कुस्तुंतुनिया  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kustuntuniya turki ka ek prasiddh nagar hai. yah basaphoras jalasndhi aur maramara sagar ke sngam par sthit hai. yah nagar bhi rom ke saman hi sat pahadiyon ke bich ek tribhujakar pahadi prayadvip par sthit hai. ab kustuntuniya prashasan ki drishti se tin bhagon men vibhakt ho gaya hai- 'istanbul', 'pera-galata' aur 'skootari'.

sthapana

kustuntuniya ki sthapana roman samrat kanstaintain mahanh ne 328 ee. men prachin nagar baeezaintiyam ko vistrit roop dekar ki thi. navim roman samrajy ki rajadhani ke roop men isaka arnbh 11 mee, 330 ee. ko hua tha. yah nagar bhi rom ke saman hi sat pahadiyon ke bich ek tribhujakar pahadi prayadvip par sthit hai aur pashchimi bhag ko chhodakar lagabhag sab or jal se ghira hai.[1]

sthiti

room sagar aur kala sagar ke madhy sthit brihat jalamarg par hone ke karan is nagar ki sthiti badi mahatvapoorn rahi hai. prakriti ne durg ka roop dekar ise vyaparik, rajanitik aur yuddhakalik drishtikon se ek mahanh samrajy ki sudridh aur shaktishali rajadhani ke anuroop banane men poorn yog diya tha aur nirntar solah shatabdiyon tak ek mahanh samrajy ki rajadhani ke roop men isaki khyati bani huee thi.

vibhajan

ab kustuntuniya prashasan ki drishti se tin bhagon men vibhakt ho gaya hai-

  1. istanbul
  2. pera-galata
  3. skootari

isamen se pratham do yooropiy bhag men sthit hain, jinhen basaphoras ki 500 gaj chaudi golden haaurn namak snkari shakha prithakh karati hai.

udyog

skootari turki ke eshiyaee bhag par basaphoras ke poorvi tat par sthit hai. yahan ke udyogon men chamada, shastr, itr aur sona-chandi ka kam mahatvapoorn hai. samudri vyapar ki drishti se yah atyuttam bndaragah mana jata hai. golden haaurn ki gaharaee bade jahajon ke avagaman ke lie bhi upayukt hai aur yah andhi, toophan ityadi se poornataya surakshit hai. ayat ki jane vali vastuen makka, loha, lakadi, sooti, ooni aur reshami kapade, ghadiyan, kahava, chini, mirch, masale ityadi hain; aur niryat ki vastuon men resham ka saman, dariyan, chamada, oon adi mukhy hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. kustuntuniya (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 25 janavari, 2014.

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