हुमायूँ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

humayoon
humayoon
poora nam nasiruddin muhammad humayoon
any nam humayoon
janm 6 march, sanh 1508 ee.
janm bhoomi qabul
mrityu tithi 27 janavari, sanh 1555 ee.
mrityu sthan dilli
pita/mata babar, maham begam
pati/patni hamida banoo begam, bega begam, bigeh begam, chand bibi, hazi begam, mah-choochak, miveh-jan, shahazadi khanam
sntan putr-akabar, mirza muhammad hakim putri- akikeh begam, bakhshi banu begam, bakhtunnisa begam
rajy sima uttar aur madhy bharat
shasan kal 26 disnbar, 1530 - 17 mee, 1540 ee. aur 22 faravari, 1555 - 27 janavari, 1556 ee.
sha. avadhi lagabhag 11 varsh
rajyabhishek 30 disambar, sanh 1530 ee. agara
dharmik manyata islam dharm
yuddh 1554 ee. men bharat par akraman
poorvadhikari babar
uttaradhikari akabar
rajagharana mugal
maqabara humayoon ka maqabara
snbndhit lekh mugal kal

nasiruddin muhammad humayoon (angrezi: Humayun, janm: 6 march, 1508 ee. - mrityu: 27 janavari, 1555 ee.) ek prasiddh mugal shasak tha. humayoon ka janm babar ki patni ‘maham begam’ ke garbh se 6 march, 1508 ee. ko kabul men hua tha. babar ke 4 putron- humayoon, kamaran, askari aur hindal men humayoon sabase bada tha. babar ne humayoon ko apana uttaradhikari niyukt kiya tha. bharat men rajyabhishek ke poorv 1520 ee. men 12 varsh ki alpayu men use badakhshan ka soobedar niyukt kiya gaya. badakhshan ke soobedar ke roop men humayoon ne bharat ke un sabhi abhiyanon men bhag liya, jinaka netritv babar ne kiya tha.

rajyabhishek

26 disambar, 1530 ee. ko babar ki mrityu ke bad 30 disambar, 1530 ee. ko 23 varsh ki ayu men humayoon ka rajyabhishek kiya gaya. babar ne apani mrityu se poorv hi humayoon ko gaddi ka uttaradhikari ghoshit kar diya tha. humayoon ko uttaradhikar dene ke sath hi sath babar ne vistrit samrajy ko apane bhaeeyon men bantane ka nirdesh bhi diya tha, atah usane asakari ko sambhal, hindal ko mevat tatha kamaran ko pnjab ki soobedari pradan ki thi.
kabul ke chahar bag men humayoon ke janm ka utsav manata babar
samrajy ka is tarah se kiya gaya vibhajan humayoon ki bhaynkar bhoolon men se ek tha, jisake karan use anek antarik kathinaiyon ka samana karana pada aur kalantar men humayoon ke bhaiyon ne usaka sath nahin diya. vastav men avivekapoornadhng se kiya gaya samrajy ka yah vibhajan, kalantar men humayoon ke lie ghatak siddh hua. yadyapi usake sabase prabal shatru afagan the., kintu bhaiyon ka asahayog aur humayoon ki kuchh vyaiktik kamazoriyan usaki asaphalata ka karan siddh hueen.

sainy abhiyan

humayoon ne apane vijay abhiyan ke tahat kee pradeshon ko vijit kiya. usake dvara jin pradeshon ke khilaf abhiyan chalaya gaya, ve nimnalikhit hain-

kalinjar ka akraman (1531 ee.)

humayoon ko kalinjar abhiyan gujarat ke shasak bahadur shah ki badhati huee shakti ko rokane ke lie karana pada. kalinjar par akraman humayoon ka pahala akraman tha. kalinjar ke kile par akraman ke samay hi use yah soochana mili ki, afagan saradar mahamood lodi bihar se jaunapur ki or badh raha hai. atah kalinjar ke raja prataparudr dev se dhan lekar humayoon vapas jaunapur ki or chala gaya.

dauhariya ka yuddh (1532 ee.)

jaunapur ki or agrasar humayoon ki sena evn mahamood lodi ki sena ke bich agast, 1532 ee. men dauhariya namak sthan par sngharsh hua, jisamen mahamood ki parajay huee. is yuddh me afagan sena ka netritv mahamood lodi ne kiya tha.

chunar ka ghera (1532 ee.)

humayoon ke chunar ke qile par akraman ke samay yah qila afagan nayak sherashah (sher khan) ke qabze men tha. 4 mahine lagatar qile ko ghere rahane ke bad sher khan evn humayun men ek samajhauta ho gaya.
humayoon, babar, jahangir aur akabar
samajhaute ke antargat sher khan ne humayoon ki adhinata svikar karate hue, apane putr kutub khan ko ek afagan sainik tukadi ke sath humayoon ki sena men bhejana svikar kar liya tatha badale men chunar ka qila sher khan ke adhikar men chhod diya gaya. humayoon ka kher khan ko bina parajit kiye chhod dena usaki ek aur badi bhool thi. is sunahare mauke ka fayada uthakar sher khan ne apani shakti evn snsadhanon men vriddhi kar li. doosari taraf humayoon ne is bich apane dhan ka apavyay kiya tatha 1533 ee. humayoon ne dilli men ‘dinapanah’ nam ke ek vishal durg ka nirman karavaya, jisaka uddeshy tha- mitr evn shatru ko prabhavit karana.
  • 1534 ee. men bihar men muhammad jaman mirza evn muhammad sultan mirza ke vidroh ko humayoon ne saphalatapoorvak dabaya.

bahadur shah se yuddh (1535-1536 ee.)

gujarat ke shasak bahadur shah ne 1531 ee. men malava tatha 1532 ee. men ‘rayasin’ ke qile par adhikar kar liya. 1534 ee. men usane chittaud par akraman kar use sndhi ke lie badhy kiya. bahadur shah ne tarki ke kushal topachi roomi khan ki sahayata se ek behatar topakhane ka nirman karavaya.
humayoon
doosari taraf sher khan ne ‘soorajagadh ke raj’ men bngal ko harakar kafi samman arjit kiya. usaki badhati huee shakti humayoon ke lie chinta ka vishay thi, par humayoon ki pahali samasya bahadur shah tha. bahadur shah evn humayoon ke madhy 1535 ee. men ‘sarngapur’ men sngharsh hua. bahadur shah parajit hokar mandoo bhag gaya. is tarah humayoon dvara mandoo evn champaner par vijay ke bad malava evn gujarat usake adhikar men a ge. isake pashchath bahadur shah ne chittaud ka ghera dala. chittaud ke shasak vikramajit ki man karnavati ne is avasar par humayoon ko rakhi bhejakar usase bahadur shah ke viruddh sahayata mangi. halanki bahadur shah ke ek kafir rajy ki sahayata n karane ke nivedan ko humayoon dvara svikar kar liya gaya. ek varsh bad bahadur shah ne purtagaliyon ke sahayog se punah 1536 ee. men gujarat evn malava par adhikar kar liya, parantu faravari, 1537 ee. men bahadur shah ki mrityu ho gee.

sherashah se sngharsh (1537 ee.-1540 ee.)

1537 ee. ke aktoobar mahine men humayoon ne punah chunar ke qile par ghera dala. sher khan (sherashah) ke putr kutub khan ne humayoon ko lagabhag chhah mahine tak qile par adhikar nahin karane diya. antatah humayoon ne kootaniti evn topakhane ke prayog se qile par qabza kar liya. in chhah mahinon ke dauran sher khan ne bngal abhiyan men saphalata prapt kar gaud ke adhikansh khazane ko rohatas ke qile men jama kar liya.

humayoon

chunar ki saphalata ke bad humayoon ne bngal par vijay prapt ki. vah gaud men 1539 ee. tak raha. 15 agast, 1538 ee. ko jab humayoon ne bngal ke gaud kshetr men pravesh kiya, to use vahan par charon or ujad evn lashon ka dher dikhaee pada. humayoon ne is sthan ka purnanirman kar isaka nam ‘jannatabad’ rakha.

chausa ka yuddh

26 joon, 1539 ee. ko humayoon evn sher khan ki senaon ke madhy gnga nadi ke uttari tat par sthit 'chausa' namak sthan par sngharsh hua. yah yuddh humayoon apani kuchh galatiyon ke karan har gaya. sngharsh men mugal sena ki kafi tabahi huee. humayoon ne yuddh kshetr se bhagakar ek bhishti ka sahara lekar kisi tarah gnga nadi par kar apane jan bachaee. jis bhishti ne chausa ke yuddh men usaki jan bachaee thi, use humayoon ne ek din ke lie dilli ka badashah bana diya tha. chausa ke yuddh men saphal hone ke bad sher khan ne apane ko 'sherashah' (rajyabhishek ke samay) ki upadhi se susajjit kiya, sath hi apane nam ke khutabe khudavaye tatha sikke dhalavane ka adesh diya.

bilagram ki ladaee (17 mee, 1540 ee.)

bilagram v kannauj men ladi gee is ladaee men humayoon ke sath usake bhaee hindal evn askari bhi the, phir bhi parajay ne humayoon ka sath nahin chhoda. is yuddh ki asaphalata ke bad sher khan ne saralata se agara aur dilli par phir se adhikar liya. is tarah se hindustan ki rajasatta ek bar phir se afaganon ke hath men a gee.

sherashah se parast hone ke uparant humayoon sindh chala gaya, jahan usane lagabhag 15 varsh tak ghumakkadon jaise nirvasit jivan vyatit kiya. is nirvasan ke samay hi humayoon ne hindal ke adhyatmik guru farasavasi shiya mir baba dost urph ‘mir ali akabarajami’ ki putri hamida begam se 29 agast, 1541 ee. ko nikah kar liya, kalantar men hamida se hi akabar jaise mahanh samrat ka janm hua.

humayoon dvara pun: rajy−prapti

humayoon

humayoon lagabhag 14 varsh tak qabul men raha. humayoon ne punah 1545 ee. men kndhar evn kabul par adhikar kar liya. sherashah ke putr islamashah ki mutyu ke bad humayoon ko hindustan par adhikar ka punah avasar mila. 5 sitambar, 1554 ee. men humayoon apani sena ke sath peshavar pahuncha. faravari, 1555 ee. ko usane lahaur par qabza kar liya.

machchhivara ka yuddh (15 mee, 1555 ee.)

ludhiyana se lagabhag 19 mil poorv men sataluj nadi ke kinare sthit 'machchhivara' sthan par humayoon evn afagan saradar nasib khan evn tatar khan ke bich sngharsh hua. sngharsh ka parinam humayoon ke paksh men raha. sampoorn pnjab mugalon ke adhikar men a gaya.

sarahind ka yuddh (22 joon, 1555 ee.)

is sngharsh men afagan sena ka netritv sultan sikandar soor evn mugal sena ka netritv bairam khan ne kiya. is sngharsh men afaganon ki parajay huee. 23 julaee, 1555 ee. ke shubh kshanon men ek bar punah dilli ke takht par humayoon ko baithane ka saubhagy prapt hua.

humayoon ka maqabara, dilli
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi

mrityu

dilli ke takht par baithane ke bad yah humayoon ka durbhagy hi tha ki, vah adhik dinon tak sattabhog nahin kar saka. janavari, 1556 ee. men ‘dinapanah’ bhavan men sthit pustakalay ki sidhiyon se girane ke karan humayoon ki mutyu ho gayi. humayoon ke bare men itihasakar 'lenapool' ne kaha hai ki, "humayoon girate padate is jivan se mukt ho gaya, thik usi tarah, jis tarah tamam-zindagi vah girate-padate chalata raha tha". humayoon ko abul fazal ne 'insan-e-kamil' kahakar sambodhit kiya hai. humayoon afim khane ka shauqin tha.

choonki humayoon jyotish men vishvas karata tha, isalie usane saptah ke saton din sat rng ke kapade pahanane ke niyam banaye. vah mukhyatah ravivar ko pila rng, shanivar ko kala rng evn somavar ko safed rng ke kapade pahanata tha.

mugal rajy ki sthapana

jis samay humayoon ki mrityu huee us samay usaka putr akabar 13−14 varsh ka balak tha. humayoon ke bad usake putr akabar ko uttaradhikari ghoshit kiya gaya aur usaka snrakshak bairam khan ko banaya gaya. tab hemachndr sena lekar dilli aya aur usane muhgalon ko vahan se bhaga diya. lekin hemachndr ki bhi parajay 6 navnbar sanh 1556 men panipat ke maidan men ho gee. usi din se bharat men svatntr hindoo rajy ki sthapana ka sapana toot gaya aur balak akabar ke netritv men mugalon ka shasan jam gaya.

vithika


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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