पेशावर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bala hisar qila, peshavar

peshavar (prachin 'purushapur') vartaman samay men pashchimi pakistan ka ek pramukh shahar hai. prachin samay men peshavar ka nam 'purushapur' hua karata tha. aitihasik parampara ke anusar samrat kanishk ne 'purushapur' ko dvitiy shati ee. men basaya tha aur sarvapratham kanishk ke brihat samrajy ki rajadhani banane ka saubhagy bhi isi nagar ko prapt hua tha. purushapur prachin samay men 'gandhar moortikala' ka mukhy aur khyatiprapt kendr mana jata tha.

kanishk ki rajadhani

kanishk ne bauddh dharm ki diksha lene ke pashchath apani rajadhani purushapur men ek mahanh stoop ka nirman karavaya tha, jisamen lakadi ka prachurata se prayog kiya gaya tha. stoop ke oopar jane ke lie sidhiyan bani thin aur oopar ek sundar kashth mndap tha. isamen terah mnjilen thin aur poori oonchaee lagabhag 500 hath thi. kaha jata hai ki yah stoop kanishk ke pashchath kee bar jala aur bana tha. is mahastoop ke pashchim ki or kanishk ne ek sundar evn vishal vihar bhi banavaya tha, jisaki bhitari mnzil par kanishk ke guru 'bhadntaparshv' rahate the.

bauddh sngiti ka ayojan

tritiy bauddh sngiti kanishk ke shasan kal men purushapur men hi huee thi. jabaki kuchh vidvanon ke mat men yah bauddh sngiti kundalavan, kashmir men huee thi. isake sabhapati achary ashvaghosh the, jinhen kanishk pataliputr ki vijay ke pashchath apane sath purushapur le aya tha. bauddh dharm ke udbhat vidvanh aur 'buddhacharit' aur 'saundarannd' namak mahakavyon ke vikhyat rachayita purushapur men hi rahate the. purushapur men bauddh mahasabha ke pashchath bauddh dharm ke do vibhag ho ge the-

  1. prachin hinayan
  2. navin mahayan

ashvaghosh ke atirikt jin any bauddh vidvanon ka snsarg purushapur se raha tha, ve the vasubndhu tatha unake sahodar bhrata asng aur virnchi. vasubndhu, chndragupt vikramadity (chaturth shati ee.) ki rajasabha men bhi sammanit hue the. didnang inake shishy the. unaka rachit 'abhidharmakosh' bauddh sahity ka prasiddh grnth hai. isaki rachana purushapur men hi huee thi. vasubndhu ke guru achary manorath bhi purushapur hi ke rahane vale the. chndragupt vikramadity inaka bhi bahut adar karata tha.

gandhar moortikala ka kendr

peshavar sngrahalay

purushapur prachin kal men gandhar moortikala ka prasiddh kendr tha. yah kala bharatiy tatha yoonani shaili ke sammishran se utpann huee thi. hevel ke anusar gandhar ki kala sarvochch koti ki kala nahin thi aur n isamen bharatiy parampara tatha adarshavad ke tatv hi nihit the. ve ise yantrik tatha atma se rahit kala manate hain. is kala ka mukhy saundary sharirik rooparekha ka kushal ankan mana jata hai. gandhar kala men pratham bar buddh ki moorti ka nirman hua tha. 100 ee. poo. se pahale buddh ki moortiyan nahin banaee jati thin aur upayukt pratikon dvara hi tathagat ka ankan kiya jata tha. gandhar kala men pray: kali mitti, jo svat ke pradesh men milati thi, moorti nirman ke lie prayog men laee jati thi. in moortiyon ki sharir rachana tatha gathan saundaryapoorn aur yatharth hai. vastron, visheshakar uttariy ka ankan ubhari huee dhariyon se kiya gaya hai.

itihas

paravarti kal men purushapur ya peshavar bharat par uttar-pashchim se akraman karane vale akrantaon ke karan itihas prasiddh raha. 1001 ee. men mahamood gazanavi aur bharatiy naresh jayapal men peshavar ke maidan men ghor yuddh hua, jisamen jayapal ko bhari kshati uthani padi. jayapal is yuddh men parajayajanit apaman tatha anutap ko n sahate hue jivit hi agni men koodakar svarg sidhar gaya. mugalon ke samay peshavar men mugalon ka senapati rahata tha, jo tatkalin afagan tatha simant sthit 'phirakon' (yoosufajaee vagairah) se bharatiy samrajy ki raksha karata tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |prishth snkhya: 566 |


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