मुग़लकालीन राजस्व प्रणाली  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mugalakalin shasan vyavastha men rajasv ke srot mukhyatah do bhagon men bnte the- 'kendriy' evn 'sthaniy'. kendriy ay ke kee mahattvapoorn srot the, jinamen bhoo-rajasv, chungi, takasal, uttaradhikari ke abhav men prapt ay, upahar, namak par kar evn pratyek vyakti par lagane vala paaul-taiks ya vyakti kar shamil tha. in sabamen ‘bhoo-rajasv’ sarvadhik mahattvapoorn srot tha. vastavik krishi utpad ya fasal men rajy ke ansh ko 'mal' ya 'kharaj' (lagan, bhoomikar, chauth) ke roop men abhihit kiya jata tha.

bhoomi ka vibhajan

bhoomi kar ke vibhajan ke adhar par mugal samrajy ki samast bhoomi tin vargon men vibhakt thi-

  1. khalasa bhoomi
  2. jagir bhoomi
  3. sayooragal bhoomi.

khalasa bhoomi

pratyaksh roop men badashah ke adhikar kshetr men rahane vali 'khalasa bhoomi' se prapt ay shahi kosh men jama kar di jati thi. is ay ka upayog vyaktigat kharch par (shahi parivar), raja ke angarakshak evn niji sainik par, yuddh ki taiyari adi par kiya jata tha. sampoorn samrajy ka lagabhag 20 pratishat kshetr khalasa bhoomi ke antargat shamil tha. 1573 ee. men akabar ne jagir bhoomi ko kam karake khalasa bhoomi ke vistar ka nirnay liya. jahangir ne khalasa bhoomi ka akar kam kar diya tha, par shahajahan ne isaka punah vistar kiya. aurngazeb ke shasan kal ke antim dinon men khalasa bhoo-kshetron ko jagiron ke roop avntit kiya jane laga.

jagir bhoomi

yah bhoomi rajy ke pramukh karmachariyon ko unaki tanakhvah ke badale di jati thi. jab is bhoomi ka kendr ke nirikshan men hastantaran hota tha, tab ise ‘payabaki’ kaha jata tha. bhoomi prapt karane vale ko bhoomi se kar vasoolane ka bhi adhikar mila rahata tha. padamukt hone par is bhoomi par se us vyakti ka adhikar jagiradaron ke hathon men chala jata tha. jagiradaron par niyntran rakhane ke lie 'savanihanigar' namak vibhag hota tha, jo jagiradaron ki karyavahi evn any vivaran kendr ko bhejata tha.

sayooragal bhoomi

is prakar ki bhoomi ko 'madad-e-mash' bhi kaha jata tha. yah bhoomi anudan ke roop men dharmik pravritti ke vyaktiyon ko di jati thi. is tarah ki adhikansh bhoomi anutpadak hoti thi. is bhoomi ko ‘milk’ bhi kaha jata tha.

jahangir ne ‘alatamaga’ jagir anudan men pradan ki thi. yah jagir vnshanugat hoti thi. ‘emma jagiren’ musalaman dharmavidon aur ulemaon ko pradan ki jati thi.

akabar ki bhoo-rajasv niti

mugal shasakon men akabar ne hi sarvapratham bhoomi ya bhoomi kar vyavastha ko sngathit karane ka prayas kiya. usane sherashah soori ki rajasv vyavastha ko prarambh men apanaya. sherashah dvara bhoo-rajasv hetu apanayi jane vali paddhati ‘raee’ ka prayog akabar ne bhi rajasv daron ke prayog ke lie kiya. akabar ne sherashah ki tarah bhoomi ki nap-jokh karavakar, bhoomi ko utpadakata ke adhar par ek-tihaee bhag lagan ke roop men nishchit kiya tha.

bairam khan ke prabhav se mukt hone par akabar ne bhoo-rajasv vyavastha ke punah nirdharan hetu 1570-1571 ee. men muzaphphar khan turabati evn raja todaramal ko arthamntri ke pad par niyukt kiya. usane vastavik ankadon ke adhar par bhoo-rajasv ka 'jama-hal hasil' namak navin lekha taiyar karavaya. gujarat ko jitane ke bad 1573 ee. men akabar ne poore uttar bharat men ‘karodi’ nam ke adhikari ki niyukti ki. use apane kshetr se ek karod dam vasool karana hota tha. ‘karodi’ ki sahayata ke lie ‘amil’ niyukt kiye ge. ye qanoonagon dvara bataye gaye ankade ki bhi janch karate the. vastavik utpadan, sthaniy qimaten, utpadakata adi par unaki soochana ke adhar par akabar ne 1580 ee. men 'dahasala' nam ki navin pranali ko prarambh kiya.

todaramal ka bandobast

akabar ke shasanakal ke 1571 ee. se 1580 ee. (10 varshon) ke ankadon ke adhar par bhoo-rajasv ka ausat nikalakar 'ain-e-dahasala' lagoo kiya gaya. is pranali ke antargat raja todaramal ne alag-alag fasalon par naqad ke roop men vasool kiye jane vala lagan ka 1571 se ee. ke madhy qarib 10 varsh ka ausat nikalakar, us ausat ka ek-tihaee bhoo-rajasv ke roop men nishchit kiya. kalantar men is pranali men sudhar ke antargat n keval ‘sthaniy qimaton’ ko adhar banaya gaya, balki krishi utpadan vale paraganon ko vibhinn kar halakon men banta gaya. ab kisan ko bhoo-rajasv sthaniy qimat evn sthaniy utpadan ke anusar dena hota tha ‘aine dahasala’ vyavastha ko ‘todaramal bandobast’ bhi kaha jata tha. is vyavastha ke antargat bhoomi ki paimaish hetu use 4 bhagon men vibhajit kiya gaya-

Blockquote-open.gif akabar ke shasan kal men lagan bhoomi ki vastavik upaj par lagabhag ek-tihaee bhag v anaj ke roop men vasool kiya jata tha. akabar ne soory ke adhar par ek snvat chalaya, jise ‘ilahi snvat’ kaha jata hai. yahi 'fasali snvat' tha. isase kisanon ko bhoo-rajasv ada karane tatha mugal shasan vyavastha ko apane rajasv alekh taiyar karane men suvidha huee. Blockquote-close.gif


inhen bhi dekhen: ain-e-dahasala

  • lagan kheti ke lie prayukt bhoomi par hi vasoola jata tha.

bhoomi ki nap ka prachalan

lagan nirdharan se poorv bhoomi ki map karaee jati thi. akabar ne apane shasan kal ke 31ven varsh lagabhag 1587 ee. men bhoomi ki paimaish hetu purani manak eekaee san ki rassi se nirmit ‘sikandari gaz’ ke sthan par ‘ilahi gaz’ ka prayog arambh kiya. yah gaz lagabhag 41 angul ya 33 inch ke barabar hota tha. vah ‘tanab’ tamboo ki rassi evn ‘jarib’ lohe ki kadiyon se judi huee bans dvara nirmit hoti thi. shahajahan ke kal men do nee napon ka prachalan hua.

  1. bigha-e-ilahi
  2. dira-e-shahajahanni (bigha-e-daftari)

aurngazeb ke shasan kal men 'dira-e-shahajahanni' ka prayog bnd ho gaya tha, parantu 'bigha-e-ilahi' ka prayog mugal samrajy ke ant tak chalata raha.

jabti pratha

akabar ke shasan kal men 15ven varsh lagabhag 1570-1571 ee. men todaramal ne khalasa bhoomi par bhoo-rajasv ki navin pranali, jisaka nam ‘jabti’ tha, ko prarambh kiya. is pranali men bhoomi ki paimaish evn kheton ki mool vastavik paidavar ko ankane ke adhar par kar ki daron ko nirdharit kiya jata tha. yah pranali bihar, lahaur, ilahabad, multan, dilli, avadh, malava evn gujarat men prachalit thi. isamen kar nirdharan ki do shreni thi, ek ko ‘takhashis’ kar nirdharan kahate the aur doosare ko ‘tahasil’ v 'vastavik vasooli' kahate the. lagan nirdharan ke samay rajasv adhikari dvara likhe gaye patr ko ‘patta’, ‘kaul’ ya ‘kaulakarar’ kaha jata tha.

uparyukt pranali ke antargat upaj ke roop men nirdharit bhoo-rajasv ko naqadi ke roop men vasool karane ke lie vibhinn fasalon ke kshetriy adhar par naqadi bhoo-rajasv anusoochi (dastoorool amal) taiyar ki jati thi. mugal kal men 'khums' namak kar samapt ho gaya tha, kyonki mugal sainik vetanabhogi hote the. is prakar unhen loot ki sampatti ka koee hissa nahin milata tha. mugal samraton ko adhinasth rajaon tatha manasabadaron dvara samay-samay par diye jane vale ek nishchit rajasv ko 'peshakash' kaha jata tha. aurngJeb ne agya di thi, ki naqad peshakash ko 'nazar' kaha jay tatha samrat dvara shahazadon ko diye gaye upahar ko 'niyaj' evn amir ke upahar ko 'nisar' kaha jay.

lagan nirdharan ki any pranaliyan

mugal kal men varisavihin sampatti ko 'rajagamita qanoon' ke dvara 'baitulaman' (shahi khazana) men jama kar diya jata tha. lagan nirdharan ki any pranali ‘bntaee’ ya ‘galla bakhshi’ (farasi) mugal kal ki sarvadhik prachin prachalit pranali thin. is pranali men kisanon ko kar upaj ya naqadi, donon hi roopon men dene ki chhoot hoti thi, parantu sarakar ka prayas rajasv ko naqad men hi lene ka rahata tha. kuchh khas fasalen jaise kapas, nil, tel, bij, ganna jaisi upaj par kar naqad hi liya jata tha. isalie unhen ‘naqadi kheti’ kaha jata tha. is pranali men kheti ke bntavare ke hisab se kar lagaya jata tha. tin prakar ki bntaee hoti thi - (1.) khet bataee, (2.) lnk bataee evn (3.) ras bataee. is pranali ka prachalan kabul, kashmir evn thatta men tha. mugal kal men kapas, nil, tilahan, evn ganna ko ‘tijarat fasal’ bhi kaha jata tha.

naskh pranali

naskh pranali ka mugal kal men khoob prachalan tha, parantu isake vishay men vistrit janakari ka abhav hai. sambhavatah is pranali men bhoomi ko pratyek varsh nahin mapa jata tha. patavari ke rikard men jo map likhi hoti thi, usi ko man liya jata tha. isamen kar ka nirdharan ‘nask paddhati’ v fasal ke anuman dvara nishchit hota tha. nirdharan ki is kachchi pranali ko ‘kanakoot’ bhi kaha jata tha.

ilahi snvat

akabar ke shasan kal men lagan bhoomi ki vastavik upaj par lagabhag ek-tihaee bhag v anaj ke roop men vasool kiya jata tha. akabar ne soory ke adhar par ek snvat chalaya, jise ‘ilahi snvat’ kaha jata hai. yahi 'fasali snvat' tha. isase kisanon ko bhoo-rajasv ada karane tatha mugal shasan vyavastha ko apane rajasv alekh taiyar karane men suvidha huee. akabar ki hi bhoo-rajasv vyavastha ko jahangir ne bhi apanaya, parantu prabandh ke kshetr men vah akabar ki apeksha kamazor tha. jahangir ne akabar ki ‘jabti’ vyavastha' ko adhik mahatv dete hue bina kisi parivartan ke ise bngal men bhi lagoo kiya. jahangir ke samay men bhoomi ko anudan ke roop men jagiradaron men bantane ki pratha ka vikas hua.

shahajahan ne pita jahangir ki bhoo-rajasv vyavastha men parivartan karate hue sarvapratham ‘dhalasa bhoomi’ se prapt hone vali lagan ki ay ko ‘bhoo-rajasv’ se prapt hone vali rashi se alag kiya. sambhavatah shahajahan ne apane shasanakal men lagan paidavar ki 33 pratishat se 50 pratishat ke madhy lena prarambh kar diya tha. isane lagan vasooli ke lie ‘thekedari pratha’ ko arambh kiya. shahajahan pratham mugal shasak tha, jisane dakshin bharat men murshid kuli khan ke sahayog se bhoo-rajasv vyavastha ko sngathit karane ka prayatn kiya. murshid kuli khan ko ‘dakshin ko todaramal’ kaha jata tha.

krishakon ka varg vibhajan

mugalakalin pramukh fasalen
fasalen utpadan kshetr
ganna uttar pradesh, bngal aur bihar
nil uttar evn dakshin bharat
gehoon pnjab, uttar pradesh, bihar adi
aphim malava evn bihar
chaval madras, kashmir adi
namak sanbhar jhil, pnjab ki pahadi, gujarat, sindh adi
  • sharab, kapas evn shora ka utpadan lagabhag poore desh men hota tha.

aurngazeb ne apane shasan kal men ‘naskh pranali’ ko apanaya. bhoo-rajasv ki rashi upaj ki adhi kar di gayi. aurngazeb ke samay men jagiradari pratha evn thekedari (bhoomi ki) pratha ka kafi vistar ho chuka tha. aurngazeb ne hindoo rajasv adhikari ke sthan par muslim adhikari ki niyukt ki| mugal kal men krishak tin vargon men vibhajit the-

  1. khudakasht - ye kisan usi ganv ki bhoomi par kheti karate the, jahan ke ve nivasi the. inaka bhoomi par asthayi adhikar tha. ise ‘malik-e-zamin’ bhi kahate the.
  2. pahikasht - ye kisan doosare ganv men jakar krishi kary kar jivikoparjan karate the. vahan inaki asthayi jhopadi hoti thi.
  3. mujariyan - ‘mujariyan’ krishakon ke pas itani kam bhoomi hoti thi, ki ve us bhoomi men apane parivar ke kul shram ka bhi prayog nahin kar pate the. isalie ye khudakasht krishakon ki zamin kiraye par lekar krishi kary karate the. bhoomiya varg paitrik zamin ke malik hote the, jabaki girisiya varg ko keval zamin snrakshan ka adhikar tha. mugal kal men zamidaron ko kheti, mukaddami, bisvi tatha bhogi bhi kaha jata tha.

mugal rajasv vyavastha men lagan ka nirdharan fasal ke roop men kiya jata tha, tatha isaki vasooli naqad ke roop men ki jati thi. samrajy ke doorasth aur pichhade kshetron men anaj ya fasal ke roop men bhi lagan vasool karane ki anumati thi. kashmir, udisa tatha rajapootana ke kshetron men galle ke roop men malaguzari vasooli jati thi. kisanon ko lagan ke atirikt any vividh prakar ke upakar ada karane padate the. kheton ki paimaish karane vale ko ek dam prati bigha ‘jabitana’ kar dena padata tha. ‘dahaseri’ namak any kar prati bigha ke hisab se vasoola jata tha. pashuon, charagahon evn bagon par bhi kar lagate the. akal padane par lagan men chhoot di jati thi.

krishi

abul fazal ki aeena-e-akabari men rabi ki 16 tatha kharif ki 25 fasalon ka ullekh milata hai.

khanij

khanij padarthon men sona, kumayoon parvat evn pnjab ki nadiyon se, loha desh ke anek bhagon se, tanba rajasthan evn madhy bharat se, ‘lal patthar’ fatehapur sikari evn rajasthan se, pila patthar thatta se, ‘sngamaramar’ jayapur evn jodhapur se tatha hira golakunda evn chhota nagapur ki pahadiyon se prapt kiya jata tha.

udyog

udyog ke kshetr men ruee ka utpadan evn usase nirmit sooti vastr nirman udyog sarvadhik vikasit tha. sooti vastr nirman ke mahattvapoorn kendr agara, banaras, burahanapur, patan, jaunapur, bngal, malava adi the. rngasaji arthat kapade ko rngane ka udyog bhi ayodhya (phaijabad) evn khanadesh men khoob prachalit tha. dhaka (bngal), lahaur, agara, gujarat adi kshetr reshami kapade evn malamal ke lie prasiddh th. jahangir ne amritasar men ooni vastr udyog ki sthapana ki thi.

vyapar

vyapar ki sthiti mugal kal men behatar thi. is samay phrans se ooni vastr, itali evn faras se resham, faras se kalin, madhy eshiya tatha arab se achchhi nasl ke ghode, chin se kachcha resham evn sona tatha chandi ka ayat hota tha. bharat ki pramukh niryatak vastuyen thin - sooti kapada (mukhyatah yoorop), nil, aphim, masale, chini, shora, kali mirch, namak adi. niryat ke do mahattvapoorn sthal marg the - lahaur se kabul evn multan se kndhar. mugal kal men mahattvapoorn bandaragah ke roop men chin, nagapattam, chataganv, sonaraganv, chail, basin adi the. bandaragah ka pramukh adhikari ‘shah bandar’ kahalata tha. rajy niryat ki jane vali ya ayat ki jane vali vastuon par 3.5 pratishat chungi (vyaparik kar) leta tha.

mudra vyavastha

babar ne kabul men shaharukh namak chandi ka sikka tatha kndhar men babari (chandi) sikka chalaya. mugal kal men mukhy roop se tin prakar ke dhatu ke sikke ‘sone ki muhar’, ‘chandi ka rupaya’ evn tanba ke dam, prachalan men the. akabar ne 1577 ee. men dilli men ek takasal sthapit kiya tatha khvaja abdussamad ko usaka pramukh banaya. apane shasan kal ke prarnbh men akabar ne ‘muhar’ namak sikka chalaya. sone ke sikkon men shahanashah, atma bisat, chugul aur jalali mahattvapoorn hain. ‘chandi ka rupaya’ evn tanbe ke dam prachalan men the. ‘chandi ka rupaya’ mugalakalin arthavyavastha ka adhar tha. yah 178 gren ka tha. chandi ke rupaye ka prachalan sarvapratham sherashah soori ne kiya tha. akabar ne ‘jalali’ nam ka chaukor akar ka rupaya chalaya. tanbe ka ‘dam' v 'paisa’ ya ‘phaloos’ 323.5 gren ka bana hota tha.

svarn ka sarvadhik prachalit sikka ‘ilahi’ evn sabase bada sikka ‘shnsab’ tha. akabar ne kuchh sikkon par ram v sita ki moorti ankit karavayi tatha us par ‘ram-siya’ likhavaya. takasal ka adhikari chaudhari kahalata tha. kendri takasal se koee bhi vyakti 5 ya 6 pratishat shulk dekar sikka dhalava sakata tha. asiragadh vijay ke upalakshy men akabar ne ek sone ka sikka chalavaya, jis par ek or baj ki akriti thi. dainik len-den v chhote len-den men tanbe ke dam ka prayog hota tha. jahangir ne ‘nisar’ (ek rupaye ka chauthaee) namak sikka chalaya. shahajahan ne dam aur rupaye ke madhy ‘ana’ namak naye sikke ka prachalan karavaya. mugal kal men rupaye ki sarvadhik dhalaee aurngazeb ke shasan kal men huee. jahangir ne apane samay men sikkon par apani akriti banavayi sath hi apana nam tatha noorajahan ka nam us par ankit karavaya. aurngazeb ke samay men rupaye ka vazan 180 grenn hota tha. ek rupaye men 40 ‘dam’ hote the. aurngazeb ne sikkon par kalama ankan ki pratha bnd kar di tatha antim kal men jari sikkon par mir abdul baki shahabaee dvara rachit pady ankit karavaya. muhar mugal kal men sabase prachalit sikka tha. isaka mooly 1 rupaya tha. abul fazal ke anusar sone ke sikke dhalane ke lie 4 takasalen, chandi ke 14 tatha tanbe ke sikke ke lie 42 takasalen thin.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

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