औरंगज़ेब तथा दक्कन के राज्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

aurngazeb tatha dakkan ke rajy (1658-87)

dakkan rajyon ke sath mugal badashah aurngazeb ke sambandhon ko tin charanon men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai. 'pahala charan' 1668 ee. tak tha, jisake dauran mugalon ka pramukh lakshy ahamadanagar rajy ke un kshetron ko bhi bijapur se vapas lena tha, jo 1636 ee. ki sndhi ke antargat bijapur ko mil gaye the. 'doosara charan' 1684 ee. tak chala, jisake dauran dakkan men sabase adhik khatara marathon ko samajha gaya aur mugalon ne shivaji tatha usake putr shambhaji ke khilaf bijapur tatha golakunda ko apane paksh men milane ke prayas kiye. sath hi mugalon ne dakkan ke rajyon ke kshetron par bhi hamale shuroo kiye aur unhen poori tarah mugalon ke adhin lane ka prayatn kiya. 'antim charan' us samay shuroo hua jab marathon ke khilaf bijapur tatha golakunda ka sahayog hasil karane se nirash hokar aurngazeb ne bijapur tatha golakunda ko hi poori tarah apane qabze men karane ka nishchay kiya.

pratham charan (1658-1668 ee.)

1636 ki sndhi ke antargat marathon ke khilaf bijapur tatha golakunda ke samarthan ko prapt karane ke lie shahajahan ne rishvat ke roop men ahamadanagar rajy ke ek tihaee kshetr ko unhen dene ke alava yah vachan diya tha ki vah kabhi bhi bijapur tatha golakunda par qabza nahin karega. lekin is niti ka shahajahan ne svayn hi tyag kar diya. 1657-58 men golakunda tatha bijapur ke rajyon ko mita dene ki dhamaki di gee. golakunda ko bahut bada harjana dena pada tatha bijapur ko 1636 men mile nizamashahi kshetron ko samarpit karana pada. mugalon ne is kary ko is adhar par uchit thaharaya ki bijapur tatha golakunda ne karnatak ke vistrit kshetron par qabza kar liya tha aur ve isake lie mugalon ko harjana dene par isalie badhy the, kyonki ye donon rajy mugalon ke adhin the tatha unaki vijay mugalon ki tatasthata ke karan hi sambhav ho saki thi. isake alava dakkan men mugal sena ka kharcha bahut adhik tha aur dakkan ke rajyon se prapt rashi isake lie poori nahin padati thi. bahut samay tak yah kharcha malava tatha gujarat ke khazane ki rashi se poora kiya jata raha.

aurngazeb ki anshik saphalata

dakkan men simit roop se age badhane ki mugalon ki niti ke dooragami prabhav pade, jise n to shahajahan aur n hi aurngazeb us samay poori tarah samajh sake. is niti ke karan hamesha ke lie mugalon ki sndhiyan tatha unake vayadon ke prati avishvas ho gaya aur isake karan mugal, marathon ke viruddh any shaktiyon ko sngathit nahin kar sake. aurngazeb ne 25 varshon tak is niti ki saphalata ke lie prayas kie, lekin use vishesh saphalata nahin mili.

dakkan ki samasyaen

aurngazeb ke samrat banane ke samay dakkan men kee samasyaen usake samane sir uthaye khadi thin. inamen se do samasyaen bahut hi mahattvapoorn thin-

  1. maratha chhatrapati shivaji ki badhati huee shakti
  2. bijapur ko is bat ke lie razi karana ki vah 1636 ki sndhi ke antargat prapt kshetron ko mugalon ko vapas kar de.

1657 men kalyani tatha bidar ko vapas le liya gaya. 1660 men rishvat dekar parnda bhi hasil kar liya gaya. lekin sholapur abhi bhi bacha tha. aurngazeb ne yah asha ki thi ki in pratikool paristhitiyon se badhy hokar adilashah shivaji ke viruddh mugalon ke abhiyan men saharsh hi sath dega. par yah asha galat sabit huee. 1636 men shivaji ke viruddh adilashah ka samarthan prapt karane ke lie shahajahan ne use bahut badi rishvat di thi. aurngazeb adilashah ko 1636 men prapt kshetron ke alava aur kuchh de bhi nahin sakata tha. isake viparit aurngazeb ne adilashah dvara apanaye gaye asahayog ke ravaiye se krodhit hokar shivaji tatha adilashah donon ko sabaq sikhane ke lie raja jayasinh ko dakkan bhej diya.

isase spasht hai ki aurngazeb ko mugal sena ki shakti tatha apane virodhiyon ki kamazori par poora bharosa tha. lekin jayasinh bahut kushal kootanitigy tha. usane aurngazeb se kaha "in donon moorkhon par ek sath hamala karana meri nasamajhi hogi." us samay jayasinh hi akela mugal rajanitigy tha, jisane dakkan men poori tarah age badhane ki niti ka samarthan kiya. jayasinh ka vishvas tha ki dakkan men bina poorn akramak niti ke marathon ki samasya nahin sulajhaee ja sakati. aurngazeb isi nishkarsh par bis varsh bad pahuncha.

jayasinh ki asaphalata tatha mrityu

bijapur ke viruddh abhiyan ki taiyari karate samay jayasinh ne aurngazeb ko likha tha- "bijapur vijay sare dakkan tatha karnatak ke vijay ki bhoomika hai." lekin aurngazeb itana sahasapoorn qadam uthane se hichakicha raha tha. usake karanon ka keval andaza lagaya ja sakata hain. us samay uttar pashchim men eeran ke shasak ka khatara bana hua tha. udhar dakkan ka abhiyan bada lamba tatha kathin hota aur vahan samrat ko svayn rahana padata, kyonki itani badi sena kisi saradar ya kisi rajakumar ke netritv men nahin chhodi ja sakati thi. mahatvakankshi shahajahan ne is bat ko anubhav kiya tha aur isalie jab tak shahajahan jivit tha, aurngazeb kisi door ke abhiyan par kaise ja sakata tha.

simit sadhanon ke karan jayasinh ke bijapur abhiyan (1665) ko asaphal hona hi tha. is abhiyan ke karan dakkan ke rajy mugalon ke khilaf sngathit ho gaye aur qutubashah ne bijapur ki sahayata ke lie ek badi sena bheji. dakkan ke rajyon ne chhapamar niti apanaee. unhonne jayasinh ko bijapur ke door-daraz kshetron men akraman karane diya, taki mugalon ko vahan bad men koee rasad prapt n ho sake. jab jayasinh ko mahasoos hua ki vah shahar par hamala nahin kar sakata tha, kyonki vah apane sath badi topon ko nahin laya tha aur shahar ki gherabndi asambhav thi. pichhe lautana bhi use bada mnhaga pada. jayasinh ke is abhiyan se mugalon ko n to dhan aur n hi kisi kshetr ki prapti ho saki. is nirasha tatha aurngazeb ki narazagi ke karan hi jayasinh ki 1667 ee. akal mrityu ho gee. isake agale varsh 1668 men mugalon ne rishvat dekar sholapur ko hasil kar liya aur is prakar pratham charan samapt hua.

doosara charan (1668-1681 ee.)

1668 tatha 1676 ke bich mugal chupachap dakkan ki sthiti ko bhanpate rahe. is avadhi men golakunda men 'madanna' tatha 'akhanna' ke shaktishali hone se dakkan ki rajaniti men ek naya tatv paida ho gaya tha. ye donon yogy bhaee 1672 se lekar 1687 men is rajy ki samapti tak, vahan ke raja jitane shaktishali bane rahe. in bhaiyon ne golakunda, bijapur tatha shivaji ko sath milakar ek trigutiy shakti sthapit karane ka prayatn kiya. yah niti bijapur ke darabar ke antarik jhagadon tatha shivaji ki asim mahatvakanksha ke karan saphal nahin ho saki. bijapur ke vibhinn vargon se yah asha bhi nahin ki ja sakati thi ki ve ek sthir niti par qayam rahen. apane tatkalik hiton ke anusar ve kabhi to mugalon ka sath dete aur kabhi unake khilaf ho jate the. shivaji bhi kabhi bijapur ko lootata to kabhi mugalon ke viruddh sngharsh men usaka sath deta. yadyapi aurngazeb dakkan men marathon ki badhati shakti se chintit tha, phir bhi vah dakkan men mugal vistar par rok lagana chahata tha. isalie usane kee bar bijapur ki gaddi par aise shasak ko baithane ke prayas kie, jo shivaji ke viruddh mugalon ka sath de aur golakunda se prabhavit n ho.

is niti ke antargat mugalon ne bijapur men kee bar hastakshep kiya. pahali bar unhonne 1676 men hastakshep kiya, jab vahan ke pratishasak khavas khan ko jisane rishvat lekar shivaji ke khilaf mugalon ka sath dene ka vachan diya tha, ukhad phainka gaya. mugalon ne khavas khan ko apane afagan pratidvandviyon ko samapt karane ke lie madad di. lekin is prayas men mugalon ko bijapur tatha golakunda ki sngathit shakti ka samana karana pada. yadyapi mugalon ne rishvat ka rasta apanakar naladurg tatha gulavarg ko hasil kar liya, ve marathon ke virodhi tatha apane paksh ke kisi shasak ko gaddi par baithane ke mool lakshy ko poora nahin kar sake.

aurngazeb ki niti

ab aurngazeb ne ek naya tariqa apanaya. usane mugal prashasak bahadur khan ko vapas bulakar usaki jagah aise afagan saradar aur sainik diler khan ko bheja, jisake bijapur ke afaganon ke sath bade achchhe sambandh the. diler khan ne afagan neta bahalol khan par golakunda ke khilaf mugal abhiyan men sath dene ke lie zor dala. golakunda ke shasak ne apani rajadhani men shivaji ka khule dil se svagat kiya tha, kyonki vahan vastavik shakti madanna tatha akhanna ke hathon men thi. inhin bhaiyon ke karan mugalon tatha bijapur ka milajula abhiyan 1677 men asaphal ho gaya. bijapur ke afagan ab musibat men pad gaye aur unhen adilashahi samrajy ko bachane ke lie qutubashah ki sahayata mangani padi. qutubashah ne sahayata ke badale kuchh sharten rakhin, jinhen afaganon ko manana pada. inake anusar dakkani gut ke neta sidi masood ko pratishasak banaya gaya tatha yah nishchay hua ki sidi masood ko afagan sainikon ka vetan chukane aur usake bad unhen barkhast karane ke lie chhah lakh rupaye diye jaenge aur bijapuri prashasan ke kamakaj men golakunda se ek salahakar bheja jaega. is salahakar pad par akhanna ko niyukt kiya gaya. bijapur tatha dakkan ki rajaniti men haidarabad ke prabhav ka yah charmotkarsh tha.

shivaji ka samajhaute se alag rahana

kuchh samay tak shivaji is samajhaute se alag rahe. unhonne apane karnatak ke abhiyan ke dauran looti gee sampatti ka hissa qutubashah ko dene se inkar kar usaka krodh mol le liya tha. ab is bat par samajhauta hua ki shivaji apani gatividhiyon ko konkan tak hi simit rakhenge. is sari sthiti men sabase adhik anishchayata shivaji ke karan hi bani thi, jo apani bhoomika akele hi nibhana chahate the. karnatak se lautakar unhonne hinsa ki niti jari rakhi aur bijapur ko apane paksh men karane ka shadayntr racha. sidi masood ne shivaji ko likha "ham padosi hain. ham ek hi namak khate hain. rajy ke kalyan men apaki aur hamari saman dilachaspi hai. hamara dushman[1] hamen tabah karane ke lie din-rat prayatn kar raha hai. ham donon ko sath milakar videshiyon ko nikal dena chahie."

masood mugal saradar diler khan se bhi mila. shanti prayas ke roop men adilashah ne apani bahan, jisaki bahut pratishtha thi, ki shadi aurngazeb ke putr se karane ka vayada kiya. masood ne aurngazeb ki agya-palan tatha shivaji ka sath n dene ka bhi vachan diya. lekin isi bich masood tatha shivaji ke bich chal rahi batachit ki khabar mugalon ke kanon tak pahunch gee aur unhonne 1679 men bijapur par akraman karane ka nishchay kiya.

mugal rajanitik tatha sainik prayas

is prakar mugalon ke rajanitik tatha sainik prayason ka parinam yahi hua ki unhonne apane khilaf tinon dakkani shaktiyon ko sngathit ho jane ka avasar diya. bijapur ko qabze men karane ka diler khan ka akhiri prayas (1579-1580 ee.) bhi asaphal raha. kyonki kisi bhi mugal prashasak ke pas aise sadhan nahin the, jisase vah dakkan ke rajyon ki sngathit shakti ka muqabala kar sakata. isake alava is sngharsh men karnatak ke paidal sainikon ne bhi bahut mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee. bijapur par dale gaye mugal ghere ko uthane ke lie virad ke shasak prem naik ne 30,000 sainik bheje. shivaji ne bhi bijapur ki sahayata ke lie ek badi sena bheji tatha charon taraf mugalon ke kshetron par akraman arambh kar diya. is prakar diler khan ke hathon kuchh n laga. isake viparit mugal kshetr marathon ke akramanon ke lie khul ge. aurngazeb ne diler khan ko bhi vapas bula liya.

1676 aur 1680 ke bich dakkan men mugalon ko koee vishesh saphalata hasil nahin huee. apane vidrohi putr rajakumar akabar ka pichha karate hue aurngazeb 1681 men jab dakkan pahuncha, tab usane apani sari shakti shivaji ke ladake tatha uttaradhikari shambhaji ke khilaf laga di. bijapur tatha golakunda ko marathon ka sath chhod dene par razi karane ke prayas kie ge. lekin usake prayason ka bhi vahi phal hua, jo pahale ke mugal saradaron ki cheshtaon ka hua tha. mugal ke khilaf marathe dhal ke saman the aur dakkan ke rajy yah nahin chahate the ki unaki yah suraksha samapt ho jae.

aurngazeb ki thos karravaee

ab aurngazeb ne thos qadam uthane ka nishchay kiya. usane adilashah ko apane adhin raja hone ke karan adesh diya ki vah mugal sena ko rasad de, mukt-roop se apane kshetr se hokar guzarane de tatha marathon ke khilaf sngharsh ke lie 5000 se 6000 ghudasavar de. usane mugalon ka virodh karane vale pramukh bijapuri saradar sharazakhan ko bhi barkhast karane ki mang ki. isase adilashah aur mugalon ke bich ka matabhed ubhar kar samane ana hi tha. adilashah ne golakunda tatha shambhaji donon se sahayata ka anurodh kiya aur use yah sahayata turant prapt huee. lekin isake bavajood dakkan rajyon ki yah sngathit sena bhi mugal sena ki shakti ka muqabala nahin kar saki aur visheshakar jab, jaisa ki pahale bhi hua tha, isaka netritv svayn mugal samrat athava ek utsahi rajakumar ke hathon men ho. isake bavajood mugalon ko atharah mahinon tak ghera dal kar rahana pada. isake antim charanon men sena ka netritv aurngazeb ne svayn apane hathon men le liya. ant men 1686 men bijapur ko har manani padi. jis kathinaee se yah abhiyan saphal hua, usase pahale ke jayasinh (1665) tatha diler khan (1679-80) ke abhiyanon ki asaphalata ki bat samajh men ati hai.

mugalon ka golakunda par adhikar

bijapur ke patan ke bad golakunda par mugalon ka akraman nishchit tha. qutubashah ke itane pap the ki kshama nahin kie ja sakate the. usane gair-musalamanon, madanna tatha akhanna ke hathon men itani shakti de di thi tatha anek avasaron par shivaji ka sath diya tha. vishvasaghat ka usaka antim kary aurngazeb ki chetavani ke bavajood bijapur ki sahayata ke lie chalis hazar sainik bhejana tha. 1685 men kade muqabale ke bad mugal golakunda par qabza karane men saphal ho ge. samrat ne bahut harjane, kuchh kshetron tatha madanna aur akhanna ki barkhastagi ke badale qutubashah ko kshama pradan karana svikar kiya. qutubashah bhi is bat par razi ho gaya. madanna aur akhanna ko ghasitakar sadak par laya gaya aur 1686 ee. men unaki hatya kar di gee. lekin yah aparadh bhi qutubashahi rajy ko nahin bacha saka. bijapur ke patan ke bad aurngazeb ne qutubashah ko dnd dene ka nishchay kiya. 1687 men usane apana abhiyan arambh kiya aur chhah mahinon ke bad rishvat tatha dhokhadhadi se qile par qabza karane men saphal raha.

aurngazeb vijayi to ho gaya tha, lekin use jaldi hi pata chal gaya ki bijapur tatha golakunda ka patan usaki kathinaiyon ki shuruat hi thi. ab aurngazeb ke jivan ka akhiri aur sabase kathin charan arambh hua.

antim charan (1687-1707 ee.)

bijapur tatha golakunda ke patan ke bad aurngazeb ne apani sari shakti marathon ke khilaf laga di. burahanapur tatha aurngabad par akramanon ke alava naye maratha shasak shambhaji ne aurngazeb ke vidrohi putr rajakumar akabar ko sharan dekar aurngazeb ko ek badi chunauti di. aurngazeb ko is bat ka atyant bhay tha ki marathon ke samarthan ka bal pakar mugal kshetron men rajakumar akabar ke akramanon se ek lamba grihayriddh shuroo ho jaega. lekin udhar shambhaji ne rajakumar akabar ko poora samarthan n dekar apani shakti purtagaliyon tatha sidiyon ke khilaf vyarth ki ladaee men laga di. isase rajakumar akabar ka kshubdh hona svabhavik tha. jab aurngazeb bijapur tatha golakunda ke khilaf sngharshon men vyast tha, us samay bhi shambhaji ne rajakumar akabar ko badi matra men sahayata dena asvikar kar diya. isi karan 1686 men mugal kshetron par rajakumar akabar ke akramanon ko asani se asaphal kiya ja saka tha. nirash hokar rajakumar akabar samudr ke raste bhagakar eeran chala gaya. jahan usane eeran ke raja se panah mangi.

shambhaji ki hatya

bijapur tatha golakunda ke patan ke bad bhi shambhaji apane vyasanon men tatha apane antarik pratidvandviyon se nipatane men vyast raha. 1689 men apane gupt adde, sngeshvar men ekaek mugalon ke akraman se shambhaji achnbhit rah gaya. use aurngazeb ke samane laya gaya aur vidrohi tatha qafir thahara kar usaki hatya kar di gee. yah aurngazeb ki nissndeh ek aur badi rajanitik galati thi. marathon se samajhauta karake aurngazeb bijapur tatha golakunda par apani vijay ko pakka kar sakata tha. shambhaji ki hatya kar n keval usane isaka mauqa gnva diya, balki marathon ko apana sngharsh aur tej karane ka bahana de diya. kisi ek shaktishali neta ke abhav men maratha saradaron ne khuleam mugal kshetron men lootapat arambh kar di. mugal sena ko dekhate hi ve idhar-udhar chhip jate the. marathon ko samapt karane ke badale aurngazeb ne inhen sare dakkan men apani gatividhiyon ko badhane ka avasar diya. shambhaji ke chhote bhaee rajaram ka rajyabhishek to hua, lekin rajadhani par mugalon ka akraman hota dekh vah vahan se bhag nikala. rajaram ne bhagakar poorvi tat par jinji men sharan li aur vahan se mugalon ke khilaf apane sngharsh ko jari rakha. is prakar marathon ka vidroh pashchim se lekar poorvi tat tak phail gaya.

mugal shakti ka charamotkarsh

kuchh samay tak aurngazeb ne apane sare shatruon ko samapt kar mugal shakti ko shikhar par pahunch diya tha. usake kuchh saradar is ray ke the ki uttar bharat laut jana chahie aur marathon ke khilaf sngharsh ka kam doosaron par chhod dena chahie. isake alava aisa lagata hai ki ek aur paksh bhi tha, jise yuvaraj shahalam ka samarthan prapt tha aur jisaki ray thi ki karnatak ka rajy bijapur tatha golakunda ke adhinasth shasakon par chhod diya jana chahie. aurngazeb ne in sabhi prastavon ko asvikar kar diya. yahan tak ki dakkan ke shasakon se batachit karane ke lie shahalam ko bndi bana liya. usaka vishvas tha ki vah marathon ki shakti ko kuchalane men saphal ho gaya hai. is prakar 1690 ke bad aurngazeb ne karnatak ke vishal tatha samriddh kshetr ko bhi apane qabze men karane par dhyan diya. lekin yah aurngazeb ke bas ke bahar ki bat thi. usane bijapur tatha golakunda ke rajyon men sthir prashasan qayam karane ke badale door-door tak akraman kie, jisase vibhinn kshetron men sampark sadhan door-door tak phail ge, jinaki raksha karana kathin tha aur jin par marathon ne hamale karane shuroo kar die.

marathon ka sngharsh

1690-1703 ke bich aurngazeb marathon se samajhauta n karane ki apani zid par ada raha. usane jinji men rajaram par ghera dal diya, jo bahut dinon tak chala. 1698 men jinji ka patan hua, lekin rajaram vahan se nikal bhagane men saphal ho gaya. idhar marathon ka sngharsh aur tez ho gaya aur isase kee avasaron par mugalon ko badi hani uthani padi. marathon ne kee qilon ko vapas le liya aur rajaram bhi satara lautane men saphal hua. in parajayon se aurngazeb hatotsahit nahin hua. usane sabhi marathon ke qilon par punah qabza karane ki thani. 1700 se 1705 ke sadhe panch varshon tak aurngazeb apane rugn sharir ko ek qile se doosare qile tak dhota raha. badh, mahamari tatha marathon ke chhapamaron ne mugal sena ko tabah kar dala. anek sainik mare gaye. sainikon tatha saradaron ke bich asntosh tatha unaki thakavat badhati gee. unaka sahas bhi dhire-dhire khatm hota gaya. yahan tak ki kee zagiradaron ne marathon ke sath gupt samajhaute kar unhen chauth dena svikar kar liya, taki marathe unaki zagiron ko shanti se rahane den.

marathon tatha aurngazeb men batachit

akhirakar 1703 men aurngazeb ne marathon ke sath batachit shuroo ki. vah shambhaji ke putr sahoo ko riha karane par sahamat ho gaya, jo satara men apani man ke sath bndi bana liya gaya tha. sahoo ke sath achchha bartav kiya gaya. use raja ki padavi tatha 7,000 ka manasab pradan kiya gaya tha. bada hone par usaki shadi pratishthit marathe parivaron ki do ladakiyon ke sath ki gee thi. aurngazeb sahoo ko shivaji ka svarajy tatha dakkan men 'saradeshamukhi' ka adhikar dekar usaki vishesh haisiyat ko manyata pradan karane ke lie taiyar tha. sahoo ka svagat karane ke lie 70 se adhik marathe saradar ikatthe hue. lekin aurngazeb ne antim kshan men marathon ke uddeshyon ke prati ashnkit hokar in sabhi taiyariyon ko radd kar diya.[2]

aurngazeb ki mrityu

1706 men aurngazeb ko vishvas ho gaya ki marathon ke sabhi qilon par qabza karana usake bas ki bat nahin hai. usane dhire-dhire aurngabad ki or lautana shuroo kiya par raste men marathon ke akraman barabar us par hote rahe. is prakar 1707 men aurngabad men aurngazeb ne akhiri sans li. lekin is samay tak vah apane pichhe ek aisa samrajy chhod gaya, jo kshin pad gaya tha aur jisamen tarah-tarah ki antarik samasyaen ubhar kar samane a rahin thin.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. arthath mugal
  2. kaha jata hai ki aurngazeb ne sahoo ko is shart par raj lautana svikar kiya tha ki vah musalaman ho jaega, lekin tatkalik vrittant is bat ka samarthan nahin karate. agar aurngazeb sahoo ko musalaman banana chahata tha to yah vah us samay kar sakata tha, jab sahoo 13 varshon tak usaka bndi raha tha.

snbndhit lekh


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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