मुग़ल काल 5  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

prashasan

gujarat vijay ke bad ke dashak men akabar ko samrajy ke prashanik mamalon ki or dhyan dene ka samay mila. sherashah dvara sthapit paddhati men islamashah ki mrityu ke bad gadabad ho gee thi. isalie akabar ko naye sire se kary karana tha. akabar ke samane sabase badi samasya bhoo-rajasv ke prashasan ki thi. sherashah ne aisi paddhati ka prachalan kiya tha jisamen ausat qimaten krishi-bhoomi ki nap karake tay ki jati thin aur yah fasal ki utpad-ausat par nirdharit hoti thin. akabar ne sherashah ki paddhati ko hi apanaya. lekin kuchh samay bad yah anubhav kiya ki bazar-bhavon ko nirdharit karane men kafi samay lag jata hai aur phir qimaton ka nirdharan shahi darabar ke as-pas ki qimaton par adharit hota tha jo aksar gramin kshatron ki qimaton se adhik hoti thin. isase kisanon ko adhik ansh kar ke roop men dena padata tha.

krishi aur rajasv

atah akabar ne varshik anuman ki paddhati ko phir se lagoo kiya. qanoonago jo vnshagat bhoomidhar hote the, tatha any sthaniy afasaron ko, jo sthaniy paristhitiyon se parichit hote the, ko vastavik utpadan, kheti ki sthiti, sthaniy qimaton, adi ki soochana upalabdh karane ka adesh diya jata tha. lekin har kshetr ke qanoonago beeeman the aur ve vastavik utpadan ko aksar chhipa jate the. isalie varshik anuman ki paddhati se bhi kisanon aur rajy ki pareshaniyan kam nahin hueen. gujarat se lautane pashchath (1573) akabar ne bhoo-rajasv par vyaktigat roop se dhyan diya. samast uttar bharat men karodi pad ke adhikariyon ki niyukti huee. ek karod dam (ru0 2,50,000) kar ke roop men ekatr karana unaka uttaradayitv tha. vastavik utpadan, sthaniy qimaten, utpadakata, adi par unaki soochana ke adhar par, akabar ne 1580 men dah-sala nam ki nayi pranali lagoo ki. is pranali ke antargat alag-alag fasalon ke pichhale das (dah) varsh ke utpadan aur isi avadhi men unaki qimaton ka ausat nikala jata tha. is ausat upaj ka tihaee rajasv hota tha. lekin rajy ki mang nagad bhugatan ki hoti thi. upaj se naqadi men yah parivartan das varshon ki qimaton ke ausat par adharit hota tha. is prakar bigha men kul utpadan manon men diya jata tha aur qimaton ke ausat ke adhar par prati bigha rupayo men parivartit kar diya jata tha.

bad men is pranali men aur sudhar kiya gaya. isake lie n ke keval sthaniy qimaton ko adhar banaya gaya balki ek hi tarah ke krishi-utpadan vale paraganon ko vibhinn kar halaqon men vibhajit kiya gaya. is prakar kisan ko bhoo-rajasv sthaniy qimat aur sthaniy utpadan ke anusar dena hota tha.
is pranali ke kee labh the. jaise hi kisan dvara boye gaye khet ko lohe ke dallon se jude banson dvara nap liya jata tha, kisan aur rajy donon ko yah pata chal jata tha ki kar ki rashi kitani hogi. yadi sookha ya badh adi ke karan fasal kharab ho jati thi, to kisan ko rajasv men chhoot milati thi. map aur us par adharit kar nirdharan ki pranali ko zabti-pranali kaha jata tha. akabar ne is pranali ko lahaur se ilahabad aur malava tatha gujarat ke kshetron men lagoo kiya. dah-sala-pranali zabti-pranali ka vikas thi.

akabar ke shasanakal men kar nirdharan ki any paddhatiyan apanaee geen. sabase purani aur samanyatah prachalit pranali bataee athava galla bakhshi kahalati thi. is pranali men galle ko aur kisanon aur rajy men nishchit anupat men bant liya jata tha. utpadan ko saf karane ke pashchath ya us samay jab katane ke pashchath usake gaththar bandh die jate the athava kataee se poorv kabhi bhi vibhajit kar diya jata tha. yah pranali kafi sidhi aur asan thi, lekin usake lie kafi badi snkhya men eemanadar karmachariyon ki avashyakata padati thi, jinhen anaj ke pakate samay aur kataee ke samay kheton men upasthit rahana padata tha.

kuchh paristhitiyon men kisanon ko zabti ya bataee pranali chunane ki chhoot hoti thi. udaharan ke lie jab kheti nasht ho jati thi, to kisanon ko is prakar ki chhoot di jati thi. bntaee pranali ke antargat kisanon ko upaj ya nagadi men kar-bhugatan ki chhoot thi, yadyapi rajy nagadi men kar lena uchit samajhata tha. kapas, nil, tel-bij, eekh jaisi upaj par to nagad hi kar liya jata tha. isilie inhen nagadi-kheti kaha jata tha. akabar ke shasanakal men ek tisari pranali nasak bhi kafi prachalit thi, lekin isake vishay men nishchit janakari nahin hai. aisa pratit hota hai ki yah pranali kisanon dvara pichhale varshon men kie ge bhugatan ke adhar par kachche anuman par adharit thi. is vishay men katipay adhunik itihasakaron ka mat hai ki yah kar nirdharan ke sthan par krishi-kar ka lekha jokha karane ki pranali thi. any vidvanon ka mat yah hai ki yah pranali kheti ke nirikshan aur pichhale anubhavon par adharit anumit kar nirdharan ki pranali thi, jo ganve ko samoohik roop se bhugatan karana hota tha. kar nirdharan ki is kachchi pranali ko knkoot bhi kaha jata tha. kar nirdharan ki kee any pranaliyan bhi alag-alag kshetron men prachalit rahin.

bhoo-rajasv nirdharit karate samay boaee ki nistarata ka bhi dhyan rakha jata tha. jis zamin par har sal boaee hoti thi, use polaj kaha jata tha. jab us par boaee nahin hoti thi, to use parati kaha jata tha. parati zamin ki boaee hone par kar ki poori dar (polaj) deni padati thi. jab zamin do-tin salon tak bin boee rahati thi, to use chachar kaha jata tha, aur usase adhik samay tak bin boee rahane par bnjar kahalati thi. is zamin par kar riyasati daron par lagaya jata tha, ya us par panchaven ya anthaven sal polaj dar lagaee jati thi. is prakar rajy khali padi zamin par kheti karane ko protsahit karata tha. zamin ko upaj ke adhar par vargikrit bhi kiya jata tha, lekin yah kar nirdharan ki paddhati adi par bhi nirbhar karata tha.

akabar kheti ke vistar aur adhar men bahut ruchi leta tha. vah amilon ko kisanon se pitavat vyavahar karane ko kahata tha. avashyakata padane par vah kisanon ko bij, auzaron, pashuon adi ke lie taqavi rin bhi deta tha. in rinon ko asan kishton men vapas liya jata tha. yah kisanon ko adhik se adhik zamin par jutaee karane aur ghatiya fasalon ke sthan par badhiya fasalon ko ugane ke lie protsahan dene hetu kiya jata tha. isake lie us kshetr ke zamindaron ko bhi sahayata karane ke lie kaha jata tha. zamindaron ko paidavar ka kuchh ansh svayn lene ka vnshagat adhikar prapt tha. kisanon ko bhi jutaee-buaee ka adhikar vnshagat tha, aur ve jab tak kar dete rahate the, unhen bedakhal nahin kiya ja sakata tha. dah-sala pranali men das salon ke lie ek hi dar ke kar nirdharit nahin kiye jate the. yah sthayi bhi nahin hoti thi. parantu, phir bhi akabar ki pranali kuchh parivartanon ke sath satrahavin shatabdi ke ant tak mugal samrajy ki niti rahi. zabti-pranali ka shrey raja todaramal ko jata hai, aur use raja todaramal ka bandobast bhi kaha jata hai. todaramal ek yogy rajasv adhikari tha, jo pahale sherashah ke adhin kary karata tha. lekin vah akabar ke shasanakal ke yogy rajasv adhikariyon men se ek tha.

sudridh sena

akabar bina sudridh sena ke n to samrajy ka vistar kar sakata tha, aur n hi us par apana adhikar banaye rakh sakata tha. isake lie akabar ko apane sainik-adhikariyon aur sipahiyon ko sugathit karana tha. akabar ne in donon lakshyon ki poorti manasabadari pranali se ki. is pranali men pratyek saradar aur doosare afasaron ko ek pad (manasab) diya gaya. nimnatam pad 10 sipahiyon ke oopar tha aur saradaron ke lie uchchatam pad 5,000 sipahiyon par tha. akabar ke shasanakal ke ant men isako 7,000 sipahiyon tak badha diya gaya. rakt se sambaddh rajakumaron ko bade manasab die jate the. in padon ko do vargon zat aur savar men vibhajit kiya gaya. zat ka arth hai vyaktigat. isase vyakti ka pad-sthan tatha vetan nirdharit hota tha. savar ka arth ghudasavaron ki snkhya, jo manasabadar apane adhin rakhata tha. jis vyakti ko apane zat-pad ke anupat men savar rakhane ka adhikar hota tha, vah pratham shreni men ata tha. yadi savaron ki snkhya adhi ya adhi se adhik hoti thi, to vah doosari shreni men ata tha, aur usase niche tisari shreni hoti thi. is prakar pratyek pad (manasab) men tin shreniyan hoti thin. jo apane pas badi snkhya men savar rakhate the, unhen zat vetan ke oopar do rupaye prati savar ka atirikt vetan milata tha parantu koee bhi apane jat-pad se adhik savar nahin rakh sakata tha. halanki is vyavastha men samay-samay par parivartan hote rahe, par jab tak samrajy raha mool snrachana yahi rahi.

manasabadar

apane vyaktigat vetan men se hi manasabadar ko hathi, oont, khachchar aur gadiyan rakhani padati thi. ye sena ke yatayat ke lie avashyak the. mugal manasabadaron ko bahut achchha vetan milata tha. sambhavatah unake vetan us samay snsar men sabase adhik the. jis manasabadar ke pas 100 zat ka manasab hota tha, use 500 rupaye vetan milata tha. 1,000 zat ka manasab hone par vetan ki rashi 4,400 rupaye hoti thi. jabaki 5,000 zat ka manasab hone par yah rashi badhakar 30,000 rupaye ho jati thi. us kal men koee ayakar nahin hota tha. us samay rupaye ki kray-shakti 1966 ke anupat men 60 guna thi. yadyapi manasabadaron ko apane vetan ka adha ansh pashu ityadi rakhane men aur apani jagir ki vyavastha par vyay karana padata tha, phir bhi ve shanoshauqat ka jivan vyatit karate the.

10:20 ka niyam

is bat ka vishesh dhyan rakha jata tha ki ki bharti kie jane vale savar anubhavi aur kushal hon. is kary ke lie pratyek savar ka khata (chehara) rakha jata tha aur ghodon par shahi nishan lagaya jata tha. ise dagana kaha jata tha. pratyek manasabadar ko samay-samay par apane sainikon ko shahanashah dvara niyukt samiti ke samane nirikshan ke lie lana padata tha. ghodon ka nirikshan bahut dhyan se kiya jata tha aur keval arabi aur iraqi nasl ke ghode hi rakhe jate the. pratyek 10 ghudasavaron ke pichhe manasabadar ko 20 ghode rakhane padate the. isaka karan yah tha ki kooch ke samay ghodon ko aram diya jata tha aur yuddh ke samay nayi kumuk ki avashyakata hoti thi. jab tak 10:20 niyam ka palan kiya jata raha, mugal ghudasena sashakt rahi.

is bat ki bhi vyavastha thi ki manasabadaron ke dalon men savar mishrit arthat mugal, pathan, hindustani aur rajapoot sabhi jatiyon ke hon. is prakar se akabar ne jati aur vishishtatagat bhavana ko kamazor karane ka prayatn kiya. mugal aur rajapoot saradaron ko hi is bat ki anumati thi ki ve apani tukadiyon men keval mugal aur rajapoot savar rakhen, kintu dhire-dhire mishrit savaron ki paddhati samany roop se apana li gee. ghud savaron ke atirikt sena men tirandaz, bandooqachi khandaq khodane vale bhi bharti kie jate the. inake vetan alag-alag the. ek savar ka ausat vetan bis rupaye prati mas tha. eerani aur turki savaron ko kuchh adhik vetan milata tha. paidal sainikon ko tin rupaye prati mas milate the. sipahiyon ke vetan ko manasabadar ke vyaktigat vetan men jod diya jata tha. manasabadar ko jagir ke roop men vetan diya jata tha. kabhi-kabhi manasabadaron ko vetan naqad bhi diya jata tha. akabar jagir pratha ko pasand nahin karata tha, kintu vah ise samapt nahin kar saka, kyonki isaki jaden bahut gahari thin. kyonki jagir vnshagat adhikar nahin hoti thi aur usase us kshetr men vidyaman adhikaron men koee parivartan nahin hota tha. isalie jagir dene ka keval yahi arth tha ki rajy ko dey bhoo-rajasv jagiradar ko diya jata tha.

akabar ke pas ek badi sena thi, jo usake angarakshak ka kary karati thi. usake pas bahut bada astabal tha. usake pas ek tukadi kulin ghudasavaron ki bhi thi. yah tukadi un sainikon ki thi jo saradaron se rakt se snmbandhit the kintu jinake pas itani suvidhaen nahin thin ki apani tukadi ka nirman kar saken, ya isamen ve log the jinhonne akabar ko prabhavit kiya tha. unhen ath se das ghode rakhane ka adhikar tha aur unhen lagabhag 800 rupaye vetan prati mas milata tha. ve keval shahanashah ke prati uttaradayi the aur unaki haziri bhi alag hoti thi. in sainikon ki tulana madhy yugin yoorop ke naits se ki ja sakati hai. akabar ko ghodon aur hathiyon ka bahut shauq tha. usake pas ek brihad topakhana bhi tha. topon men usaki vishesh ruchi thi. usane kholi ja sakane vali topon ka nirman karavaya, jinhen hathi ya oont dho sakate the. usake pas ghere ke samay qile ki divaren todane vali bhari topen bhi thi. isamen se kuchh to itani bhari thin ki unhen khinchane ke lie 100 ya 200 bail aur kee hathi istemal karane padate the. akabar jab bhi rajadhani se bahar jata tha, ek mazaboot topakhana usake sath chalata tha.

is bat ki koee janakari nahin hai ki akabar ki yojana nau-sena ka sngathan karane ki bhi thi. mazaboot nau-sena ka abhav mugal samrajy ki hamesha kamazori raha. yadi akabar ko samay mila hota to, sambhavatah vah is or bhi dhyan deta. usane yuddh ke lie navon ka ek beda avashy gathit kiya tha. jisaka prayog usane poorv ki or kie ge apane abhiyanon men kiya. inamen se kuchh naven 30 mitar lambi thin aur 350 tan tak bojh dho sakati thin.

prashasan ka gathan

sthaniy-prashasan men akabar ne koee parivartan nahin kiya. paragana aur sarakar ki sthiti pahale jaisi rahi. sarakar ke mukhy adhikari faujadar aur amalaguzar hote the. faujadar ka kam nyay aur vyavastha banae rakhana hota tha aur amalaguzar bhoo-rajasv ke nirdharan aur vibhinn kshetron ko jagir, khalisa aur inam men vibhajit kiya gaya tha. khalisa kshetron ki ay sidhi sarakari khajane men jati thi. inam kshetr par jo hota tha vah vidvanon aur piron adi ko diya jata tha. zagir saradaron, shahi parivar ke sadasyon aur begamon ko di jati thi. amalaguzar ka yah uttaradayitv hota tha ki pratyek prakar ki zamin ki dekhabhal kare taki kar nirdharan aur vasoolane ke niyamon ka palan saman roop se ho sake. keval svayatta-prapt rajaon ko yah chhoot thi ki ve apen kshetr men parnparik rajasv-pranali ka palan karate rahen. akabar unhen bhi shahi pranali apanane ke lie utsahit karata tha. akabar ne kendriy aur prantiy prashasan ke gathan ki or bahut dhyan diya. usake kendriy shasan ka dhancha dilli saltanat ke kendriy shasan ke dhanche par adharit tha, kintu vibhinn vibhagon k karyon ka savadhani se punargathan kiya gaya aur kary karane ke lie bahut spasht niyam banaye gaye. is prakar akabar ne shasan-pranali ko naya roop pradan karake usamen nayi jan phoond di.

vazir

madhy eshiyaee aur taimoori parampara men vazir sarvadhik shaktishali hota tha aur usake adhin vibhinn vibhagon ke sarvochch adhikari kam karate the. vah prashasan aur shasak ke bich pramukh sampark hota tha. dhire-dhire sainik vibhag ek alag vibhag ban gaya. nyay-vibhag hamesha se hi alag hota tha. is prakar vyavahar men ek sarvashaktishali vazir rakhane ki parampara samapt ho gee thi. parantu vakil hone ke nate bairamakhan ne sarvashaktishali vazir ke adhikaron ka hi upabhog kiya tha. akabar ne kendriy prashasan ke dhanche men mahattvapoorn parivartan kie. usane vibhinn vibhagon ko alag-alag adhikar die taki ek-doosare se unaka sntulan bana rahe aur ek-doosare par nazar bhi rahe. vakil ka pad samapt nahin kiya gaya, lekin usake sab adhikar samapt kar die ge aur vah keval sajavat ka pad rah gaya. yah pad samay-samay par bade saradaron ko diya jata tha. kintu is pad par kam karane vale vyakti ka prashasan ke mamalon men koee dakhal nahin hota tha. rajasv-vibhag ka pramukh vazir hi hota tha aur aksar vah bade saradaron men se hi koee hota tha. kee saradaron ke pas vazir se bhi oonche manasab hote the. atah akabar ke kal men vazir shasak ka mukhy salahakar nahin hota tha, kintu vah rajasv ke mamalon ka visheshgy hota tha. is bat par bal dene ke lie hi akabar "vazir" ke sthan par divan ya divan-e-ala namon ka prayog karata tha. kabhi-kabhi ek sath kee vyaktiyon ko divan ka kary snyukt roop se karane ko kaha jata tha. divan samast ay aur inam zaminon ka kendriy adhikari hota tha.

mir bakhshi

sainik vibhag ka mukhiya mir bakhshi kahalata tha. saradaron ka pramukh mir bakhshi hota tha, n ki divan. isalie pramukh saradaron ko hi yah pad diya jata tha. manasab ke padon ki niyukti aur padonnati adi ki sifarish shahanashah ke pas mir bakhshi ke madhyam se hi jati thi. sifarish mnzoor ho jane par pushti ke lie tatha pad par niyukti vyakti ko jagir pradan karane ke lie divan ke pas nam bheja jata tha. padonnati ke lie bhi yahi paddhati apanayi jati thi. samrajy ki guptachar snsthaon ka pramukh bhi mir bakhshi hota tha. samrajy ke pratyek bhag men guptachar adhikari (barid) aur sndesh lekhak (vaqaya-navis) niyukt kie jate the. unaki soochanaen mir bakhshi ke madhyam se darabar men pahunchaee jati thi. isase yah spasht hai ki divan aur mir bakhshi saman padon par the aur ek-doosare ke poorak the aur ek-doosare kam par nazar rakhate the.

mir saman

tisara mahattvapoorn adhikari mir saman hota tha. vah shahi parivar ke kamon ko dekhata tha. jisamen haram ke lie avashyak bhojan samagri aur any vastuon ki apoortti bhi sammilit thi. inamen se bahut si vastuon ka utpadan shahi karakhanon men hota tha. samrat ke atyant vishvasaniy saradaron ko hi is pad par niyukt kiya jata tha. darabar ki maryada ka palan karane aur shahi angarakshakon ka nirikshan bhi isi adhikari ka uttaradayitv tha. chautha mahattvapoorn vibhag nyay-vibhag tha, jisaka pramukh adhikari pradhan qazi hota tha. is pad ko kabhi-kabhi mukhy sadar ke pad ke sath mila diya jata tha. sadar sab kalyan snsthaon aur dharmik snsthaon ki dekhabhal karata tha. is pad ke sath bahut se adhikar jude hote the, aur ise poora snrakshan milata tha. yah vibhag akabar ke pradhan qazi abdulanabi ke bhrashtachar aur rishvatakhori ke karan badanam ho gaya.


vibhinn vyaktiyon ko pradatt anudanon ka savadhani se adhyayan karane ke bad akabar ne jagir aur khalisa zamin se inam ki zamin ko alag kar diya tatha inam-zamin ke vitaran aur prashasan ke lie usane samrajy ko chhah vibhinn halaqon men vibhajit kar diya. inam ki do visheshataen ullekhaniy hain. pahali yah ki akabar ne janaboojh kar yah niti apanayi ki inam bina kisi dharmik bhedabhav ke diya jae. anek hindoo mathon ko die ge anudanon ki sanaden abhi bhi surakshit hain. doosari visheshata yah thi ki akabar ne yah niti apanaee ki inam men adhi bhoomi aisi ho jo khali padi ho, lekin krishi-yogy ho. is prakar inam pane valon ko kheti ke vistar ke lie protsahit kiya gaya.

praja se milane tatha divanon se bhent karane ke lie akabar ne apani samay-sarini badi savadhani se banaee. usaka din mahal ke jharokhe par upasthit hokar darshan dene se hota tha. shahanashah ke darshanon ke lie badi snkhya men log upasthit hote the, aur avashyakatanusar apani fariyad kar sakate the. in fariyadon par turant ya bad men divan-e-am men karravaee hoti thi, jo dopahar tak chalata tha. usake pashchath shahanashah bhojan aur aram ke lie inam ghar men chale jate the. mnntriyon ke lie alag samay nirdharit hota tha. gopaniy mntrana ke lie divanon ko akabar ke gusalakhane ke nikat sthit ek kaksh men bulaya jata tha. dhire-dhire gopaniy mntrana-kaksh gusalakhane ke nam se mashahoor ho gaya. 1580 men akabar ne sampoorn samrajy ko barah soobon men vibhajit kar diya. ye the—bngal, bihar, ilahabad, avadh, agara, dilli, lahaur, multan, qabul, ajamer, malava aur gujarat. pratyek soobe men ek soobedar, ek divan, ek bakhshi, ek sadar, ek qazi aur ek vaqaya navis ki niyukti ki gee. is prakar niyantran aur sntulan ke siddhant par adharit sugathit prashasan soobon men bhi lagoo kiya gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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