मुग़ल काल 7  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

abdulanabi ka patan

isi samay mukhy sadar abdulanavi ke khilaf tahaqiqat huee jo kalyan karyon hetoo bhoomi "madad-e-mash" ko bantane men bahut bhrashtachari aur tanashah nikala. usane bhrashtachar aur anachar se bahut sampatti arjit kar li thi. vah dharmandh tha aur isalie usane shiyaon aur mathura ke brahman ko usake vishvason ke karan phansi ki saza de di thi. sabase pahale abdunabi ke adhikar chhin lie gaye aur madad-e-mash ko bantane ke lie pratyek soobe men ek-ek sadar ki niyukti ki gee. jaldi hi use barkhast kar diya gaya aur use haj ke lie makka jane ka adesh diya gaya. lagabhag isi samay 1579-80 men poorv men vidroh hua. qaziyon ne akabar ko dharm-virodhi kahate hue anek fatave diye. akabar ne vidroh ko kuchal diya aur qaziyon ko kadi sazayen din.

mullaon ko sabaq

mullaon se nipatane ke lie apani sthiti aur mazaboot karane ke khyal se mahazar ki udaghoshana ki. jisamen kaha gaya ki yadi akabar ne quran (mujatahit) ki vyakhya men samarth vidvanon men paraspar matabhed ho to akabar "sarvadhik nyayashil aur viveki" hone ke nate aur khuda ki nazaron men isaka darja mujatahidon se ooncha hone ke karan unamen se kisi bhi vyakhya ko svikar kar sakata hai jo "desh ke labh men aur bahusnkhya ke hit men ho." usamen yah bhi kaha gaya ki akabar yadi "quran ka anusaran karate hue aur desh ke labh men" koee naya hukam jari kare to use sabako svikar karana hoga.

dharmik sthiti ko samany banane ka prayas

is ghoshana, jis par pramukh ulemaon ke hastakshar the, ki vyakhya galat dhng se "amoghatv ka adesh" ke roop men ki jati hai. akabar ne quran ki vyakhya men samarth vyaktiyon men paraspar matabhed ki sthiti men hi kisi ek vichar ko sahi batalane ka adhikar apane hath men liya. akabar ne tab bhi vishal dharmik sahanashilata ki bat kahi jabaki desh ke vibhinn bhagon men shiyaon, sunniyon aur menhadaviyon men bahut khoon-kharaba ho raha tha. is bat men sndeh nahin hai ki samrajy men dharmik sthiti ko samany banane men mazahar ka apekshit prabhav hua. lekin desh ke vibhinn dharmon aur sampradayon ke logon ko ek sthan par bithane men akabar ko bahut kam saphalata mili. ibadatakhane ki charchaon se vibhinn dharmon ke logon men behatar samajh paida hone ke sthan par aur adhik kadavahat paida ho gayi. kyonki pratyek dharm ke pratinidhiyon ne doosare dharmon ko nicha batakar apane-apane dharm ko anyon se behatar siddh karane ki koshish ki. isalie 1582 men akabar ne ibadatakhane ki charchaen band ki di. lekin usane saty ki talash ka kam chhoda nahin. usaka ghor alochak badayoonni kahata hai ki "log rat-din khojabin karane ke alava aur kuchh nahin karate."

akabar ne hindoo dharm ke siddhanton ko janane ke lie purushottam aur devi ko amntrit kiya aur zarathushtr dharm ke siddhanton ki vyakhya ke lie meharaji rana ko bulavaya. eesaee dharm ke siddhanton ko aur samajhane ke lie usane kuchh purtagali padariyon se bhi bhent ki. usane goa men apane doot bheje aur purtagaliyon se do vidvanh dharm pracharakon ko apane darabar men bhejane ki prarthana ki. purtagaliyon ne akabiba aur ko mansarat bheja, jinhonne lagabhag tin varsh akabar ke darabar men vyatit kie. unhonne isaka moolyavan vivaran chhoda hai. parantu akabar ko eesaee banane ki unaki asha ka koee niradhar nahin tha. akabar jainiyon ke sampark men bhi aya aur unake kahane par kathiyavad ke pramukh jain sant hiravijay soori ne usake darabar men do varsh bitae.

alag-alag dharmon ke netaon ke sampark, unaki rachanaon ke adhyayan, soofi santon aur yogiyon ke sath huee bhenton ne dhire-dhire akabar ko yah vishvas dila diya ki sampraday aur jatigat bhed hote hue bhi sab dharmon men kee achchhi baten hain jo vad-vivad ki garami men chhipi rah jati hain. usane yah anubhav kiya ki yadi vibhinn dharmon ki achchhi baton par bal diya jae to samnjasy aur mitrata ka vatavaran ban sakata hai, jo desh ke hit men hoga. usane yah bhi anubhav kiya ki namon aur svaroopon ki anekata ke bavajood eeshvar keval ek hai. badayooni kahata hai ki shahanashah par sab prabhavon ke parinamasvaroop dhire-dhire akabar ke dil men patthar ki lakir ki tarah yah vishvas jam gaya ki sabhi dharmon men kuchh achchhe log hain. agar har jagah kuchh vastavik gyan mil sakata hai, to saty ek hi dharm men kyon simit rahe.

islam se doori

badayooni is bat par bal deta hai ki isi ke parinamasvaroop akabar dhire-dhire islam se door ho gaya aur usane hindutv, eesaeeyat, parasi dharm adi vidyaman dharmon ko mila kar ek naye dharm ki sthapana ki. parantu adhunik itihasakar is mat ko svikar nahin karate. unaka vichar hai ki badayooni ne is bat men atishayokti ka prayog kiya hai. is bat ka koee praman nahin hai ki akabar ne naya dharm chalaya ya chalane ka usaka vichar tha. abul fazal aur badayooni ne is tathakathit naye dharm ke lie tauhid-e-ilahi shabd ka prayog kiya hai. jisaka shabdik arth hai "devi ekeshvaravad". 'din' arthath dharm shabd ka prayog pahali bar 80 sal bad kiya gaya. 80 sal tak nahin kiya gaya tha. tauhid-e-ilahi vastav men ek aisa marg tha jo soofiyon se mel khata tha. jo vyakti ichchhuk the aur jinhen akabar mnjoor karata tha vah usake sadasy ban sakate the. is marg men ane ke lie itavar ka din nishchit tha. is marg men dikshit hone vala vyakti shahanashah ke qadamon par apana sir rakhata tha aur shahanashah use uthakar mntr deta tha jise soofi bhasha men (shast) kaha jata tha. agantuk ko dhyan lagakar is mntr ki punaravritti karani padati thi. is sootr men akabar ka priy udaghosh 'allah-u-akabar' arthat eeshvar mahanh hai, sammilit tha. dikshit hone valon ko jahan tak snbhav ho mans se door rahana padata tha aur kam se kam apane janm ke mahine men to aisa karana hi hota tha aur apane janm din par bhoj tatha dan ityadi dena padata tha. diksha ke atirikt isamen koee ritiyan, adambar ya pooja sthal, koee pujari varg, koee pavitr pustaken ya adesh nahin the. badayooni ka kahana hai ki isake sadasyon ki bhakti ke char star the arthath sampatti, jivan samman aur dharm ka balidan. se star bhi soofi marg ke staron ke saman the. dharm tyag ka arth vastutah dharm ke snkirn siddhanton par bahy adambaron ke prati moh ka tyag tha aur yah bhi soofi siddhanton ke samantar tha. akabar ne apane shishy banane ke lie n to bal ka istemal kiya aur n hi paise ka. vastav men baden hindoo samnto sahit bahut se agraniy saradaron ne isamen sammilit hone se inkar kar diya. unamen se keval birabal hi isaka sadasy tha.

manushy se ooncha darja

is marg men dikshit hone valon ki snkhya bahut kam thi aur unamen bhi bahut se akabar ke apane kripapatr the. atah is marg dvara koee mahattvapoorn rajanitik bhoomika ada karane ki ummid nahin thi. vastutah jab akabar ne yah marg chalaya to vah apani antarik sthiti ko sudridh kar chuka tha aur is prakar ka yatharthavadi pradarshan karane ki koee avashyakata nahin thi. tab akabar ka uddeshy kya tha? is vishay men itihasakaron ne alag-alag mat die hain. badayooni ne isaka karan ayagy chapalooson aur adharmikon dvara akabar ka dimag kharab karana mana hai. usaka vichar hai ki unhonne akabar ko yah kaha ki vah yug ka "insan-e-kamil" athava "paripoorn manushy" hai. unake kahane par hi akabar ne 'pabos' ki parampara, arthath shahanashah ke samane qadam bosi, shuroo karavaee. yah riti pahale sirf khuda ki ibadat ke lie apanaee jati thi. is tarah ke bahut se udaharan hain jabaki shasakon ne apane ap men sansarik aur adhyatmik shaktiyon ko milaya. abul fajal kahata hai ki yah logon ke lie svabhavik hai ki vah apane shasak se adhyatmik margadarshan ki asha karen aur akabar logon ko adhyatmik anand prapt karane aur ek doosare ke virodhi sampradayon men samanjasy sthapit karane men poori tarah samarth tha.

akabar ka lakshy jo bhi raha ho tauhid-e-ilahi usake sath hi khatm ho gaya. dikshit hone valon ko shast dene ki pratha kuchh samay tak jahangir ne bhi apanaee lekin jaldi hi ise samapt kar diya gaya. phir bhi raja ka jaduee shaktiyon ka malik manane ki pravritti bani rahi aur log raja ke sparsh ya pani se bhare bartan par sans chhodane se rog mukt hone ki kalpanaen karate rahe. yahan tak ki aurngazeb jaisa kathor shasak bhi is vishvas ko tod nahin saka.

sulah-kul

akabar ne doosare tariqon se vibhinn dharmon men sulah-kul arthath shanti aur samanjasy ke siddhant par bal diya. usane ek anuvad vibhag bhi sthapit kiya jahan snskrit, arabi, grik, ityadi bhashaon ki rachanaon ka farasi men anuvad hota tha. 'sinhasan battisi' 'atharv ved' aur 'baibil' ka anuvad sabase pahale kiya gaya. usake bad 'mahabharat' 'gita' aur 'ramayan' ka anuvad hua. 'pnchatantr' jaisi anek rachanaon tatha bhoogol, ganit aur darshan par bhi anek rachanaon ka anuvad kiya gaya. 'quran' ka bhi sambhavatah pahali bar anuvad hua.

samajik sudhar

akabar ne anek samajik aur shaikshik sudhar kiye. usane sati pratha band kar di. vidhava keval apani ichchha se hi sati ho sakati thi. chhoti ayu ki vidhavaen jinhonne vidhava hone tak pati ke sath sahavas nahin kiya hota tha, bilkul bhi sati nahin ho sakati thin. vidhava vivah ko bhi qanooni manyata di gee. akabar ek se adhik patni rakhane ke haq men nahin tha basharte pahali patni niahsntan n ho. vivah ki ayu bhi badhakar ladakiyon ke lie chaudah varsh ladakon ke lie solah varsh kar di gayi thi. madira ki bikri ko simit kiya gaya. lekin inamen se pratyek qadam saphal nahin raha. jaisa ki ham janate hain samajik vidhan ki saphalata bahut kuchh janata ke sahayog par nirbhar karati hai. akabar ka yug andhavishvason ka yug tha aur aisa lagata hai ki usake samajik sudharon ko simit saphalata hi mil saki.

akabar ne shaikshik pathyakram men bhi kafi snshodhan kiya. usane naitik-shiksha, ganit tatha dharm-nirapeksh vishayon jaise krishi, jyamiti, khagol vigyan, prashasan ke siddhant, tark-shastr, itihas adi par adhik bal diya. usane kalakaron, kaviyon, chitrakaron aur sngitakaron ko bhi snrakshan diya. usaka darabar prasiddh vyaktiyon arthath navaratnon ki upasthiti ke karan prasiddh ho gaya.

is prakar akabar ke shashan kal men rajy anivary roop se dharmanirapeksh, samajik vishayon men udar aur chetana tatha sanskritik ekata ko protsahan dene vala ban gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah