बहादुर शाह प्रथम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bahadur shah pratham
Bahadur-Shah-I.jpg
poora nam 'sahib-e-quran muajzam shah alamagir sani abu nasir saiyad kutubabuddin abul muzaffar muhammad muajzam shah alam bahadur shah pratham padashah gazi (khuld mnjil)
any nam 'shahalam pratham' athava 'alamashah pratham'
janm 14 aktoobar, sanh 1643
janm bhoomi burahanapur, bharat
mrityu tithi 26 faravari, 1712 ee.
mrityu sthan lahaur
pita/mata aurngazeb, baee begam
pati/patni nizam baee aur ath any
sntan ath putr aur ek putri
upadhi 'shahazada muajzam'
rajy sima uttar aur madhy bharat
shasan kal 22 march, 1707 ee. se 27 faravari, 1712 ee. tak
sha. avadhi 5 varsh
rajyabhishek 19 joon, 1707 ko dilli men rajyabhishek hua.
dharmik manyata islam
poorvadhikari aurngazeb
uttaradhikari bahadur shah zafar
rajagharana mugal
maqabara moti masjid, dilli
snbndhit lekh mugal kal

bahadur shah pratham (angrezi: Bahadur Shah I, janm- 14 aktoobar, 1643, burahanapur; mrityu- 26 faravari, 1712, lahaur) dilli ka satavan mugal badashah (1707-1712 ee.) tha. 'shahazada muajzam' kahalane vala bahadurashah, badashah aurngazeb ka doosara putr tha. apane pita ke bhaee aur pratidvndvi shahashuja ke sath bade bhaee ke mil jane ke bad shahazada muajzam hi aurngazeb ka snbhavi uttaradhikari tha. bahadur shah pratham ko 'shahalam pratham' ya 'alamashah pratham' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. badashah bahadur shah pratham ke char putr the- jahandarashah, ajimushshan, rafiushshan aur jahanashah.

qabul ka soobedar

bahadur shah pratham ko sanh 1663 ee. men dakshin ke dakkan pathar kshetr aur madhy bharat men pita ka pratinidhi banakar bheja gaya. san1683-1684 ee. men unhonne dakshin bnbee (vartaman munbee) gova ke purtagali ilaqon men marathon ke khilaf sena ka netritv kiya, lekin purtagaliyon ki sahayata n milane ki sthiti men unhen pichhe hatana pada. ath varsh tak tng kie jane ke bad unhen unake pita ne 1699 men qabul (vartaman afaganistan) ka soobedar niyukt kiya.

uttaradhikar ka yuddh

aurngazeb ki mrityu ke bad usake 63 varshiy putr 'muajzam' (shahalam pratham) ne lahaur ke uttar men sthit 'shahadaula' namak pul par mee, 1707 men 'bahadur shah' ke nam se apane ko samrat ghoshit kiya. boondi ke 'budhasinh hada' tatha 'ambar' ke vijay kachhavaha ko usane pahale se hi apane or akarshit kar liya tha. unake madhyam se use badi snkhya men rajapooton ka samarthan prapt ho gaya. uttaradhikar ko lekar bahadurashah pratham evn amajashah men samoogadh ke samip 'jajoo' namak sthan par 18 joon, 1708 ko yuddh hua, jisamen ajamashah tatha usake do bete 'bidar bakht' tatha 'valajah' mare gaye. bahadurashah pratham ko apane chhote bhaee 'kamabakhsh' se bhi mugal sinhasan ke lie ladaee ladani padi. kamabakhsh ne 13 janavari, 1709 ko haidarabad ke najadik bahadushah pratham ke viruddh yuddh kiya. yuddh men parajit hone ke uparant kamabakhsh ki mrityu ho gee.

sabase vriddh mugal shasak

apani vijay ke bad bahadur shah pratham ne apane samarthakon ko nee padaviyan tatha oochen darje pradan kie. munim khan ko vazir niyukt kiya gaya. aurngazeb ke vazir, asad khan ko 'vakil-e-mutalaq' ka pad diya tha, tatha usake bete zulfiqar khan ko mir bakhshi banaya gaya. bahadurashah pratham gaddi par baithane vala sabase vriddh mugal shasak tha. jab vah gaddi par baitha, to us samay usaki umr 63 varsh thi. vah atyant udar, alasi tatha udasin vyakti tha. itihasakar khafi khan ne kaha hai ki, badashah rajakiy karyon men itana adhik laparavah tha, ki log use "shahe bekhabar" kahane lage the.

  • bahadur shah pratham ke shasan kal men darabar men shadyantr badhane laga. bahadu shah pratham shiya tha, aur us karan darabar men do dal vikasit ho ge the-(1.) eerani dal (2.) turani dal. eerani dal 'shiya mat' ko manane vale the, jisamen asad khan tatha usake bete julphikar khan jaise saradar the. turani dal 'sunni mat' ke samarthak the, jisamen 'chinakilich khan tatha firoz gaziuddin jng jaise log the.

rajapooton se sandhi

bahadu shah pratham ne uttaradhikar ke yuddh ke samapt hone ke bad sarvapratham rajapootana ki or rukh kiya. usane maravad ke raja ajit sinh ko parajat kar, use 3500 ka manasab evn maharaj ki upadhi pradan ki, parantu bahadur shah pratham ke dakshin jane par ajit sinh, durgadas evn jayasinh kachhavaha ne mevad ke maharaj amarajit sinh ke netritv men apane ko svatntr ghoshit kar liya aur rajapootana sngh ka gathan kiya. bahadur shah pratham ne in rajaon se sngharsh karane se behatar sandhi karana uchit samajha aur usane in shasakon ko manyata de di.

sikkhon se sngharsh

8 joon 1707 ee. agara ke pas janjoo ke pas ladaee ladi gee, jisamen bahadurashah ki jit huee. is ladaee men guru govind sinh ki hamadardi apane purane mitr bahadurashah ke sath thi. kaha jata hai ki guru ji ne apane sainikon dvara janjoo ki ladaee men bahadurashah ka sath diya, unaki madad ki. isase badashah bahadurashah ki jit huee. badashah ne guru govind sinh ji ko agara bulaya. usane ek badi qimati siropayo (samman ke vastr) ek dhukadhuki (gardan ka gahana) jisaki qimat 60 hazar rupaye thi, guruji ko bhent ki. mugalon ke sath ek yug purane matabhed samapt hone ki sambhavana thi. guru sahab ki taraph se 2 aktoobar 1707 ee. aur dhaulapur ki sngat taraph likhe hukmanama ke kuchh shabdon se lagata hai ki guruji ki badashah bahadurashah ke sath mitratapoorvak batachit ho sakati thi. jisake khatm hone se guru ji anndapur sahib vapas a janege, jahan unako as thi ki khalasa laut ke ikattha ho sakega. par halat ke chakkar men unako dakshin disha men pahuncha diya. jahan abhi batachit hi chal rahi thi. badashah bahadurashah kachhavaha rajapooton ke viruddh karyavahi karane kooch kiya tha ki usake bhaee kamabakhsh ne bagavat kar di. bagavat dabane ke lie badashah dakshin ki taraf chala aur vinati karake guru ji ko bhi sath le gaya.[1] pnjab men 1708 ee. men guru govind sinh ki mutyu ke bad sikkhon ne banda sinh ke netritv men mugalon ke viruddh vidroh kar diya. usane musalamanon ke viruddh ladane ke lie pnjab ke vibhinn hisson se badi snkhya men sikkhon ko ikattha kiya tatha kaithal, samana, shahabad, ambala, kyoori tatha sadhaura par qabza kar liya. usaki sabase badi vijay sarahind ke garvanar najir khan ke viruddh thi, jise usane harakar mar dala. usake bare men kaha jata hai ki, usamen guru govind sinh ki atma ka nivas tha. usane svayn ko 'sachcha badashah' ghoshit kiya, apane takasal chalayin aur ek svatntr sikkh rajy ki sthapana ka prayatn kiya. banda ne sarahind, sonipat, sadhaura, evn uttar pradesh ke kee sthanon par khoob lootapat ki. bahadur shah pratham ne sikh neta banda ko dand dene ke lie 26 joon, 1710 ko sadhaura men ghera dala. yahan se banda bhagakar lohagadh ke qile men a gaya. bahadurashah ne lohagadh ko gherakar sikhon se kada sngharsh karate hue, antatah durg par qabza kar liya. parantu qabze ke poorv hi banda pharar ho gaya. 1711 ee. men mugalon ne punah sarahind par adhikar kar liya. lohagadh ka qila guru govind sinh ne ambala ke uttar-poorv men himalay ki taraee men banaya tha. bahadur shah pratham ne bundela saradar 'chhatrasal' se mel-milap kar liya. chhatrasal ek nishthavan samant bana raha. badashah ne jat saradar choodaman se bhi dosti kar li. choodaman ne banda bahadur ke khilaf abhiyan men badashah ka sath diya.

marathon ke prati niti

bahadur shah pratham ko 'shahe bekhabar' kaha jata tha. rajapooton ki bhanti marathon ke prati bhi bahadur shah pratham ki niti asthir rahi. bahadur shah pratham ki qaid se mukt shahoo ne arnbh men to mugal adhipaty svikar kar liya, parantu jab bahadur shah pratham ne usake 'chauth' aur 'saradeshamukhi' vasool karane ke adhikar ko spashtataya svikar nahin kiya, tab usake saradaron ne mugal simaon par akraman karake mugalon ke adhin shasakon dvara mugal simaon par bhi akraman karane ki galat parnpara ki ninv dali. is prakar mugalon ki samasya ko bahadur shah pratham ne aur gambhir bana diya. bahadur shah pratham ne mirabakhshi ke pad par asin zulfiqar khan ko dakkan ki soobedari pradan kar ek hi amir ko ek sath do mahattvapoorn pad pradan karane ki bhool ki. usake samay men hi vazir ke pad ke samman men vriddhi huee, jisake karan vazir ka pad prapt karane ki pratisparddha badhi.

upanam

bahadur shah pratham ke vishay men prasiddh lekhak 'sar sidani ovan' ne likha hai ki, "yah antim mugal samrat tha, jisake vishay men kuchh achchhe shabd kahe ja sakate hain. isake pashchath mugal samrajy ka tivragami aur poorn patan mugal samraton ki rajanitik tuchchhata aur shaktihinata ka dyotak tha." sar sidani ovan ka kathan kafi had tak sahi jan padata hai, kyonki ve mugal shasak jo apane aisho-aram men hi doobe rahate the, jinhen shasan v samrajy ki koee chinta hi nahin thi, unako praja ne nimn namon se pukarana prarambh kar diya tha-

  • bahadurashah - shahe bekhabar
  • jahandarashah - lampat moorkh
  • farrookhasiyar - ghrinit kayar
  • muhammadashah - rngila

bahadur shah ki mrityu

bahadur shah pratham ke darabar men 1711 men ek dach pratinidhi shishtamandal 'jesua ketelar' ke netritv men gaya. is shishtamandal ka darabar men svagat kiya gaya. is svagat men ek purtagali stri 'juliyani' ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika thi. usaki is bhoomika ke lie use 'bibi phidava' ki upadhi di gayi. 26 faravari, 1712 ko bahadur shah pratham ki mrityu ho gayi. mrityu ke pashchath usake charon putron, jahandarashah, ajimushshan, rafiushshan aur jahanashah men uttaradhikar ka yuddh arnbh ho gaya. phalatah bahadurashah ka shav ek mas tak daphanaya nahin ja saka.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. daau. ganda sinh ki pustak 'sikh itihas' ke prishth snkhya 91 ke kuchh ansh
    saujany se- haraprit sinh naz

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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