मुग़ल काल 4  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।


akabar ka yug

humayoon jab bikaner se laut raha tha to amarakot ke rana ne sahas karake use sahara aur sahayata di. amarakot men hi 1542 men mugalon men mahanatam shasak akabar ka janm hua. jab humayoon eeran ki or bhaga to usake bachche akabar ko usake chacha kamaran ne pakad liya. usane bachche ka bhali-bhanti palan-poshan kiya. kandhar par phir se humayoon ka adhikar ho jane par akabar phir apane mata-pita se mila. humayoon ki mrityu ke samay akabar pnjab men kalanaur men tha, aur afagan vidrohiyon se nipatane men vyast tha. 1556 men kalanaur men hi akabar ki tajaposhi huee. us samay vah terah varsh aur char mahine ka tha.

hemoo

akabar ko kathin paristhitiyan virasat men mili. agara ke par afagan abhi bhi sabal the aur hemoo ke netritv men antim ladaee ki taiyari kar rahe the. qabul par akraman karake ghera dala ja chuka tha. parajit afagan saradar sikandar soor shivalik ki pahadiyon men ghoom raha tha. lekin akabar ke ustad aur humayoon ke svamibhakt aur yogy adhikari bairamakhan ne paristhiti ka kushalata se samana kiya. vah khan-e-khana ki upadhi dharan karake rajy ka vakil ban gaya aur usane mugal senaon ka punargathan kiya. hemoo ki or se khatare ko sabase gnbhir samajha gaya. us samay chunar se lekar bngal ki sima tak pradesh sherashah ke ek bhatije adilashah ke shasan men tha. hemoo ne apana jivan islamashah ke rajyakal men bazaron ke adhikshak ke roop men shuroo kiya tha aur adilashah ke kal men usane yakayak unnati ki thi. usane baees ladaeeyon men se ek bhi nahin hari thi. adilashah ne use vikramajit ki upadhi pradan karake vazir niyukt kar liya tha. usane use mugalon ko khadedane ka uttaradayitv saunp diya. hemoo ne agara par adhikar kar liya aur 50,000 ghudasavar, 500 hathi aur vishal topakhana lekar dilli ki or badh dauda.

ek sngharshapoorn ladaee men hemoo ne mugalon ko parajit kar diya aur dilli par adhikar kar liya. lekin paristhiti ka samana karane ke lie bairamakhan ne sahas poorn qadam uthaye. usake is sahasik qadam se mugal sena men ek nayi shakti ka snchar hua aur usane hemoo ki apani sthiti mazaboot karane ka avasar die bina dilli par chadhaee kar di. hemoo ke netritv men afagan fauj aur mugalon ke bich panipat ke maidan men ek bar phir ladaee huee (5 navambar 1556). mugalon ki ek tukadi ne hemoo ke topakhane par pahale adhikar kar liya lekin palada hemoo ka hi bhari tha. lekin tabhi ek tir hemoo ki ankh men laga aur vah behosh ho gaya. netritvahin afagan sena parajit ho gee. hemoo ko pakadakar mar dala gaya. is prakar akabar ko samrajy punah ladakar lena pada.

saradaron se sngharsh

(1556-67)

bairamakhan

bairamakhan lagabhag char varshon tak samrajy ka saragana raha. is dauran usane saradaron ko qaboo men rakha. qabul par khatara tal gaya tha aur samrajy ki sima ka vistar qabul se poorv men sthit jaunapur tak aur pashchim men ajamer tak ho gaya tha. gvaliyar par bhi adhikar kar liya gaya tha aur ranathambhaur aur malava ko jitane ka bhi bharasak prayas kiya gaya. idhar akabar bhi paripakv ho raha tha. bairamakhan ne bahut se prabhavashali vyaktiyon ko naraz kar liya tha. unhonne shikayat ki ki bairamakhan shiya hai aur vah apane samarthakon aur shiyaon ko uchch padon par niyukt kar raha hai. ye dosharopan apane ap men bahut gnbhir nahin the lekin bairamakhan bahut uddhat ho gaya tha aur is bat ko bhool raha tha akabar bada ho raha hai. chhoti-chhoti baton par donon men matabhed ho gaya aur akabar ko yah anubhav hua ki lambe samay tak rajy kary kisi doosare ke hath men nahin saunpa ja sakata.

akabar ne bahut hi hoshiyari se kam liya. vah shikar ke bahane agara se nikala aur dilli pahunch gaya. dilli se usane bairamakhan ko apadasth karate hue ek faraman jari kiya aur sab saradaron ko vyaktigat roop se apane samane hazir hone ka adesh diya. bairamakhan ne jab yah mahasoos kiya ki akabar sare adhikar apane hath men lena chahata hai, vah isake lie taiyar tha lekin usake viradhi use nasht karane par tule hue the. unhonne use itana zalil kiya ki vah vidroh par utaroo ho gaya. is vidroh ke karan samrajy men chhah mahine tak avyavastha rahi. antatah bairamakhan samarpan karane par vivash ho gaya. akabar ne vinamrata se usaka svagat kiya aur usake samane do vikalp rakhe ki ya to vah usake darabar men kary karata rahe ya makka chala jaye. bairamakhan ne makka chala jana behatar samajha lekin raste men ahamadabad ke nikat patan men afaganon ne vyaktigat dushmani ke karan usaki hatya kar di. bairamakhan ki patni aur usake chhote bachche ko akabar ke pas laya gaya. akabar ne bairam ki vidhava ke sath jo usaki rishte men bahan lagati thi, vivah kar liya aur bachche ko bete ki tarah pala. yah bachcha bad men abdur rahim khan-e-khana ke nam se prasiddh hua aur samrajy ke mahattvapoorn pad aur sainik pad bhi usake pas rahe. bairamakhan ke sath akabar ke charitr ki kuchh vilakshanataen spasht hoti hain. ek bar rasta nirdharit kar lene par vah jhukata nahin tha lekin kisi pratidvandi ke samarpan kar dene par vah usake prati bahut dayalu bhi ho uthata tha.

uzabek

akabar
Akabar

bairamakhan ke vidroh ke dauran saradaron men bahut se vyakti aur dal rajanitik roop se sakriy ho gaye the. inamen akabar ki dhay man maham anaga aur usake snbndhi bhi the. yadyapi maham anaga ne shighr hi sannyas le liya parantu usaka putr adamakhan ek mahattvakankshi naujavan tha. use malava ke viruddh ek abhiyan ka senapati banakar bheja gaya. lekin jab use apadasth kar diya gaya to usane vazir ke pad ki mang ki aur jab usaki mang svikar nahin ki gee to usane karyavahak vazir ko chhura ghonp diya. isase akabar bahut krodhit hua aur adamakhan ko qile ki divar se phinkava dene ka adesh diya. is prakar adamakhan 1561 men mar gaya. parantu akabar ko sampoorn adhikar sthapit karane men bahut varsh lage. uzabekon ne saradaron men ek apana shaktishali dal bana liya tha. unake pas poorvi uttar-pradesh, bihar aur malava men mahattvapoorn pad the. yadyapi unhonne un kshetron men shaktishali afagan dalon ko dabaye rakhakar samrajy ki bahut seva ki parantu ve bahut uddhat ho gaye the aur tarun shasak ki huqmudooli karane lage the. 1561 aur 1567 ke bich unhonne kee bar vidroh kiy jisase vivash hokar akabar ko unake viruddh sainik karravaee karani padi. pratyek bar akabar ne unhen kshama kar diya lekin jab 1565 men unhonne phir vidroh kiya to akabar itana uttejit hua ki usane nirnay kiya ki jab tak vah unhen mita nahin dega tab tak jaunapur ko rajadhani banaye rakhega. isi bich mirzaon ke vidroh ne akabar ko ulajha liya. mirza akabar ke snbndhi the aur taimoor vnshi the. inhonne adhunik uttar pradesh ke pashchim men padane vale kshetron men gadabad machaee. akabar ke sautele bhaee mirja haqim ne qabul par adhikar karake pnjab ki or kooch kiya aur lahaur par ghera dal diya. lekin uzabek vidrohiyon ne akabar ko aupacharik roop se apana shasak svikar kar liya.

hemoo ke dilli par adhikar karane ke bad akabar ke samane yah gnbhir snkat tha. parantu akabar ki kushalata aur bhagy ne use vijay dilaee. vah jaunapur se lahaur ki or badha jisase mirza haqim pichhe hatane ko majaboor ho gaya. is bich mirzaon ke vidroh ko kuchal diya gaya aur ve malava aur gujarat ki or bhag gaye. akabar lahaur se jaunapur lauta. varsha ritu men ilahabad ke nikat yamuna par karake uzabek saradaron ke netritv ne vidroh karane valon ko ashcharyachakit kar diya aur unhen poori tarah se parajit kiya. uzabek neta ladaee men mare gaye aur is prakar yah lamba vidroh samapt ho gaya. un saradaron sahit jo svatntrata ka sapana dekh rahe the, sabhi vidrohi saradar past pad gaye. ab akabar apane samrajy ke vistar ki or dhyan dene ke liye mukt tha.

samrajy ka prarambhik vistar

(1567-76)

bazabahadur

bairamakhan ke snrakshan men samrajy ki simaon ka vistar hua tha. ajamer ke atirikt any mahattvapoorn vijay thiah malava aur gadh-katnga. us samay malava par ek yuva rajakumar bazabahadur ka shasan tha. vah sngit aur kavy men pravin tha. bazabahadur aur sundari roopamati ki prem gathaen bahut prasiddh hain. sundar hone ke sath-sath roopamati sngit aur kavy men bhi siddhahast thi. bazabahadur ke samay men mandoo sngit ka kendr tha. lekin bazabahadur ne sena ki or koee dhyan nahin diya tha. malava ke viruddh abhiyan ka senapati akabar ki dhay man maham anaga ka putr adaham khan tha. bazabahadur buri tarah parajit hua (1561) aur mugalon ke hath roopamati sahit bahut qimati saman hath laga. lekin roopamati ne adamakhan ke haram men jane ki bajay atmahatya karana uchit samajha. adamakhan aur usake uttaradhikariyon ke avivekapoorn zulmon ke karan mugalon ke viruddh vahan pratikriya huee. jisase bajabahadur ko punah rajy prapt karane ka avasar mila.

bairamakhan ke vidroh se nipatane ke pashchath akabar ne malava ke viruddh ek aur abhiyan chheda. bazabahadur ko vahan se bhagana pada. usane kuchh samay ke lie mevad ke rana ke pas sharan li. ek ke bad ek doosare ilake men bhatakane ke bad bazabahadur akabar ke darabar men pahuncha aur us manasabadar bana diya gaya. kalantar men vah do hazari ke manasab (pad) tak badha. parampara ke anusar roopamati ki samadhi ke nikat ujjain men usaki bhi samadhi banaee gee thi. is prakar malava ka vistrit kshetr mugalon ke shasan men a gaya. isi samay ke lagabhag mugal senaon ne gadh-katnga par vijay prapt ki. gadh-katnga ke rajy men narmada ghati aur adhunik madhy pradesh ke uttari ilaqe sammilit the. is rajy ki sthapana pandrahavin shatabdi ke uttarardh men aman das ne ki thi. amanadas ne rayasen ko jitane men gujarat ke bahadurashah ki sahayata ki thi aur use isase "sngramashah" ki upadhi prapt huee.

rani durgavati

gadh-katnga men kuchh gonde aur rajapoot riyasaten bhi thin. yah gaundon dvara sthapit ek shaktishali rajy tha. kaha jata hai ki raja ke senapatitv men 20,000 paidal sipahi, ek badi snkhya ghudasavaron ki aur 1,000 hathi the. lekin in snkhyaon ki vishvasaniyata ka koee praman nahin hai. sngramashah ne apane ek putr ki shadi mahoba ke chndel shasak ki rajakumari se karake apani sthiti aur mazaboot kar li thi. yah rajakumari, shighr hi vidhava ho gee, lekin usane apane vayask putr ko gaddi par bithalaya aur bade sahas aur kushalata ke sath rajy kiya. vah ek kushal bndooqachi aur tir-andaj thi. vah shikar ki shauqin thi. ek tatkalin lekhak ke anusar use jab bhi as-pas kisi bagh ke dikhaee dene ki soochana milati thi, vah usaka shikar kie bina jal bhi grahan nahin karati thi. usane asapas ke rajyon se kee ladaiyan saphalatapoorvak ladin. bazabahadur se bhi usaka yuddh hua. sima pranton ke ye sngharsh malava par mugalon ka adhikar ho jane ke bad bhi hote rahe. isi bich durgavati ke saundary tatha atul dhanarashi hone ki kathaen ilahabad ke mugal gavarnar asafakhan tak pahunchin.

asafakhan 10,000 sipahiyon ko lekar bundelakhand ki or se badha. gadh ke kuchh arddh-svatntr shasakon ne gond ka jua kndhon se utar phenkane ka achchha avasar dekha. atah rani ke pas bahut kam fauj rah gee. zakhmi hone par bhi vah, viratapoorvak ladati rahi. phir yah dekhakar ki parajay avashynbhavi hai aur use bndi banaya ja sakata hai, usane chhura marakar atmahatya kar li. asafakhan ne tab adhunik jabalapur ke pas sthit usaki rajadhani chauragadh par halla bol diya. abulafazal kahata hai ki "itane hire, javaharat, sona, chandi aur any vastuen hath lagin ki unak ansh ka bhi hisab laga pana mushkil hai. us bhari loot men asafakhan ne keval 200 hathi darabar men bhej die aur shesh apane pas rakh liya." rani ki ek chhoti bahan kamaladevi bhi darabar men bhej di gee.

jab akabar ne uzabek saradaron ke vidroh ka samana kiya to usane asafakhan ko anadhikrit roop se apane pas rakhe loot ke mal ko lautane ko vivash kiya. akabar ne gadh-katnga vikramashah ke chhote putr chandragah ko lauta diya, lekin malava men padane vale das qilon ko apane pas rakh liya.

chittaud

agale das varshon men akabar ne rajasthan ka adhikansh bhag apane samrajy men shamil kiya tatha gujarat aur bngal ko bhi jit liya. rajapoot riyasaton ke viruddh abhiyan men ek mahattvapoorn qadam chitttaud ka ghera tha. yah dridh qila, jisake itihas men anek ghere us par pad chuke the, madhy rajasthan ka pravesh dvar samajha jata tha. yah agara se gujarat jane ka sabase chhota marg tha. isase bhi adhik use rajapooti sngharsh ka pratik mana jata tha. akabar ne yah anubhav kiya ki bina chittaud jite, any rajapoot riyasaten usaka prabhutv svikar nahin karengi. chhah mahine ke ghere ke bad chittaud ki parajay huee. samanton ki salah se prasiddh yoddhaon jayamal aur patta ko qile ka bhar saunpa gaya tha. raja udayasinh jngalon men chhip gaya. as-pas ke ilaqon ke bahut se kisanon ne qile men sharan le li thi. unhonne bhi qile ki suraksha men kafi yogadan diya. jab mugalon ne qile men pravesh kiya, to in kisanon aur yoddhaon ka qatl kar diya gaya. yah pahala aur antim avasar tha jab ki akabar ne aisa qatleam karavaya. rajapoot yoddhaon ne marane se poorv yatha-sambhav muqabala kiya. jayamal aur patta ki virata ko dekhate hue akabar ne agara ke qile ke mukhy dvar ke bahar hathi par savar in viron ki pratimaen sthapit karavane ka adesh diya.

chittaud ke bad rajasthan ke sabase shaktishali qile ranathambhaur ka patan hua. jodhapur pahale hi jita ja chuka tha. in vishayon ke parinamasvaroop bikaner aur jaisalamer sahit anek rajapoot riyasaton ne akabar ke age samarpan kar diya. keval mevad hi sngharsh karata raha.

gujarat

bahadurashah ki mrityu ke pashchath se gujarat ki sthiti bahut kharab thi. apani upajaoo bhoomi, unnat shilp aur bahari duniya ke sath ayat-niryat vyapar ka kendr hone ke karan gujarat mahattvapoorn ban chuka tha. akabar ne yah kahakar us par apana adhikar jataya ki humayoon us par kuchh samay tak rajy kar chuka tha. ek aur karan dilli ke nikat mirzaon ka vidroh men asaphal hokar gujarat men sharan lena tha. akabar is bat ke lie taiyar nahin tha ki gujarat jaisa samriddh pradesh muqabale ki shakti ban jaye. 1572 men akabar ajamer ke raste se ahamadabad ki or badha. ahamadabad ne bina lade samarpan kar diya. akabar ne phir mirzaon ki or dhyan diya. jinhonne bhadaunch, badauda aur soorat par adhikar kiya hua tha. khambat men akabar ne pahali bar samudr ke darshan kie aur nav men sair ki. purtagaliyon ke ek dal ne pahali bar akabar se akar bhent ki. is samay purtagaliyon ka bharatiy samudron par poorn adhikar tha aur unaki akanksha bharat men samrajy sthapit karane ki thi. akabar ki gujarat vijay se unaki ashaon par tusharapat ho gaya.

jab akabar ki senaon ne soorat par ghera dala hua tha, tabhi akabar ne raja manasinh aur amer ke bhagavanadas sahit 200 sainikon ki chhoti si tukadi lekar mahi nadi ko par kiya aur mirzaon par akraman kar diya. kuchh samay ke lie akabar ka jivan khatare men pad gaya. lekin usake akraman ki prachandata se mirzaon ke pair ukhad gaye. parantu, jaise hi akabar gujarat se lauta, yahan vidroh phoot pada. yah sunakar akabar laut pada. usane oonton, ghedon aur gadiyon men yatra karate hue nau din men sara rajasthan par kiya aur gyaharaven din ahamadabad pahunch gaya. yah yatra samanyatah chhah saptahon men poorn ho sakati thi. keval, 3,000 sipahi hi akabar ke sath pahunch paye. isi chhoti si sena ki sahayata se usane 30,000 sainikon ki sena ko parast kiya.

bngal

isake pashchath akabar ne apana dhyan bngal ki or lagaya. bngal ke afaganon ne udisa ko raund dala tha aur usake shasak ko bhi mar dala tha. lekin mugalon ko naraz hone ka mauqa n dene ke lie afagan shasak ne aupacharik roop se svayn ko sultan ghoshit nahin kiya tha, aur akabar ke nam ka khutva padhata raha tha. afaganon ki antarik ladaee aur naye shasak daoodakhan dvara svatntrata ki ghoshana se akabar ko vah avasar mil gaya, jisaki use talash thi. akabar apane sath ek mazaboot nauka beda lekar age badha. aisa vishvas kiya jata tha afagan sultan ke pas bahut badi sena hai, jisamen 40,000 susajjit ghudasavar, 1,50,000 paidal sainik, kee hazar bandooqen aur hathi tatha yuddhak navon ka vishal beda tha. yadi akabar savadhani se kam n leta aur afaganon ke pas behatar neta hota, to ho sakata hai ki humayoon aur sherashah ki hi punaravritti hoti. akabar ne pahale patana par adhikar kiya aur is prakar bihar men mugalon ke lie snchar ke sadhanon ko surakshit kar liya. usake bad usane ek anubhavi adhikari khan-e-khana munisakhan ko abhiyan ka neta banaya aur svayn agara laut gaya. mugal senaon ne bngal par akraman kiya aur kafi sngharsh ke bad daoodakhan ko shanti ki sndhi ke lie vivash kar diya. usane shighr hi dubara vidroh kiya. yadyapi bihar aur bngal men men mugalon ki sthiti abhi kamazor thi, yadyapi unaki senaen adhik sngathit aur behatar netritv vali thin. 1576 men bihar men ek tagadi ladaee men daoodakhan parajit hua aur use usi samay mar dala gaya.

is prakar uttar bharat se afagan shasan ka patan hua. isi bich akabar ke samrajy vistar ka pahala daur bhi samapt hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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