast kar 1662 ee. men ‘gadhaganv’ par qabza kar liya. kalantar men asam ke antarik sngharsh ka fayada utha kar mugalon ne 1670 ee. men ‘kamaroop’ ke atirikt shesh asam par punah adhikar kar liya.

aurngazeb ki dakshin niti

aurngazeb ka darabar

aurngazeb ki dakshin niti ke vishay men itihasakaron ka manana hai ki-

  1. apani samrajyavadi pravritti ke karan dakshin ke rajyon ko aurngazeb jitana chahata tha. shahajahan ki bhanti dakkan ke prati aurngazeb ki niti bhi anshatah rajanitik hit se aur anshatah dharmik vicharon se prabhavit thi.
  2. dakshin men maratha shakti ka shivaji ke netritv men vahan ke shiya sampraday ke sultanon ke sahayog se din-pratidin utthan ho raha tha, is karan bhi aurngazeb ne dakshin rajyon ko kuchalana chaha. is mat ka samarthan adhunik itihasakar karate hain.

aurngazeb ke dakshin men sainik abhiyan ke pichhe uparokt karan hi vidyaman the.

bijapur (1657-1687 ee.)

sinhasan par baithane ke uparant aurngazeb ne bijapur ke shasak adilashah dvitiy ko 1657 ee. ki sndhi ka palan n karane ke karan dand dene ke lie jayapur ke raja jayasinh ko 1665 ee. men dakshin bheja. jayasinh ne bijapur ke poorv shivaji ke khilaf mahattvapoorn ladaee men saphalata prapt kar 1665 ee. men ‘purandar ki sandhi’ ki. purandar ke bad jayasinh ne shivaji ke sahayog se bijapur par navambar, 1665 ee. men akraman kiya. prarambhik saphalata se utsahit hokar jayasinh ne kee galat nirnay liye, jis karan vah bijapur par adhikar karane men asaphal raha. aurngazeb ne naraz hokar jayasinh ko 1666 ee. men vapas ane ka adesh diya. raste men ‘burahanapur’ ki samip 11 julaee, 1666 ee. ko jayasinh ki mrityu ho gee.

disambar, 1672 ee. men adilashah ki mrityu ke bad usaka alpavayask putr sikandar adilashah bijapur ka samrat bana. usake samay men bijapur men do gut-ek khavas khan ke netritv men evn doosara bahalol khan ke netritv men sakriy tha. donon guton ke antarik matabhedon ka fayada uthakar mugal soobedar bahadur khan ne 1676 ee. men bijapur par akraman kiya, parantu abhiyan asaphal raha. 1679 ee. men diler khan ko dakkan ka soobedar bana kar bijapur ko jitane ka adhikar saunpa gaya, usake sahayog hetu shahalam bhi dakshin aya, parantu in donon ko bhi asaphalata ka samana karana pada. aprail, 1685 ee. men shahazada ajam ke netritv men mugal senaon ne bijapur par akraman kiya. kee mahinon tak durg ko ghere rakhane par bhi koee saphalata nahin milane par 13 julaee, 1685 ee. ko svayn samrat aurngazeb ne akraman ki kaman apane hathon men le li. parinamasvaroop 22 sitambar, 1685 een ko bijapur ke shasak sikandar adilashah ne atmasamarpan kar diya. aurngazeb ne sikandar shah ka svagat kiya aur use khan ka pad diya tatha ek lakh rupaye varshik penshan bhi di aur use daulatabad ke durg men qaid karava diya, jahan 23 aprail, 1700 ee. ko isaki mrityu ho gee. antatah bijapur mugal adhikar men a gaya.

golakunda

1656 ee. men golakunda ke sultan evn mugal samrat ke bich huee sandhi ki avahelana karane, mugalon ke sath sngharsh men bijapur evn marathon ko sahayog karane tatha hire-javaharat, sone-chandi ke khanon ki bharamar ke karan hi aurngazeb ne golakunda par adhikar karane ka nirnay kiya. golakunda par aurngazeb ke sainik abhiyan ke samay vahan ka ayogy evn vilasapriy shasak abul hasan tha. shasan ki poori zimmedari ‘madanna’ aur ‘akanna’ namak brahmanon ke hathon men thi. aurngazeb ne julaee, 1685 ee. men ‘muajjam’ ko khanejahan ke sath golakunda par adhikar ke lie bheja. sultan abul hasan ne dar kar mugalon ki sabhi sharton ko man kar sndhi kar li, parantu kalantar men sultan ne sndhi ki avahelana karana prarambh kar diya, jis karan se svayn samrat aurngazeb ne 7 faravari, 1687 ee. ko akraman ki bagador snbhalate hue lagabhag ath mahine ke athak prayas ke bad bhi saphalata nahin mili to, aurngazeb ne abdulagani namak ek afagan saradar ko lalach dekar phatak khulava liya aur 1697 ee. ko durg par adhikar kiya. sultan ko 50,000 rupaye ki varshik penshan dekar ‘daulatabad’ ke qile men qaid kar diya gaya. sath hi golakunda ka poorn vilay mugal samrajy men ho gaya. is prakar kaha jata hai ki, 'jis prakar akabar ne asiragadh ka qila sone ki kunjiyon se khola, usi prakar aurngazeb ne golakunda ka qila sone ki kunjiyon se khola.

marathon se sngharsh

  1. mugalon se shivaji ka pahala sngharsh 1656 ee. men hua, jab shivaji ne ahamadanagar evn junnar ke qile par akraman kiya.
  2. 1659 ee. me shivaji ne bijapuri saradar aphajal khan ko haraya. 1663 ee. men mugal soobedar shaista khan ko parajit kiya.

shivaji ki dakshin men badhati shakti ko kuchalane ke lie aurngazeb ne jayasinh ko dakshin bheja. jayasinh evn shivaji ke madhy 22 joon, 1665 ee. ko prasiddh 'purandar ki sndhi' huee. sndhi ki sharton ke anusar shivaji ne 4 lakh hoon vale 23 qilen mugalon ko saunp die tatha apane putr shambhuji ko mugal seva men bhejakar jayasinh ke kahane par svayn 22 march, 1666 ee. ko agara ke qilen men ‘divane am’ men aurngazeb ke samaksh prastut hue. yahan se shivaji ko qaid kar ‘jayapur bhavan’ men rakh diya gaya, jahan se shivaji pharar ho gaye. isake bad shivaji tin varshon tak mugalon ke sath shanti poorvak rahe. aurngazeb ne unhen raja ki upadhi tatha barar men ek jagir di tatha unake putr shambhuji ko 'pnchahazari saradar' ke pad par niyukti kiya. shivaji ne ‘rayagadh’ men 16 joon, 1674 ee. ko apana rajyabhishek karavakar ‘chhatrapati’ ki upadhi dharan ki. 14 aprail, 1680 ee. ko unaki mrityu ke bad unaka putr shambhuji maratha shasak bana. aurngazeb ne ek sngharsh men 1 march, 1689 ee. ko usaki hatya kar rayagadh par adhikar kar liya. aurngazeb ko marathon ke sngharsh men kafi dhan-jan ki hani sahani padi. nepoliyan pratham kaha karata tha- "spen ke phode ne mera nash kiya, vaise hi dakshin ke phode ne aurngazeb ka nash kiya. aurngazeb ke patan ke sath-sath isane mugal samrajy ke patan ka marg bhi prashast kar diya".

aurngazeb ke viruddh hue mahattvapoorn vidroh

aurngazeb ki nitiyon ke viruddh hue vidrohon ke pichhe mahattvapoorn karan usaka rajatv siddhant tatha usaki dharmik asahishnuta thi. kisanon ke vidroh ke pichhe bhoomi se jude hue vivad, sikkhon ke vidroh ke pichhe dharmik karan, rajapooton ke vidroh ke pichhe uttaradhikar ki samasya evn afaganon ke vidroh ke pichhe ek alag afagan rajy ke gathan ki bhavana kary kar rahi thi.

jat vidroh

dharmik asahishnuta evn kisan virodhi nitiyon ke karan hi aurngazeb ke samay ka pahala vidroh mathura men jat neta ‘gokula’ ke netritv men 1669 ee. men prarambh hua. mugal senapati abdul navi vidroh ko kuchalane ke prayas men mara gaya. mugal faujadar hasan ali khan ke netritv men mugal sena ne gokul ko pakad kar usake sharir ko kee bhagon men bant dala. 1686 ee. men jat neta ‘rajaram’ evn ‘ramachera’ ne jat vidroh ka netritv kiya. rajaram ne mugal senanayak mugir khan ki hatya kar sikandara men sthit akabar ke maqabare men bhi loot-pat ki. itihasakar manoochi likhata hai ki, "usane akabar ki haddiyon ko khod kar jala bhi diya". aurngazeb ke putr bidar bakhsh evn amer naresh vishan sinh ko ek vishal mugal sena ke sath bheja gaya. in donon ko jaton ke khilaf 1689 ee. men saphalata mili aur rajaram sngharsh men mara gaya. rajaram ke bad usake bhatije chooraman ne jat vidroh ka netritv snbhala. chooraman ne svatntr bharatapur rajy ki ninv dali. yah aurngazeb ke antim samay tak jat vidroh ka netritv karata raha. aurngazeb ki niti ke viruddh doosare sashastr virodh ka netritv bundela raja chhatrasal ne kiya. shivaji ke drishtant se protsahit hokar chhatrasal ne ‘sahas aur svatntrata ka jivan vyatit karane ka svapn dekha.’ usane mugalon par kee vijay prapt kin tatha poorvi malava men apane lie ek svatntr rajy sthapit karane men saphal raha.

sikkh vidroh

16vin shatabdi men ‘sikkh sampraday’ ki sthapana ‘guru nanak’ ji ne ki. sikkhon ke chauthe guru ramadas ke samay gurutv ka pad paitrik ho gaya. amritasar ke prasiddh svarn mandir ka nirman unhin ke samay men hua, jisake lie samrat akabar ne bhoomi upalabdh karavaee. 5ven guru arjun dev ke samay men prasiddh sikkh grnth ‘gurugrnth sahib’ ka snkalan kiya gaya. guru arjun ne sikkh sampraday ko dridhata pradan karane ka prayas kiya. vidrohi shahazade khusaro ko guru ne apana ashirvad diya tha, jisaki vajah se 1606 ee. men jahangir ne guru ko phansi de di. guru arjun ke putr guru haragovind sinh ne shahajahan ke viruddh vidroh kar usaki sena ko 1628 ee. men parast kiya. athaven guru harakishan ke putr guru teg bahadur sinh ne aurngazeb ki nitiyon ka virodh kiya tatha islam dharm svikar karane ka virodh kiya, jisaki vajah se unhen dilli men qaid kar disambar, 1765 ee. men mar diya gaya. teg bahadur ne apane dharm ko jivan se adhik pasand kiya. unake bare men prasiddh ukti hai ki, “unhonne apana sir diya sar n diya.” sikkh guruon men sarvadhik mahattvapoorn guru govind sinh the. guru govind sinh evn kuchh pahadi rajaon ke daman ke lie aurngazeb ne pahale alap aur phir shahazade muajjam ko 1685 ee. men bheja. muajjam pahadi rajaon ko dabane men saphal hua, parantu guru govind ke sath apane sngharsh men asaphal hokar usane shanti samajhauta kar kiya. guru govind ne ‘pahul pranali’ ko arambh kiya. is pranali men dikshit hone vale vyakti ko ‘khalasa’ kaha gaya. ‘khalasa pnth’ ki sthapana guru govind sinh ne 1699 ee. men ki. unake dharm men dikshit hone vale vyakti ko 'pnch kakar'- kesh, kngha, kripan, kachchh aur kada grahan karana padata tha. unake dvara nam ke ant men ‘sinh’ shabd ka prayog prarambh hua. guru govind ne ‘dasaven badashah ka grnth’ namak ek poorak grnth ka snlakan kiya. ek dharmonmatt afagan ne 1707 ee. ke ant men godavari nadi ke nikat nander namak sthan par guru govind sinh ko chhura mar diya, jisase unaki mrityu ho gee.

1701 ee. men arngazeb ne kuchh pahadi rajaon ke sahayog se guru govind sinh ke durg anandapur par akraman kar diya. akraman ke samay mugal sena ka netritv sarahind ka soobedar vazir khan ne kiya. kee mahine ke gherav ke bad sikkh guru ko anandapur se bhagakar ‘chamakaur’ men sharan leni padi. mugal sena ke chamakaur pahunchane par guru apana roop badal kar 1704 ee. men bhag kar ‘khidarana’ (phirojapur) pahunche. is antim yuddh men guru govind sinh ne mugal sena ko parast kar diya. 1707 ee. men aurngazeb ki mrityu ke bad mugal shakti kramashah kshin hoti gayi. sikkh saradaron ne is avasar ka fayada utha kar chhote-chhote svatantr rajy sthapit kar lie.

satanami vidroh

1672 ee. men satanamiyon ka vidroh hua. ye mool roop se hindoo bhakton ke anupadravi sampraday the. inaka kendr naranol (patiyala) evn meval (alavar) kshetr men tha. ye log vyapar evn kheti karate the. dharm ke mamale men unhonne satanam ki upadhi se apane ko sammanit kiya hai. satanamiyon ke vidroh ka tatkalik karan tha- ek mugal paidal sainik dvara unake ek sadasy ki hatya karana. aprashikshit satanami kisan shighr hi vishal shahi fauj dvara parast ho gaye.

rajapoot vidroh

aurngazeb ka maqabara

aurngazeb ne rajapooton ke prati dharm ke kshetr men anudarayata ki niti apanayi. quran ka kattar samarthak hone ke nate vah any dharmon mukhyatah hindoo dharm ke prati bahut asahishnu tha. usane 12 aprail, 1679 ee. ko hinduon par dobara ‘jaziya’ kar laga diya. sarvapratham jaziya kar maravad par lagoo kiya gaya. dharmik kriya-kalapon, tyauharon evn utsavon ko pratibandhit karate hue aurngazeb ne hinduon se ‘tirthayatra kar’ punah vasoolana shuroo kar diya. badi snkhya men hindoo mndiron ko todavane ka adesh dekar navin evn purane mndiron ke nirman par poorn pratibandh laga diya gaya. aurngazeb ki in nitiyon ka rajapooton ke oopar pratyaksh prabhav padana svabhavik tha.

adhunik itihasakaron ka manana hai ki, aurngazeb mugal vnsh ke any shasakon ki tarah rajapooton ke prati maitri bhav rakhata tha. aurngazeb ne yashavntasinh ko dara ka sahayog karane ke bad bhi purana manasab pradan kar gujarat ka soobedar banaya. aurngazeb ke samay men hindoo manasabadaron ki snkhya lagabhag 33 pratishat thi, jabaki shahajahan ke samay men yah pratishat matr 24.7 pratishat tha. phir bhi yah kaha ja sakata hai ki, rajapooton ke prati aurngazeb ki niti sadaiv sahishnuta ki nahin thi. rajapooton ken prati usaki kathor niti ka sarvadhik mahattvapoorn karan tha, rajapoot saradaron dvara uttaradhikar ki ladaee lada jana. mirza raja jayasinh apani mrityu tak (1666 ee.) aurngazeb ka mitr bana raha, kintu jayasinh ka putr ramasinh marathon ka kattar samarthak tha.

mevad tatha maravad ke prati niti

maravad par aurngazeb ki nigahen kafi din se gadi thin. 20 disambar, 1678 ee. ko ‘jamarudr’ men maharaja yashavntasinh ki mrityu ke bad aurngazeb ne uttaradhikari ke abhav men mugal samrajy ka bahut bada karz hone ka arop lagakar use ‘khalasa’ ke antargat kar liya. aurngazeb ne yashavntasinh ke bhatije ke bete indrasinh rathaur ko uttaradhikar shulk ke roop men 36 lakh rupaye dene par jodhapur ka rana man liya. kalantar men maharaja yashavntasinh ki vidhava se ek putr paida hua, jisaka nam ajit sinh rakha gaya. aurngazeb ne yashavntasinh ke putr aur uttaradhikari prithvi sinh ko zahar ki poshak pahanakar chalaki se marava diya. aurngazeb ne ajit sinh aur yashavntasinh ki raniyon ko nooragadh ke qile men qaid kara diya. aurngazeb ki shart thi ki, yadi ajit sinh islam dharm grahan kar le to, use maravad saunp diya jayaga. rathaur neta durgadas kisi tarah se ajit sinh evn yashavntasinh ki vidhavaon ko sath lekar jodhapur se bhagane men saphal raha. rathaur durgadas ki apane desh ke prati niahsvarth bhakti ke lie kaha jata hai ki, ‘us sthir hriday ko mugalon ka sona satyapath se diga n saka, mugalon ke shastr dara nahin sake.’

maravad ke bad mugal sena ne hasanali khan ke netritv me mevad ke naresh jayasinh (rana) par akraman kiya. is sngharsh men durgadas tatha rathaur ke sainik bhi rana ke sath the, phir bhi 1 faravari, 1681 ee. ko rana parajit ho gaya. mevad mugalon ke adhikar men a gaya. shahazada akabar ko vahan ka shasan saunpa gaya. parantu kuchh samay bad rana rajasinh shahazada akabar ko parajit karane men saphal raha. akabar ki parajay ke bad aurngazeb ne ajam ko chittaud bheja. kalantar men usake (aurngazeb) tin putron akabar, ajam evn muajjam ne tin or se mevad par akraman kiya, parantu ve ashink saphalata hi prapt kar sake.

shahazade ka vidroh

is bich aurngazeb ke putr akabar ne durgadas ke bahakave men akar apane pita ke khilaf vidroh ki ghoshana karate hue svayn ko 11 janavari, 1681 ee. ko bharat ka samrat ghoshit kar diya. us samay ajamer men padav dale aurngazeb ke pas itane bhi sainik nahin the ki, vah vidrohi shahazade ko dand de sake. parantu saubhagy se sahayog prapt nahin ho saka, jisaki apeksha se usane vidroh kiya tha. aurngazeb kootaniti ke sahayog ke sahare durgadas ko akabar se alag karane men saphal hua. rajapooton ke sahayog ke abhav men antatah akabar ke samarthak mugal samrat ki sena men mil gaye. yah sab 12 janavari, 1681 ee. ko ajamer ke ‘doraha’ namak sthan par hua, jahan par donon or ki senayen amane-samane thin. akabar rajapooton ki sahayata se nirash hokar antatah shivaji ke putr shambhuji ke pas chala gaya, jahan par 1704 ee. men usaki mrityu ho gee.

mevad se sndhi (1681 ee.)

rana rajasinh ki mrityu ke bad rana jayasinh mevad ka shasak hua. 24 joon, 1681 ee. ko rana jayasinh evn aurngazeb ke madhy ek sndhi huee. sndhi ki sharton ke anusar, aurngazeb ne poora mevad jayasinh ko vapas kar diya. jayasinh ne rajapooton par ‘jaziya kar’ hatane ke badale men aurngazeb ko ‘madalapur’ evn ‘bedanoor’ ka kshetr de diya. jayasinh ko mugal darabar men 5000 ka manasabadar banaya gaya. sare mugal sainik mevad se vapas a gaye. kalantar men aurngazeb ne dakshin abhiyan men jayasinh ke sahayog dene ke karan use ‘bedanoor’ aur ‘madalapur’ ke kshetr vapas kar die.

maravad ki svadhinata

maravad ke ajit sinh evn durgadas tatha aurngazeb ke madhy lagabhag ‘tis varsh’ tak sngharsh hua, phir bhi mugal in rajapoot viron ko kisi sandhi men bandh sakane men aksham rahe. antatah 1707 ee. men aurngazeb ke bad 1709 ee. men bahadurashah pratham ne ajit sinh ko maravad ke svatantr shasak ke roop men svikar kiya.

pashchimi sima kshetr ka vidroh

is kshetr men hue anek vidrohon ka samana aurngazeb ko karana pada. us pradesh ke kheton ki alp upaj ke karan vahan ki sahasi afagan jatiyan am sadakon par dakaiti tatha uttar pashchim pnjab ke samriddh nagaron ke logon ko darakar unase dhan ainthati thi. 1667 ee. men yoosufajaiyon ne bhagoo namak apane neta ke adhin sashastr vidroh kar diya. unaki ek vishal snkhya ne atak se oopar sindhu ko par kar hazara zile par akraman kiya. aurngazeb dvara bheje gaye kamil khan, shamasher khan evn amin khan ne is vidroh ko shant kiya.

1627 ee. men ajamal khan ke netritv men hue vidroh ko shant karane ke lie aurngazeb svayn peshavar ke nikat hasan abdal gaya tatha kootaniti evn shastron ke chatur snyog se badi saphalata prapt ki. bahut si afagan jatiyon ko bhenten, penshanen, jagiren evn pad dekar apane paksh men kar liya. uttar pashchim ke vidroh ko dabane men aurngazeb ne jahan apani patni sahit any logon ke paramarsh ke anusar mel-jol vali niti ka anusaran kiya, vahin do shaktiyon ko apas men takarakar unhen todane ki niti ka bhi palan kiya. isamen sandeh nahin ki mugalon ke sima yuddhon ka ant saphalata ke sath hua. parantu usaka apratyaksh parinam samrajy ke lie ghatak siddh hua.

pashchimottar sima kshetr ka yah abhiyan aurngazeb ke lie kafi mahnga pada. dhan, jan ki hani ke sath dakshin bharat men mugalon ki sthiti kamazor huee. apane jivan ke antim samay men aurngazeb ko apane kiye par ghor pachhatava hua tatha prayashchit ke sath hi usaki mrityu ho gee.

aurngazeb ki dharmik niti

samrat aurngazeb ne islam dharm ke mahatv ko svikarate hue ‘quran’ ko apane shasan ka adhar banaya. usane sikkon par kalama khudavana, nauroj ka tyauhar manana, bhang ki kheti karana, gana-bajana adi par rok laga di. 1663 ee. men sati pratha par pratibandh lagaya. tirth kar punah lagaya. apane shasan kal ke 11 varsh men ‘jharokha darshan’, 12ven varsh men ‘tuladan pratha’ par pratibandh laga diya, 1668 ee. men hindoo tyauharon par pratibandh laga diya. 1699 ee. men usane hindoo mndiron ko todane ka adesh diya. bade-bade nagaron men aurngazeb dvara ‘muhatasib’ (sarvajanik sadachara nirikshak) ko niyukt kiya gaya. 1669 ee. men aurngazeb ne banaras ke ‘vishvanath mndir’ evn mathura ke ‘keshav ray madinr’ ko tudava diya. usane shariyat ke viruddh lie jane vale lagabhag 80 karon ko samapt karava diya. inhin men ‘abavab’ nam se jana jane vala ‘rayadari’ (parivahan kar) aur ‘panadari’ (chungi kar) namak sthaniy kar bhi shamil the. aurngazeb ‘darul harb’ (qaphiron ka desh bharat) ko ‘darul islam’ (islam ka desh) men parivartit karane ko apana mahattvapoorn lakshy manata tha.

atyachari vyakti

aurngazeb ke samay men braj men ane vale tirth−yatriyon par bhari kar lagaya gaya. mndir nasht kiye lage, jaziya kar phir se lagaya gaya aur hinduon ko musalaman banaya gaya. us samay ke kaviyon ki rachanaon men aurngazeb ke atyacharon ka ullekh is prakar hai-

jab ten sah takht par baithe . tab ten hindun ten ur ainthe ॥
mahnge kar tirathan lagaye . dev-devalai nidari dhahae ॥
ghar-ghar bandhi jejiya linhen . apane man bhaye sab kinhe ॥ ( lal krit 'chhatr prakash' )

deval giravate phiravate nisan ali, aise doobe rav-rane sabi gaye lab ki ॥ (bhooshan kavi )

tode gaye mndiron ki jagah par masjid aur saray banaee geen tatha makatab aur kasaeekhane qayam kiye gaye. hinduon ke dil ko dukhane ke lie go−vadh karane ki khuli chhoot de di gee.

dharmacharyon ka nishkraman

jab braj men itana atyachar hone laga, tab yahan ke dharmapran bhaktajan apani dev−moortiyan aur dharmik pothiyon ko lekar bhagane ka vichar karane lage. kintu kahan jayen, yah unake lie badi samasya thi. ve tirth sthanon men rah kar apana dharm−karm karana chahate the; kintu yahan rahana unake lie asnbhav ho gaya tha. mahatma 'soor kishor' ne us samay ke bhakton ki manosthiti ko is prakar vyakt kiya hai-

jahn tirath tahn jaman-bas, puni jivika n lahiyai. asan-basan jahn milai, tahan satasngan paiyai॥
rah chor-batamar kutil, niradhan du:kh dehin. sahabasin sanh bair, door kahun basai sanehi ॥
kahain 'soor kisor' milain nahin, jatha jog chahi jahan. kalikal graseu ati prabal hiy, hay ram! rahiyai kahan ? (mithila mahatmy, chhnd- 1)

mathura ki durdasha

us samay kuchh prabhavashali hindoo rajyon ki sthiti aurngazeb ke mazahabi tanashahi se mukt thi; at: braj ke anek dharmachary evn bhaktajan apane parikar ke sath vahan ja kar basane lage. us abhootapoorv dharmik nishkraman ke phalasvaroop braj men govardhan aur gokul jaise samriddhishali dharmasthan ujad gaye, aur vrindavan shobhahin ho gaya tha. aurngazeb ke shasan men braj ki jaisi barbadi huee, usaka varnan nahin kiya ja sakata hai. aurngazeb ke atyacharon se mathura ki janata apane paitrik avason ko chhod kar nikatavarti hindoo rajaon ke rajyon men jakar basane lagi thi. jo rah gaye the, ve badi kathin paristhiti men apane jivan bita rahe the. us samay men mathura ka koee mahattv nahin tha. usaki dharmikata ke sath hi sath usaki bhautik samriddhi bhi samapt ho gee thi. prashasan ki drishti se us samay men mathura se adhik mahavan, sahar aur sadabad ka mahattv tha, vahan musalamanon ki snkhya bhi apekshakrit adhik thi.

aurngazeb ki mrityu

aurngazeb ke antim samay men dakshin men marathon ka zor bahut badh gaya tha. unhen dabane men shahi sena ko saphalata nahin mil rahi thi. isalie sanh 1683 men aurngazeb svayn sena lekar dakshin gaya. vah rajadhani se door rahata hua, apane shasan−kal ke lagabhag antim 25 varsh tak usi abhiyan men raha. 50 varsh tak shasan karane ke bad usaki mrityu dakshin ke ahamadanagar men 3 march sanh 1707 ee. men ho gee. daulatabad men sthit fakir buruhanuddin ki qabr ke ahate men use daphana diya gaya. usaki niti ne itane virodhi paida kar diye, jis karan mugal samrajy ka ant hi ho gaya. vatarman kal ke vidvanon ne aurngazeb ki niti ki alochana karate hue usake dushparinamon ka ullekh kiya hai.

  • pro. kadari ne likha hai- 'babar ne mugal rajy ke bhavan ke lie maidan saf kiya, humayoon ne usaki niv dali, akabar ne us par sundar bhavan khada kiya, jahangir ne use sajaya−snvara, shahajahan ne usamen nivas kar annad kiya; kintu aurngazeb ne use vidhvns kar diya tha.'
  • da. ramadharisinh ka kathan hai− 'babar se lekar shahajahan tak mugalon ne bharat ki jis samajik snskriti ko pal−pos kar khada kiya tha, use aurngazeb ne ek hi jhatake se tod dala aur sath hi samrajy ki kamar bhi tod di. vah hinduon ka hi nahin soophiyon ka bhi dushman tha aur saramad jaise snt ko usane sooli par chadha diya.' aurngazeb ke putron men bade ka nam muazzam aur chhote ka nam azam tha. muazzam aurngazeb ki mrityu ke bad mugal samrat hua.

sthapaty nirman

  1. aurngazeb ne 1674 ee. men lahaur ki badashahi masjid banavaee thi.
  2. aurngazeb ne dilli ke lal qile men moti masjid banavaee thi.

samakalin sngitgy

  1. sukhi sen
  2. kalavant
  3. kirapa
  4. hayat sarasanain
  5. rasabain khan

tatkalin sahity

  1. rafi khan ka muntakhab ul tavarikh
  2. mirza muhammad qazim ka 'alamagir nama'
  3. muhammad saqi ka 'masire alamagiri'
  4. sujanaray ka 'khulasat-ul-tavarikh'
  5. eeshvaradas ka 'futuhate alamagiri'
  6. bhamasen burahanapuri ka 'nuksha e-dilakushan'

rajy ka vargikaran

aurngazeb ne rajy ka vargikaran kiya tha. 21 soobon men vibhakt tha, (14 soobe uttar bharat, 6 dakshin bharat aur 1 afaganistan)

sainy prabandh

aurngazeb ki sainy prabandh men 60,000 ghode, 1,00000 paidal sainik, 50,000 oont, 3,000 hathi the.

ullekhaniy kathan

sngit ki maut ho gee, isaki qabr itani gahari dafanana taki avaz asani se ne nikal sake. ise sadagi se mamooli safed kapade men dafanaya jae aur koee maqabara n banaya jae.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1678 ee. patni rabiya durrani ki smriti men
  2. dilli ke lal qile men
  3. sarakar, jadunath “khand 5”, histri aauph aurngajeb (hindi), prishth sn. 264.

snbndhit lekh



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