मुग़ल काल 2  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

afagan

afagan yadyapi har gaye the, lekin unhonne mugal shasan ko svikar nahin kiya tha. poorvi uttar pradesh ab bhi afagan saradaron ke hath men tha. jinhonne babar ki adhinata ko svikar to kar liya tha, lekin use kabhi bhi ukhad phainkane ko taiyar the. afagan saradaron ki pith par bngal ka sultan nusarat shah tha, jo ibrahim lodi ka damad tha. afagan saradaron ne kee bar poorvi uttar pradesh se mugal karmachariyon ko nikal bahar kiya tha aur svayn kannauj pahunch gaye the. parantu unaki sabase badi kamazori sarvamany neta ka abhav tha. kuchh samay pashchath ibrahim lodi ka bhaee mahamood lodi, jo khanava men babar se lad chuka tha, afaganon ke nimantran par bihar pahuncha. afaganon ne use apana sultan man liya aur usake netritv men ikatthe ho gaye.

yah aisa khatara tha jisako babar nazarandaz nahin kar sakata tha. atah 1529 ke shuroo men usane agara se poorv ki or prasthan kiya. banaras ke nikat gnga par karake ghaghara nadi ke nikat usane afaganon aur bngal ke nusarat shah ki sammilit sena ka samana kiya. halanki babar ne nadi ko par kar liya aur afagan tatha bngali senaon ko lautan par majaboor kar diya, par vah nirnayak yuddh nahin jit saka. madhy eshiya ki sthiti se pareshan aur bimar babar ne afaganon ke sath samajhauta karane ka nirnay kar liya. usane bihar par apane adhipaty ka ek aspasht sa dava kiya, lekin adhikansh afagan saradaron ke hath men chhod diya. usake bad babar agara laut gaya. kuchh hi samay bad, jab vah qabul ja raha tha, vah lahaur ke nikat mar gaya.

babar ke bharat agaman ka mahattv

babar ka bharat-agaman anek drishtiyon se mahattvapoorn tha. kushan samrajy ke patan ke bad pahali bar uttar-bharat ke samrajy men qabul aur kandhar sammilit hue the. kyonki inhin sthanon se bharat par akraman hote rahe the. un par adhikar karake babar aur usake uttaradhikariyon ne bharat ko 200 varshon ke lie videshi akramanon se mukt kar diya. arthik drishti se bhi qabul aur kandhar par adhikar se bharat ka videsh-vyapar aur mazaboot hua kyonki ye donon sthan chin aur bhoomadhy sagar ke bandaragahon ke margon ke prarambhik bindu the. is prakar eshiya ke ar-par ke vishal vyapar men bharat bada hissa le sakata tha.
uttar bharat men babar ne lodiyon aur sanga ke netritv men snyukt rajapoot shakti ko samapt kiya. is prakar usane is kshetr men tatkalin shakti sntulan ko bhng kar diya. yah poore bharat men samrajy sthapit karane ki disha men ek lamba qadam tha. lekin is svapn ko sakar karane se poorv bahut si sharten poori karani shesh thin.

nayi yuddh-paddhati

babar ne bharat ko ek nayi yuddh-paddhati di. yadyapi babar se pahale bhi bharatiy gola-barood se parichit the, lekin babar ne hi yah pradarshit kiya ki topakhane aur ghudasena ka kushal snyukt-snchalan kitani saphalata prapt kara sakata hai. usaki vijayon ne bharat men barood aur topakhane ko shighr hi lokapriy bana diya aur is prakar qilon ka mahattv kam ho gaya.
apani nayi sainik paddhati aur vyaktigat vyavahar se babar ne raja ke us mahattv ko punahsthapit kiya jo firoz tugalaq ki mrityu ke bad kam ho gaya tha. halanki sikandar lodi aur ibrahim lodi ne raja ke samman ko phir se sthapit karane ka prayatn kiya tha, lekin afaganon ki jatiy svatntrata aur barabari ki bhavanaon ke karan unhen anshik saphalata hi prapt huee thi. phir babar eshiya ke do mahanh yoddhaon taimoor aur chngez ka vnshaj tha. isalie usake saradar usase barabari ki mang nahin kar sakate the aur n hi usaki gaddi par nazar dal sakate the. usaki sthiti ko chunauti koee taimoori rajakumar hi de sakata tha.

babar ne apane begon ke bich apane vyaktigat jivan se man banaya. vah hamesha apane sipahiyon ke sath kathinaeeyan jhelane ko taiyar rahata tha. ek bar kadakati sardi men babar qabul laut raha tha. barf itani zyada thi ki ghode usamen dhns rahe the. ghodon ke lie rasta banane ke lie sipahiyon ko barf hatani pad rahi thi. bina kisi hichakichahat ke babar ne unake sath barf todane ka kam shuroo kar diya. vah kahata hai, "har qadam par barf kamar ya chhati tak oonchi thi. kuchh hi qadam chalakar age ke adami thak jate the aur unaka sthan doosare le lete the. jab 10-15 ya 20 adami barf ko achchhi tarah daba dete the, tabhi ghoda us par se guzar sakata tha." babar ko kam karata dekhakar usake beg bhi barf hatane ke lie a jute.

kala premi aur vidvanh babar

babar sharab aur achchhe sngit ko bahut pasand karata tha aur svayn bhi achchha sathi siddh hota tha. sath hi vah bahut anushasanapriy aur kary lene men kada tha. vah apane begon ka bahut dhyan rakhata tha aur agar ve vidrohi ne hon to unaki kee galatiyan maf kar deta tha. afagan aur bharatiy saradaron ke prati bhi usaka yahi drishtikon tha. lekin usamen kroorata ki pravritti maujood thi, jo sambhavatah use apane poorvajon se mili thi. usane kee avasaron par apane virodhiyon ke siron ke ambar lagava diye the. ye aur vyaktigat kroorata ke any avasar babar ke samaksh kathin samay ke sndarbh men hi dekhe jane chahie.

bag-e-babar

halanki babar puratanapnthi sunni tha, lekin vah dharmandh nahin tha aur n hi dharmik bhavana se kam leta tha. jab eeran aur tooran men shiyaon aur sunniyon ke bich tivr sngharsh ki sthiti thi, usaka darabar is prakar ke dharmik vivadon aur sampradayik jhagadon se mukt tha. isamen sandeh nahin ki usane sanga ke viruddh "jihad" ka elan kiya tha aur jit ke bad "gazi" ki upadhi bhi dharan ki thi, lekin usake karan spashtatah rajanitik the. yuddhon ka samay hote hue bhi, mndiron ko todane ke udaharan usake sndarbh men bahut kam hain.

babar arabi aur farasi ka achchha gyata tha. use turki sahity ke do sarvadhik prasiddh lekhakon men se ek mana jata hai. turki usaki matribhasha thi. gady lekhak ke roop men usaka koee sani nahin tha. usaki atmakatha tuzk-e-babari vishv sahity ka ek klasik samajhi jati hai. usaki aur rachanaon men ek masanavi aur ek prasiddh soohfi rachana ka turki-anuvad hai. vah prasiddh tatkalin kaviyon aur kalakaron ke sampark men rahata tha aur unaki rachanaon ke vishay men usane apani jivani men likha hai. vah gahan prakriti-premi tha. usane bharatiy pashu-pakshiyon aur prakriti ka kafi vistar se varnan kiya hai. vah shayar bhi tha aur usane rubaeeyon ka apana divan bhi taiyar kiya tha.
is prakar babar ne rajy ka ek naya svaroop hamare samane rakha, jo shasak ke samman aur shakti par adharit tha, jisamen dharmik aur sampradayik madandhata nahin thi. jisamen snskriti aur lalit kalaon ka bade dhyan poorvak poshan kiya jata tha. is prakar usane apane uttaradhikariyon ke samaksh udaharan prastut karake unaka margadarshan kiya.

humayoon ki gujarat-vijay aur sherashah ke sath sngharsh

humayoon disambar 1530 men 23 varsh ki alpayu men babar ki gaddi par baitha. babar ke pichhe chhooti anek samasyaon ka samana use karana pada. prashasan abhi sugathit nahin hua tha. arthik sthiti bhi danvadol thi. afaganon ko poori tarah dabaya nahin ja saka tha, aur ve ab bhi mugalon ko bharat se khadedane ke sapane dekhate the, vah sabase badi bat thi, pita ki mrityu ke bad putron men rajy bantane ki taimoori parampara. babar ne humayoon ko bhaiyon se narmi se pesh ane ki salah di thi, lekin usane is bat ka samarthan nahin kiya tha ki naye-naye sthapit mugal samrajy ko vibhajit kar diya jae. isake bhaynkar parinam ho sakate the.

humayoon ki tajaposhi

jab humayoon agara men gaddi par baitha, samrajy men qabul aur kandhar sammilit the aur hindukush parvat ke par badakhashan par bhi mugalon ka dhila sa adhipaty tha. qabul aur kandhar humayoon ke chhote bhaee kamaran ke shasan men the. yah svabhavik tha ki ve usi ke adhikar men rahate. lekin kamaran in garibi se grast ilakon se sntusht nahin tha. usane lahaur aur multan ki or badhakar un par adhikar kar liya. humayoon kahin aur vidroh dabane men vyast tha, phir vah grih-yuddh prarambh karana bhi nahin chahata tha. isalie usake pas is sthiti ko mnzoor karane ke alava koee aur rasta nahin tha. kamaran ne humayoon ki prabhutta man li aur avashyakata padane par usaki madad karane ka vayada kiya. kamaran ke is krity se yah bhay utpann ho gaya ki humayoon ke aur bhaee bhi avasar milane par vahi kuchh kar sakate the. kintu pnjab aur multan kamaran ko dene ka ek labh humayoon ko hua. vah pashchim ki or se nishchint ho gaya aur poorv ki or apana dhyan kendrit karane ka use avasar mila.

afagan khatara

humayoon ko poorv ke afaganon ki badhati shakti aur gujarat ke sultan bahadurashah ki vijayon donon se nipatana tha. pahale humayoon ne yah socha ki donon men se afagan khatara zyada gnbhir hai. 1532 men dorah par usane afagan senaon ko parajit kiya aur jaunapur ko apane adhikar men le liya. afagan senaon ne pahale bihar jit liya tha. is saphalata ke bad humayoon ne chunar par ghera dal diya. agara se poorv ki or jane vale bhagon par is shaktishali qile ka adhikar tha aur yah poorvi bharat ke dvar ke roop men prasiddh tha. kuchh samay poorv hi is par sherakhan nam ke afagan saradar ka adhikar hua tha. sherakhan afagan saradaron men sabase zyada shaktishali ban chuka tha.

chunar par char mahine ke ghere ke bad sherakhan ne humayoon ko qile ka adhikar apane pas rakhane ke lie mana liya. badale men usane mugalon ka vafadar rahane ka vachan diya aur apane ek putr ko bandhak ke roop men humayoon ke sath bhej diya. humayoon ne is prastav ko svikar kar liya kyonki vah jaldi hi agara laut jana chahata tha. gujarat ke bahadurashah ki badhati shakti aur agara ke sath lagi sima par usaki gatividhiyon ke karan vah chintit ho utha tha. vah kisi saradar ke netritv men chunar par ghera nahin dale rahana chahata tha. kyonki isaka arth sena ko do bhagon men vibhakt karana hota.

bahadurashah

bahadurashah, jo humayoon ki hi ayu ka tha, ek yogy aur mahattvakankshi shasak tha. vah 1526 men gaddi par baitha tha aur usane malava par akraman karake jit liya tha. usake bad vah rajasthan ki or ghooma aur chittaud par ghera dal diya. jaldi hi usane rajapoot sainikon ki mitti palit kar di. bad ki kivadntiyon ke anusar sanga ki vidhava rani karnavati ne humayoon ke pas rakhi bheji aur usaki madad mangi aur humayoon ne virata se usaka jabab diya. halanki is kahani ko sach nahin mana ja sakata. lekin humayoon paristhiti par nazar rakhane ke lie agara se gvaliyar a gaya. mugal-hastakshep ke bhay se bahadurashah ne rana se sndhi kar li aur kafi dhan-daulat lekar qila usake hathon men chhod diya.

dinapanah ka ayojan

agale dedh sal humayoon dilli ke nikat dinapanah nam ka naya shahar banavane men vyast raha. is dauran usane bhavy bhojon aur melon ka ayojan kiya. in karyon men moolyavan samay vyarth karane ka dosh humayoon par lagaya jata hai. is bich poorv men sherashah apani shakti badhane men vyast tha. yah bhi kaha jata hai ki humayoon afim ka adi hone ke karan alasi tha. lekin inamen se kisi bhi dosharopan ka koee vishesh adhar nahin hai. babar sharab chhodane ke bad afim leta raha tha. humayoon sharab ke badale men ya usake sath kabhi-kabhi afim khata tha. anek saradar bhi aisa karate the. lekin babar ya humayoon in donon men koee bhi afim ka adi nahin tha. dinapanah ke nirman ka uddeshy mitr aur shatru donon ko prabhavit karana tha. bahadurashah ki or se agare par khatara paida hone ki sthiti men yah naya shahar doosari rajadhani ke roop men bhi kam a sakata tha. bahadurashah ne is bich ajamer ko jit liya tha aur poorvi rajasthan ko raund dala tha.

bahadurashah ne humayoon ko aur bhi badi chunauti di. vah ibrahim lodi ke sambandhiyon ko apane yahan sharan dekar hi sntusht nahin hua. usane humayoon ke un sambandhiyon ka bhi svagat kiya jo asaphal vidroh ke bad jelon men dal die ge the aur bad men vahan se bhag nikale the. aur phir bahadurashah ne chittaud par phir akraman kar diya tha. sath hi sath usane ibrahim lodi ke chachere bhaee tatar khan ko sipahi aur hathiyar die taki vah 40,000 ki fauj lekar agara par akraman kar sake. uttar aur poorv men bhi humayoon ka dhyan bntane ki yojana thi.

tatarakhan

tatarakhan ki chunauti ko humayoon ne jaldi hi samapt kar diya. mugal sena ke agaman par afagan sena titar-bitar ho gee. tatar khan ki chhoti-si sena har gee aur tatar khan svayn mara gaya. bahadurashah ki or se ane vale khatare ko hamesha ke lie khatm karane ke lie dridh nishchay humayoon ne malava par akraman kar diya. vah dhimi gati aur savadhani se age badha aur chittaud tatha mandoo ke madhy ke ek sthan par morcha bandh liya. is prakar usane bahadurashah ko malava se khaded diya. bahadurashah ne jaldi hi chittaud ko samarpan ke lie vivash kar diya kyonki usake pas badhiya topakhana tha. jisaka snchalan atoman nishanchi roomikhan kar raha tha. kaha jata hai ki humayoon ne dharmik adhar par chittaud ki madad karane se inakar kar diya tha. lekin us samay mevad antarik samasyaon men vyast tha aur humayoon ke vichar se mevad ki mitrata sainik drishti se simit mahattv ki thi.

humayoon ka sngharsh

isake bad jo sngharsh hua, usamen humayoon ne kafi sainy kaushal aur vyaktigat virata ka parichay diya. bahadurashah ko mugal sena ka samana karane ka sahas nahin hua. vah apani qilebandi chhodakar mandoo bhag gaya. usane apani topon ko to chhod diya, lekin beshaqimati sazo-saman pichhe chhod gaya. humayoon ne tezi se usaka pichha kiya. usane thode se sathiyon ke sath mandoo ke qile ki divar phandi. is prakar qile men pravesh karane valon men vah svayn panchavan adami tha. bahadurashah mandoo se champaner bhaga aur vahan se ahamadabad aur antatah kathiyavad bhag gaya. is prakar malava aur gujarat ke samriddh pradesh aur mandoo tatha champaner ke qilon men ekatr vishal khazane humayoon ke hath lag ge. malava aur gujarat jitani jaldi jite gaye the, utani hi jaldi hath se nikal bhi gaye the. jit ke bad humayoon ne in rajyon ko apane chhote bhaee asakari ke sena-patitv men chhod diya aur svayn mandoo chala gaya.

gujarat aur malava ki har

mandoo kendr men bhi tha aur usaki jalavayu bhi achchhi thi. mugal samrajy ke samane sabase badi samasya janata ka gujarati shasan ke prati lagav tha. asakari anubhavahin tha aur usake mugal saradaron men paraspar matabhed tha. jan-vidrohon, bahadurashahi saradaron ki sainik karravaee aur bahadurashah dvara shighrata se shakti ke punargathan se asakari ghabara gaya. vah champaner ki or lauta lekin use qile men koee sahayata nahin mili. kyonki qile ke senapati ko usake iradon par sandeh tha. vah mandoo jakar humayoon ke samane nahin padana chahata tha. atah usane agara lautane ka nirnay kiya. isase yah sandeh paida hua ki vah agara pahunch kar humayoon ko apadasth karane ka prayatn kar sakata hai. humayoon koee aisa mauqa dena nahin chahata tha, isalie usane malava chhod diya. usane rajasthan men asakari ko ja pakada. donon bhaiyon men batachit huee aur ve agara laut gaye. is bich gujarat aur malava donon hath se nikal gaye. gujarat abhiyan poori tarah asaphal nahin raha. halanki isase mugal samrajy ki simaon men vistar to nahin hua, lekin gujarat ki or se mugalon ko khatara hamesha ke lie khatm ho gaya. humayoon ab is sthiti men tha ki apani sari shakti sherakhan aur afaganon ke viruddh sngharsh men laga sake. gujarat ki or se bacha-khucha khatara bhi purtagali jahaz par hue jhagade men bahadurashah ki mrityu se samapt ho gaya.

sherakhan (bad men sherashah)

agara se humayoon ki anupasthiti ke dauran (faravari, 1535 se faravari, 1537 tak) sherakhan ne apani sthiti aur mazaboot kar li thi. vah bihar ka nirvirodh svami ban chuka tha. nazadik aur pas ke afagan usake netritv men ikatthe ho gaye the. halanki vah ab bhi mugalon ke prati vafadari ki bat karata tha, lekin mugalon ko bharat se nikalane ke lie usane khoobasoorati se yojana banayi. bahadurashah se usaka gahara sampark tha. bahadurashah ne hathiyar aur dhan adi se usaki bahut sahayata bhi ki thi. in sroton ke upalabdh ho jane se usane ek kushal aur brihad sena ekatr kar li thi. usake pas 1200 hathi bhi the. humayoon ke agara lautane ke kuchh hi din bad sherakhan ne apani sena ka upayog bngal ke sultan ko harane men kiya tha aur use turant 1,300,000 dinar (svarn mudra) dene ke lie vivash kiya tha. ek nayi sena ko lais karake humayoon ne varsh ke ant men chunar ko gher liya. humayoon ne socha tha ki aise shaktishali qile ko pichhe chhodana uchit nahin hoga kyonki isase usaki rasad ke marg ko khatara ho sakata tha. lekin afaganon ne dridhata se qile ki raksha ki. kushal topachi roomi khan ke prayatnon ke bavajood humayoon ko chunar ka qila jitane men chhah mahine lag gaye. isi dauran sherakhan ne dhokhe se rohatas ke shaktishali qile par adhikar kar liya. vahan vah apane parivar ko surakshit chhod sakata tha. phir usane bngal par dubara akraman kiya aur usaki rajadhani gaud par adhikar kar liya.

bngal ka sauda

is prakar sherakhan ne hoomayoon ko luka-chhipi poori tarah se mat de di. humayoon ko yah anubhav kar lena chahie tha ki adhik savadhani se taiyari ke bina vah is sthiti men nahin ho sakata ki sherakhan ko sainik-chunauti de sake. lekin vah apane samane sainik aur rajanitik sthiti ko nahin samajh saka. gaud par apani vijay ke bad sherakhan ne humayoon ke pas prastav bheja ki yadi usake pas bngal rahane diya jae to vah bihar use de dega, aur das lakh salana kar dega. yah spasht nahin hai ki is prastav men sherakhan kitana eemanadar tha. lekin humayoon bngal ko sherakhan ke pas rahane dene ke lie taiyar nahin tha. bngal sone ka desh tha, udyogon men unnat tha aur videshi vyapar ka kendr tha. sath hi bngal ka sultan, jo ghayal avastha men humayoon ki chhavani men pahunch gaya tha, ka kahana tha ki sherakhan ka virodh ab bhi jari hai. in sab karanon se humayoon ne sherakhan ka prastav asvikar kar diya aur bngal par chadhaee karane ka nirnay liya. bngal ka sultan apane ghavon ke karan jaldi hi mar gaya. atah humayoon ko akele hi bngal par chadhaee karani padi.

bngal ki or humayoon ka kooch uddeshyahin tha aur yah us vinash ki poorvapithika thi, jo usaki sena men lagabhag ek varsh bad chausa men hua. sherakhan ne bngal chhod diya tha aur dakshin bihar pahunch gaya tha. usane bina kisi pratirodh ke humayoon ko bngal ki or badhane diya taki vah humayoon ki rasad-pnkti ko tod sake aur use bngal men phnsa sake. gaud men pahunch kar humayoon ne turant qanoon aur vyavastha sthapit karane ka prayatn kiya. lekin isase usaki koee samasya hal nahin huee. usake bhaee hindal dvara agara men svayn tajaposhi ke prayatnon se usaki sthiti aur bigad gee. is karan se rasad aur samacharon se poori tarah kat gaya.

hindal aur kamaran

gaud men tin ya char mahine rukane ke bad humayoon ne agara ki or prasthan kiya. usane pichhe sena ki ek tukadi chhod di. saradaron men asnntosh, varsha ritu aur lootapat ke lie kie ge afaganon ke akramanon ke bavajood humayoon apani sena ko baksar ke nikat chausa tak bina kisi nuqasan ke lane men saphal hua. yah bahut badi upalabdhi thi, jisaka shrey humayoon ko milana chahie. isi bich kamaran hindal ka vidroh kuchalane ke lie lahaur se agara ki or badh aya tha. kamaran halanki bagi nahin hua tha, lekin phir bhi usane humayoon ko kumuk nahin bheji. isase shakti-sntulan ka palada mugalon ki or jhuk sakata tha.

in hatashaon ke bavajood humayoon ko sherakhan ke viruddh apani saphalata par vishvas tha. vah is bat ko bhool gaya ki usaka samana us afagan sena se hai, jo ek sal pahale ki sena se ekadam alag thi. usane sarvashreshth afagan senapati ke netritv men ladaeeyon ka anubhav aur atm-vishvas prapt kiya tha. sherakhan ki or se shanti ke ek prastav se dhokha khakar humayoon karmanasha nadi ke poorvi kinare par a gaya aur is prakar usane vahan upasthit afagan ghudasavaron ko poora mauqa de diya. humayoon ne ne keval nimn koti ki rajanitik samajh ka parichay diya varanh nimn koti ke senapatitv ka bhi parichay diya. usane galat maidan chuna aur sherakhan ko apani asavadhani se mauqa diya.

humayoon ek bhishti ki madad se nadi tair kar badi mushkil se ladaee ke maidan se bhagakar apani jan bacha saka. sherakhan ke hath men bahut si sampatti aee. lagabhag 7000 mugal sainik aur saradar mare gaye. chausa ki parajay (march 1539) ke bad keval taimoori rajakumaron aur saradaron men poorn ekata hi mugalon ko bacha sakati thi. kamaran ki 10000 sainikon ki ladaka fauj agara men upasthit thi. lekin vah isaki sevaen humayoon ko arpit karane ko taiyar nahin tha. kyonki humayoon ke netritv men usaka vishvas nahin raha tha. doosari or humayoon bhi senaon ko kamaran ke senapatitv men chhodane ko taiyar nahin tha. kyonki use bhay tha ki kahin vah svayn satta hathiyane men unaka prayog n kar le. donon bhaiyon men shak badhata raha. antatah kamaran ne apani sena sahit lahaur lautane ka nirnay kar liya.

jaldabazi men agara men ikatthi ki gee humayoon ki sena sherakhan ke muqabale kamazor thi. lekin kannauj ki ladaee (mee 1540) bhaynkar thi. humayoon ke donon chhote bhaee askari aur hindal virata poorvak lade, lekin unhen saphalata nahin mili.

kannauj ki ladaee ne sherakhan aur mugalon ke bich nirnay kar diya. humayoon ab rajyavihin rajakumar tha. kyonki qabul aur kandhar kamaran ke pas hi rahe. vah agale dhaee varsh tak sindh aur usake padosi rajyon men ghoomata raha aur samrajy ko phir se prapt karane ke lie yojanaen banata raha lekin n to sindh ka shasak hi is kary men usaki madad karane ko taiyar tha aur n hi maravad ka shaktishali shasak maladev. usaki sthiti aur bhi buri ho gee. usake apane bhaee hi usake viruddh ho ge aur unhonne use marava dalane ya kaid karane ke prayatn bhi kie. humayoon ne in sab parikshaon aur kathinaiyon ka samana dhairy aur sahas se kiya. isi kal men humayoon ke charitr ki dridhata ka poora pradarshan hua. antatah humayoon ne eerani shasak ke darabar men sharan li aur 1545 men usi ki sahayata se qabul aur kandhar ko phir se jit liya.

humayoon ki asaphalata

yah spasht hai ki sherakhan ke viruddh humayoon ki asaphalata ka sabase bada karan usake dvara afagan shakti ko samajh pane ki asamarthata thi. uttar-bharat men anekanek afagan jatiyon ke phaile rahane ke karan ve kabhi bhi kisi yogy neta ke netritv men ekatr hokar chunauti de sakati thi. sthaniy shasakon aur jamindaron ko apani or milaye bina mugal snkhya men afaganon se kam hi rahate. prarambh men humayoon ke prati usake bhaee poori tarah vafadar rahe. unake bich vastavik matabhed sherakhan ki vijayon ke bad hi paida hua. kuchh itihasakaron ne humayoon ke apane bhaiyon ke sath matabhedon aur usake charitr par lagaye gaye akshepon ko anuchit roop se badha-chadha kar kaha hai. babar ki bhanti ojapoorn n hote hue bhi humayoon ne avivek se ayojit bngal abhiyan se poorv svayn ko ek achchha senapati aur rajanitik siddh kiya tha. sherakhan ke sath huee donon ladaiyon men bhi usane apane ap ko behatar senapati siddh kiya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

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