शाकल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

shakal ya 'shakal nagar' ek aitihasik sthan, jisaka abhigyan pashchimi pakistan ke siyalakot se kiya jata hai. taaulmi ne ise 'yoothedemiya' kaha tha. mahabharat kal men siyalakot madron ki rajadhani thi. shakal 326 ee. poo. men sikandar mahan ke adhipaty men chala gaya tha. usane ise jhelam tatha chinab ke madhyavarti kshetr ke kshatrap ke adhin kar diya tha.[1]

itihas

vidvanon ka mat hai ki 'shakal' nam ka snbndh shak se hai. yah sthan sambhavatah shakon athava shakasthan ke nivasi eeraniyon ke nivas ke karan 'shakal' kahalata tha. eerani magon ka snbndh bhi shakal se bataya jata hai. mahabharat men shakal ko 'madr desh' men sthit mana gaya hai. is nagar men madradhip shaly ka rajy tha. inhen nakul ne apani digvijay yatra ke prasng men vijit kiya tha-

's chasyagatabhi rajanh pratijagrah shasanamh, tatah shakal-mamyety madranan putabhedann matuln pritipoorven shaly chakravashe bali.'[2]

yatri tatha itihasakaron ka ullekh

'milindapanhon' men yavanaraj milind athava minendar[3] ki rajadhani 'shagal' ya 'shakal' bataee gee hai. alakshendr (alegjendar) ke itihas lekhakon ne bhi is sthan ko 'sagal' ya 'sangal' kaha hai. yoonani lekhakon ne sangal ka kath jati ke vir kshatriyon ka mukhy sthan bataya hai aur unake shaury ki bahut prashnsa ki hai. chini yatri yuvanachvang (7vin shati) ne is nagar ko dekha tha. usane ise 'shekalo' likha hai aur hoon naresh mihirakul ki yahan rajadhani batayi hai. kaningham ne 'sagal' ka abhigyan zila gujaranvala (pnjab) men sthit sngala namak pahadi se kiya hai. smith ke anusar yah sthan zila jhng men sthit 'chinot' ya 'shahakot' hai. kintu anek pramanon ke bal par phlit ne siddh kiya hai ki shakal vastav men siyalakot hi hai.[4][1]

any mahattvapoorn tathy

  • mahabharat kal ke shakal nivasiyon ke achar vyavahar ko dooshit samajha jata tha-
'shakaln nam nagaramapaganam nimnaga, jartinkanam vahikasteshan vrittn sunishchitamh.'[5]

uparokt uddharan se siddh hota hai ki mahabharat ke samay men bahikon ki rajadhani shakal men thi tatha vahan 'jartik' (jat) namak bahiko ka nivas tha.

  • shakal ke nikat 'apaga' namak nadi bahati thi. shakal ko mahabharat men shakal dvip bhi kaha gaya hai. mahabharat, karnaparv[6] se bhi yah vidit hota hai ki bahik desh pnjab ki panch nadiyon se tatha chhathi sindhu se ghira hua tha aur isaka ek nam 'aratt' bhi tha.
  • kalingabodhi jatak tatha kuroo jatak men bhi saakal (shakal) ka madr pradesh ke roop men ullekh hai. siyalakot ke asapas ka pradesh to guru govind sinh ke samay tak (17vin shati) tak madr desh kahalata tha.[7]
  • ek kivadnti ke anusar bhakt pooranamal siyalakot ke nivasi the. is sthan par vah koop bhi sthit hai, jisamen pooranamal ko hath-pair kat kar dal diya gaya tha. koop ke nikat hi guru gorakhanath ka mandir hai.
  • shakal ya sangal ko sagalanagar bhi kahate hai. ek prachin kinvadnti ke anusar shakal ko mahabharat kalin raja shalv ne basaya tha tatha raja shalivahan ne dubara basakar yahan ek durg ka nirman kiya tha.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 893 |
  2. mahabharat, sabhaparv 32,14-15
  3. dvitiy shati ee. poo.
  4. chaturdash groriyntal kangres 1905, elajiyars, bharat vibhag-pri. 164
  5. mahabharat, karnaparv 44,10
  6. karnaparv 44,7
  7. malakam-skech aauph di sikhara, pri. 55

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